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his servant told me the Duke of tists, and were on the 3d of May, Suffolk sent such word to Hooper, brent on the bigh-way beyond who was not himself ignorant what Southwark towards Newington. they were doing.” This passage P. 579. and others which I shall quote are
The effect of this persecution omitted by Fox with more tender. appears in Brandt's History of the ness to the Reformers, as Mr. Reformation in the Low Coun. Peirce has hinted, than fidelity as tries, where it is said that “in an historian, in his English work. 1539, there were put to death at That work was certainly designed Delft, one and thirty Anabapt sts by its horrid details, assisted by that had Aed from England, the the engraver's art, to excite a po- men beheaded and the women pular and unqualified odium against drowned." Brandt, i. 77. papists, who must not be suffered to On the death of Henry, the Andivide with Protestants even in any abaptists appear to bave again proportion the guilt of persecution. visited this country, where, waat. Yet these bishops, who would bave ever commotions some under that killed Hooper and thought they name had raised in Germany, they did God service, would not surely proved themselves a pacific, sufferhave voluntarily contented them- ing people. Burnet (ii. 105.) says selves with imprisoning Bonner that "they were generally Ger. and Gardiner because they refused mans, whom the revolutions there to act the farce of a Protestant pro. had forced to change their seats.” fession. Tbeir lives could have Those called “the gentle or mod. been spared only, because, as soon erate Anabaptists, only thought appeared on the accession of Mary, that baptism ought not to be given the majority of the nation were but to those whu were of an age their adherents and might have be. capable of instruction. This opi. come their avengers.
nion they grounded on the silence There were, however, a power. of the New Testament about the less people against whom Protes- baptism of children, and they said tant persecution might be exercised the great decay of Christianity without reserve. These were the flowed from this way of making Anabaptists, who had appeared children Christians, before thay and suffered in the former reign, understood what they did.
But as I find by the following pas- others who carried that name, sages in Stowe's Annals, ed. 1631, denied almost all the princi.
1538. The 24th November, four ples of the Christian doctrine." Anabaptists, three men and one Burnet was writing his bistory by woman, all Dutch, bare faggots command of the parliament, and at Paul's Cross. And on the 27th had the 39 articles of a parliamenof November, a man and a woman, tary religion to support. H had Dutch Anabaptists, were brent in just before stated, thut this most Smithfield. P. 576.
heretical class of Anabaptists 1540. The 29th of April, one agreeing with Luther, “that the named Mandeveld, another named scripture was to be the only rule Colens, and one oiher were exa- of Christians, argued that the mys. mined in St. Margaret's Church, teries of the trinity, and Christ's and were condemned for Anabap: incarnation and sufferings, of the
292 Sketch of English Protestant Persecution.-Letler II.
opinions,”, and “willingly and Strype, in his Memorials of wiib all.his power affecting hereArchbishop. Cranmer, (p. 179.) after firmly.; to believe in the true describes as the “heresies now and perfeci faith of Christ and his vented abroad, the denial of the holy church.?. That faith is de.. ưimity, and of the deity of the scribed aceording to the tenor of: Holy Ghost, and the assertion, modern orthodoxy, and the scene that Jesus, Christ was a mere man thus concludes. John Asheton and not true God, because he had. “ lifung up his hand, beseeched the accidenis of huetan nature, his Grace to deal mercifully and such as hungering and thirsting graciously with him ; and louchand being visible; and ibat the ing the gospel gave his faith, that benefit men receive by Jesus Christ he would faithfully and humbly was the bringing them to thu true, obey the commands of the Holy knowledge of God.” A clergy. Mother Church, and whatsoever man of the yame of Ashetun, penance the said most reverend "preached these doctrines," for Father should lay upon him." which he "
was summoned, 28th Mr. Lind-ey, in bis Historical Dec. 1548, to Lambeth.” Two View, (p. 65.) has quoted at large of the archbishop's chaplains soon this passage from Strype. Nor formed out of them the following can I forbear to add my late ven“ schedule of diverse, heresies erable friend's remarks on the and damned opinions,” which, transaction. (P.69.) Asbeton was now tempted to re ..“ Thus, by promises of life, nounce.
; : and fears of the most dreadful fuf.. “ i, That the trinity of persons ferings, were unhappy men dealt was established. py the confession of with and prevailed upon to make Athanasius, declared by a psalm abjuration of their heresies, i.e. to. Quicunque, vult, &c, and that the dissemble and speak cuntrary to Holy Ghost is not God, but only their inward persuasion. For a certain power of the Father, 2. hardly any one, who, on such That Jesus Christ, that was con- good grounds, as this Asbeton, ceived of the Virgin Mary, was believed Jesus Christ to be truly · a holy prophet, and especially one of the human race; or who beloved of God the Father ; but believed the Holy Ghost, or Holy that he was not the true and living Spirit, to be only the power of the God: forasmuch as he was seen, Father; could soon, or, indeed, and lived, hungered and thirsted, at all, be brought to believe these 3. That this only is the fruit of two to be, each of them, the most Jesus Christ's passion, that where high God, and equal to the Father as we were strangers from God and of all.” had no knowledge of his Testa, Cranmer, however, having thus ment, it pleased God by Christ, begun in the fresh was not likely
to end in the spirit. He soon mer the archbishop, seren bishops, found that the power of his chap. (among whom was Ridley,) Drs. lains to worry a heretic was une. Latymer and Rowland Paylor, qual :o the now rapidly advancing Sir Thomas Smith, and others, die mischief. As a persecutor, he vines and laymen, amounting in determined to go on unto per the whole to 25, three to constitute fection," and, like a civil tyrant, a quorum. The tit c expresses began to cry
“bavoc, and let slip the grant of authority to inquire the dogs of war."
concerning heretical delinquency, Burnet (ii. 105.) savs, that "on De potestatibus ad inquirendum the 12th of April, 1549, there was super hæretica praritate. The a complaint brought 10 the council royal boy, not then 12 years of that, with the strangers that were age, is made to declare the duty come into England, some of the of all Christian kings to maintain Anabaptist persuasion had come the Christian faith pare and entire over, and were disseminating their among their subjects, but more errors and making proselytos. So especially of himself, a defender a commission was ordered to exa. of the faith. After cnlarging on mine and search after all Anabap- the idea of preserving that field of tists, heretics, or contemners of the the Church committed to bis care Common Prayer, " sacrificing," as from the pernicious seeds of false Robert Robinson remarks, (Lect. doctrine, he complains of those p. 5.)" the rights of all the na. who are reviving and instilling into tion to a fancied prerogative of the minds "of the tude vulgar the a boy.” Strype (Mer: ji: 214,) impious errors of the Anabaptists says, that “ Arianism now shewed and other heretics. itself so openly, and was in'stich All such the commissioners are danger of spreading farther, that it directed to search out, to call for was ibought necessary to suppress papers in evidence, and swear and it by using more rigid methodsthan examine witnesses. Then, should seemed agreeable to the merciful these usual methods not reach the principles of the professors of the urgency of the case, they are emgospel.” Yet 'neither Strype nor powered to set up a Protestant Burnet ventured to place this inquisition ; for I know not what commission among their large col- to make less of the direction, om. lection of records, though they nibus aliis viis modis et formis could not reach the manly inde quibus meliùs et efficaciùs poteritis, pendence, becoming impartial his. de veritate premissorum etiam sumtorians, of protesting against its in- mariè et de plono, ac sine strepit u quisitorial and sanguinary clauses. et figura judici, cognoscendum inIt is preserved, in the original la. quirendum et investigundum. The tin, in that great collection of recommendation especially to prostate papers, Rymer's Fædera, ceed without noise or the fornis of (xv. 181,) from whence I shall à court of justice, sine strepiiu et give some account of it, as the figura judicii, carries our thoughts first English Protestant manifesto to the secret chamber of an Inquiagainst religious liberty.
sitor-General, surrounded by his This commission is dated April familiars. 12, 1549, and directed to Cran. The commissioners are next di.
224 Dissenting Congregation, Call Lane, Leeds. rected to restore heretics who ab. gregation in Leeds, which has jure, and appoint penances ; but been repeatedly mentioned in the to proceed against the pertinacious Repository. and obstinate, desperately im The first founder of the society mersed in their errors, erroribus which afterwards assembled in suis desperatè immersum. Per. Call Lane chapel, Leeds, was the haps here is a pleasantry upon the Rev. Christopher Nesse, in regard mode of the Baptists. Persecution to whom, see the Nonconformist's relaxing her brow for a moment, Memorial, vol. ii. 567.) ejected to grin horribly a ghastly smile, from his preferment in Leeds, Such, however, are to be cast out A. D.' 1662. After suffering of the communion of the faithful, much persecution, he was at last and delivered over to the secular excominunicated three times; and, arm. There is added a full power upon the fourth, a writ was issued of calling before them all sus. Out“ de excommunicato capien. pected persons, of committing do;" to avoid which, he removed them to prison, and putting them to London in 1675. The followin irons, carceri et 'vinculis, si ing anecdote will shew that he opus fuerit, mancipandi. was a man very much superior to
Such was the formidable engine vulgar prejudices (but you will of oppression of which the English either insert or suppress it at plea. Protestant Reformers now accept- sure). Going one Christmas with ed the use, or rather which they one of his hearers to pay some had prepared for their own pur- visits in the congregation, a good pose, as it would be unfair to fix woman brought out the great upon the memory of the royal Yorkshire goose-pie for the enterchild the deep disgrace of this tainment of her visitors. Mr. sanguinary commission.
Nesse's friend objected to this dish, I designed, when I began this as savouring of superstition. “Well letter, to trace the steps of English then, brother (said Mr. Nesse), if Protestant Persecution to the con- these be walls of superstition, let clusion of the reign of Edward. us pull them down." I need not But I have already sufficiently in- add that he immediately set about truded on your pages, and must the business of demolition. After reserve an account of the sufferers him was Mr. Thomas Whitaker, under this commission for the sub- who is mentioned in the Monthly ject of another letter.
Repository, (vol. vi. pp. 9, 260.). R. G. S. as having been a pupil of the Rev.
Richard Frankland. He too suf.
fered much for conscience sake, Dissenting Congregation, Call and was imprisoned for some time Lane, Leeds.
in York castle. He died, minise SIR, March 7, 1812. ter al Calì Lane, Nov. 19, 1710, Perceiving that you seem in- aged 66. (See M. Rep.) He was clined to insert accounts of Dis. succeeded by the Rev. William senting congregations and their Moult (whose son Samuel was successive ministers, I take the lio minister at Rotherham, and died berty of sending you a few particu. there, Sep. 16, 1766, aged 58). lars relating to a Dissenting con- Mr. Moult died in 1727 or 1728;
He was succeeded, by the Rev. be, known to the religious world, Thomas Whitaker, jun. son to Mr, as the author of a volume of Sera T. W. above-mentioned. With mons, published in 1804, in which this excellent man, the writer bad are united, elegance of composia the honour and pleasure of being tion, serious piety, and striking for a while connected; and gladly addresses to the heart and con. takes this opportunity of bearing science. testimony to a character uniformly I am, Şir, respectable and amiable. Mr.
Yours sincerely, Whitaker was pastor to the Call
J. C.E. Lane society, more than fifty years. He was assisted for some lime by
6. The Unknown God." his son, the Rev. William Whita. Sir, March 7, 1812. ker, who died of a consumption, Permit me, in answer to your Jan. 7, 1770. The two last ser. correspondent A, Z., (p. 81.) to mons he ever preached, were pub. remind him that Dr. Whitby, in lished after his death, by his fel. his note on Acts xvii. 23, bas low-student and friend, the Rev. given a quotation from Oecumeni. Samuel Palmer, of Hackney (M. cus, in which it is asserted, that Rep. vol. vi. p. 261.); and to the inscription upon the altar there them is prefixed, An Address to mentioned, was at full length, " To the Reader, on the danger of de- the gods of Asia, Europe and laying the concerns of the soul, in Libya; and to the unknown and hope of a lingering death (which foreign God.” Will not this cir. your correspondent, Quercus, M. cumstance decisively prove, that R.. vi. 212. so queerly describes this altar was dedicated—not as a as “ a preface about consump- public acknowledgement of an all. tions"). Mr. Whitaker died Aug. perfect, yet incomprehensible, 4, 1778, aged 80, universally es. Deity—but as the result of ignoteemed and beloved. He was a rance in regard to the author of a plain, serious, practical preacher; calamity then suffered, and as an but not forward to introduce act of homage and supplication to controverted points, either in any and every being, (known or his sermons or in his conversa. unknown) who might be able to Lion. Whether or not the old remove it? And does not the gentleman (as Quercus expresses Apostle's address to the Athenians himself,) was wider in his senti. take it for granted, that they were ments than the young one," no ignorant of the being, to whom one who knew him only or chiefly they had, in this instance, paid in the latter part of his life, would religious worship, and whom he venture to decide, excepting those proceeded to make known to fand there were several persons of them? this sort among his hearers at that
J. T. E. time) who construe the omission of their favourite tenets into a “ Nolo Episcopari.'' denial of them. He was succeeded Reading, March 10th, 1818 by the Rev. Joseph Bowden : who Sik, bad been his assistant about threc Permit me to return my thanks years ; and who is, or deserves to to S. P. for the notice he has VOL, VII,