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great Khan.

Extract from the Voyages and work by Fox, mentioned page

Tradels of Narco Polo, page 220 ; in the valuable library of 135. In Pinkerton's Collection Dr. Williams. It is in one folio of Voyages.

volume. The following is an ex. of the great Khan, act copy of the title page, which is not made of gold or silver, or may be acceptable to some of your other metal, but they take the readers. middle bark from the mulberry

Rerum in Ecclesia gestarum, tree, and this they make firm and qux postremis et periculosis his temcut into divers round pieces, great poribus evenerunt, marimarum que and little, and imprint the king's per Europam persecutionum, ac mark thereon : Of this paper-mo. sanctorum Dei Martyrum, cætera. ney therefore the Emperor causeth rumque rerum si que insignioris an huge mass to be made, in the erempli sint, digesti per Regna city of Cambalu, which sufficeth & nationes Commentarii. Pars Pri. for the whole empire, and no man ma. In qua primùm de rebus per under pain of death, may coin any Angliam et Scotiam gestis, atque other or spend any other money, in primis de horrenda, sub Maria or refuse it in all his kingdoms and nuper Regina, persecutione, narra. countries, nor any coming from tio continetur. Autore Joanne another kingdom, dare spend any Foxo Anglo. Bailée. 1559. It ap. other money in the empire of the pears from Fox's Life in Biog. Brit.

(iii. 2022) that the 1st Book of his “ Hence it follows that merchants Commentarii was published at after coming from remote coun. Strasburgh in 8vo. in 1554, while tries unto the city of Cambalu, the author was an exile during the bring with them gold, silver, pearl, persecution under Mary. From and precious stones, and receive the folio volume I quote the 1st the king's money for them; and page, of which I gave Mr. Peirce's because this money is not received very correct translation (P.220). in their country, they change it Quod ni fecisset, sunt qui putant again in the Empire of the great episcopos ultimum ei supplicium Khan, for merchandise, which they molituros. Nam ita audivi a fa. càrry away with them. He also mulo ipsius, Ducem Suffolciæ ciam payeth stipends to his officers and Hoperum,qui eorum conatusnon ig. army, in the above mentioned norabat, præmonuisse. The Duke money; and lastly, whatever thing of Suffolk was likely enough to be he needs in his court, he buyeth well informed, being uncle to the with this money. Wherefore there king, by his marriage to Mary, the is not a king to be found in the sister of Henry, and Queen Dow. world who exceedeth him in trea. ager of France. Fox afterwards sure, not expended on the mint as refers to Edward's protection of elsewhere,”

Hooper, against the bishop, in

the following terms, Eum nec regis Sketch of English Protestant voluntas nec cause equitas tueri

Persecution Letter III. possit. There is also preserved, the

SIR, April 29, 1812. authority given to Ridley by the Since I sent you my last letter King in council to consecrate I have procured a sight of the latin Hooper, without incurring a Pre

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302 Sketch of English Protestant Persecution. Letter III.
munire, should he“ omit and let godlye historye throughout. But
pass certain rites and ceremonies that which was not than perfourm.
Offensive to his conscience." (Rid. ed in hope of theyr amendement,
ley's Life, p. 312.) In justice maye by chaunce lyght upon them
to the memory of Ridley, who ap- herafter, whan no gentyll warnynge
peared prominent in this persecu. will seme io be regarded.?!
tion of Hooper, it should be men This priest of the reformation,
tioned that they afterwards became who had been a protege of Lord
intimate friends as hinted by Fox, Cromwell, on whose fall he retired
before they were united by the suf. into the Low Countries, appears to
ferings of martyrdom. The au- anticipate a Hecatomb, if I may
thor of Ridley's Life (1763,) quotes be allowed the expression, of po-
the following passage from his let. pish victims, as a burnt-offering to
ters to Houper, when they were protestant ascendancy, on the ac-
both in prison. My dear Bro. cession of Edward. By those who
ther, I understand by your works really governed, in the name of
that we thoroughly agree, and that Prince, Bale was recalled,
wholly consent together, in those beneficed in England, and at length
things which are the grounds and made Bishop of Ossery in Ireland;
substantial points of our religion, where, according to Dr. Leland,
howsoever in time past, in smaller the historian, he became

a vio.
matters and circumstances of reli. lent and acrimonious impugner of
gion, your wisdom and my simpli. popery." The advancement of
city made us to think differently." such an avowed fierce polemic,
(p. 324). At page 220, I ven. shews what the papists would pro-
tured to describe the Reformers, bably have suffered from protes.
as wanting nothing but a safe op- tant persecutors, had time and op-
portunity to burn popish idola. portunity matured their purpose.
tors as well as idols. As this is And now, before I return to the
a hard saying for Protestants, sufferers under the commission, an
even now, to hear, I beg leave account of which concluded my
to sustain my opinion, with a last letter, I shall mention some
passage which I have since met earlier instances of protestant per-
with in Bale's account of Lord secution, which then escaped my
Cobham, first published 1544, of notice.
which I have a reprint in 1729. During the first year of Ed.
At the conclusyon (P. 109) he com. ward's reign, there appear to have
pliments" Kynge Henrye the been expectations of Gardiner's
VIII. now lyvyng,” who " after eventual conformity to the new
the most godlye example of Kyng faith, which had been established
Josias, vysyted the temples of his by a new Head of the church. He
realme," and " utterlye, amonge was now joined with Ridley, in a
other, destroyed the synnetull protestant crusade against the Ana-
shryne of Becket." Bale adds, baptists. Strype is my authority
“ If he had upon that and soche for this rather curious fact, in his
other abhomynable shrynes brent Eccles. Mem. (ii. 68,) where he
those ydolatrouse prestes, which observes, at the end of the year
were, (and are yet,) theyr chefe 1547, ” At this time Gardiner
maynteners, he had fulfylled that and Ridley, were appointed to deal

with two Anabaptists of Kent. -- votion and honour, and affirmed So at the same time that Ridley that in it there was truly and verily exhorted Gardiner to receive the the body and blood of Christ, effec. true doctrine of justification, a. tually by grace and spirit.” Rid. gainst which he was very refrac. ley's biographer, the Rev. Gloces. tory, he prayed him to be very ter Ridley, even writing so lately diligent in confounding the Ana- as 1763, commends the bishop baptists in his diocese; and that he (P. 664,) for having “always be. would be steady in the defence lieved and maintained a real preof the sacrament against them.” sence by grace to faith, and not a Thus Pilate and Herod were made mere figure only: although there friends, that Jesus might be effec. were some English fanaticks, such tually persecuted. This coalition as John Webb, George Roper, and of papist and protestant, was surely Gregory Paske, who believed that nothing better than an union of the sacrament was only a bare sign guides, alike blind to the rights of of Christ's body, and nothing more conscience and the requirements than a remembrance of it;" the of religion. These scrupulous, and very doctrine maintained with great probably conscientious churchmen, ability, but I know not with what could warmly differ, in expound- consistency, by a late successor of ing a conundrum of the schools, Ridley's colleague, in the see of and yet cordially agree to perse- Winchester. I refer to Bishop cute-strain out a gnat and swal. Hoadley's Plain Account of the Na low a camel; violate mercy, one of ture and Design of the Lord's Supthe weightier matters of the law, per. It will here be not uninter. and yet pay tithe of mint and an, esting to add, that these three En. ise and cummin.

glish fanatics, as to whom bigotry The Anabaptists who were thus and superstition may still account sụbjected to the ecclesiastical cen- their lives madness, and their end sures of Gardiner and Ridley, ap. without honour, after escaping the pear to have professed more ra. fire of protestant persecution, were tional and truly scriptural views burned together at Canterbury, in of that religious usage, unhappily the reign of Mary. Clarke, in his entitled the sacrament, than even Martyrologie, (P. 159,) having the latter prelate entertained. Rida mentioned the burning of Ridley ley had, in 1544, been converted and Latimer, in 1555; says, from a belief in transubstantiation, 66 About the same time, John chiefly by meeting with 6 the Book Webb, was brought before the of Bertram, or Ratramnus, priest Bishop of Dover, Doctor Harpsand monk of Corbey, concerning field, and some others, where such the body and blood of the Lord;" common articles were objected to written in latin, about 840, a trans- him as against others, to which he lation of which, by Ridley, or un. answered, that he did believe that der his direction, was printed in the sacrament of the Lord's Sup1549. Thus, as Strype remarks, per, was left in

was left in commemoran ! though Ridley were not for that tion of his death, and not that it gross corporal presence in the sa- was transubstantiated into his bocrament, yet he approved of treate dy. After which he, with George ing that holy mystery with all de- Roper and Gregory Paske and

304 Sketch of English Protestant Persecution. Letter IIf. two other godly men, were all protestant council, who, as Luther brought forth together; who all said of himself, should be always constantly adhering to the truth, learners, “ to put an end to all were condemned, and carried to controversies in religion.” to the place of their martyrdom. We presently find a goodly comBy the way they said divers psalms. pany of Protestant persecutors, Ruper, at the stake, putting off his among whom were Cranmer, Lati. gown, fetched a great leap. And mer and Sir Thomas Smith, sit. so they all three were consumed in ting in judgment, April 27, 1548, the flames, at Canterbury, abiding “in the chapel of the blessed Mary their turments most patiently, and in St. Paul's," upon one John rejoicing that they were counted Champnies, of Stratford on the worthy to suffer for Christ's gospel Bow, in the county of Middlesex. sake."

This clergy man appears, by Strype's These were probably Anabap- narration of his opinions, to have tists, and two of them might be refined upon the doctrines of those with whom Gardiner and grace, as the harsh and exclusive Ridley were appointed to deal, in dogmas of Calvin are improperly 1547. There was, about the same called, till he published a book in time, one Robert Cook, expressly favour of the system called Anticalled an Anabaptist, by Strype, nomian. He was, however, now who" denied original sin, and con. brought " utterly to abjure the cerning the Lord's Supper dis- said errors, and all other heresies, persed divers odd things,” by false doctrines, and damned opiwhich he “ created trouble to nions contained in his book, and Paikhurst and Coverdale." all other Anabaptists' errors, and

By the assistance of the same all other heresies in general, conindustrious enquirer, Strype, I find trary to the faith of Christ.”. that in the next year, 1548, an at- Jortin has remarked (Eccl. Hist. tempt was made to engage the Pref.), as quoted by Wake. growing mind of the young king, field (Mem. 1. 123), “ Men now eleven years of age, on the will compel others, not to think side of persecution. " William with them, for that is impossible, Thomas, Esq. (afterwards execu. but to say they do, upon which ted for treason in the reign of they obtain full leave not to think Mary)" drew up for the special use or reason at all; and this is called of Edward, a large collection of Unity." thoughts, on civil

and ecclesiasti With such unity, persecutors of cal government, entitled “ Ques. every age and description have tions of State Policy.Of these, been obliged to be content, though the following is the tenth. “Whe. no doubt, they have often regretted ther religion, beside the honour of the imperfection of “human laws," God, be not also the greatest stay that, as Young well expresses it, of civil order, and whether the they cannot "take vengeance on unity thereof be not to be preserved the mind.Cranmer and his aswith the sword and rigour?” (Id. sociates accepted the submission ii. 101.) This useful hint was of their prisoner, imposing the folsoon followed by a proclamation lowing sentence. First, a prohi. set forth, most consistently by a bition to preach these errors.


went to

Unitarians in Transylvania.

305 Secondarily, that the said Champ- damps and putrefaction; pale, nees with all speed convenient, torpid, spiritless and helpless; and with all his diligence, procure and were at last whelmed in pits, as many of his books as are past without notice and without reforth in his name, to be called in membrance.

Yet from a very again and utterly destroyed, as unfeeling passage in Latimer's 4th much as in him shall lie.” Next sermon, preached before King Ed. appears their Christian method of ward VI, it may be inferred that restoring a brother in the spirit of even the executions were not few. meekness. “ Thirdly, that the He says, " the Anabaptists that said Champnees, on Sunday next, were burnt here, in many towns shall attend at Paul's cross upon in England, as I heard of credible the preacher, all the time of the men, I saw them not myself, went sermon, and there penitently stand to their death, as

we will say, before the preacher aforesaid with without any fear in the world, a faggot on his shoulder.” (Con. cheerfully. Well, let them go." cil. Mag. Brit. iv. 39).

Latimer then compares them to We are now arrived again at the “anotherkind of poisoned heretics, year 1549, where I find contem- called Donatists,” who porary with the commission for their execution, as though they Protestant persecution, a session should have gone to some jolly re. of Parliament ending with "an creation or banquet, to some belly act of grace and general pardon,” cheer, or to a play." Latimer's excepting those who said “that Sermons, 1758, ii. 140. infants were not to be baptized, The records preserved of proseand if they were baptized, that cutions and sentences under this they ought to be rebaptized when commission are, however, very they come to lawful age--that scanty, yet considering the imChrist took no bodily substance of pending fate of the principal comour blessed lady.” Strype, from missioners themselves, and their whom I quote this passage (Ec. zeal for God, though not accord. Mem. ii. 189) adds, "Those ing to knowledge, we may consiwho held these tenets were those der them as strikingly exhibiting, called Anabaptists, whereof seve- according to Shakespeare, ral were now in prison."

Man! proud man, These prisoners must have been Drest in a little brief authority; confined to await the sentence of Most ignorant of what he's most assured. the so often mentioned commission. I have pursued a more circuit. The names and stories of very few ous course than I expected, and of them have been preserved, though must again propose in another they were probably numerous. letter to conclude the sketch of For the well-known passage of Protestant persecution in England Johnson on war may, with a slight during the reign of Edward. alteration of terms, be applied to

R. G.S. persecution. “Of the thousands and tens of thousands that perish.

Unitarians in Transylvania. ed, a very small part ever felt the SIR, stroke of an executioner. The

I lament that the inquiries of rest languished in dungeons, amidst Senex (p. 32) have not called forth VOI, VII.

2 R

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