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of barter is abolished, even in the present when it was concluded by time of Abraham, and silver is word of mouth. used as the medium of exchange, 6 Further, the change which is not however in the way of coin, observable in the Mosaic records, but by weight. (xxiii. 16.) It is immediately after the Deluge, is probable, indeed, that at the time quite agreeable to the course of of Jacob, the Phenicians were in human things. Before that event, possession of coined money.(xxxiii. Asia was, probably, in some re. 19.)

spects farther advanced than at the “ In the forty-four first chap. time of Abraham. Before the ters of Genesis, ihere is not a trace Deluge, we already meet with the of horses ; on Jacob's journey to Use of iron, but for a long period Egypt, Egyptian horses are for afterwards no trace of it: and the first time made use of. Now many arts which were cultivated history teaches us that Palestine, before the Deluge, fall into forin its earlier periods, had no borses, getfulness aster it, and must at a but that Egypt always had them. much later period be again in.

“ Lastly, in forming leagues, vented. In short, Asia, instead of the Patriarchs do not proceed, as rising, suffers a decline. And was in later times, but as other nations it possible that it should have hapof the earliest antiquity formed pened otherwise? A single family them. In Homer, treaties are survives the flood, and re. peoples made by word of mouth, and in the depopulated Asia. How could order to make them more than all the arts of Asia survive the usually binding, they are con- flood, along with these few persons cluded under the invocation, and Were they acquainted with them guarantee of Heaven, and are be- all? Or if they were, could they sides accompanied by various all come into exercise amongst tokens and presents. In like man. then after the flood ? The cares ner, Abraham separates seves necessary for their subsistence sheep as a present to Abimelech, which would at first entirely oca as tokens of the laying aside the cupy them, required nothing more strife about the disputed well, and than the employment of the comof renewed friendship. (xxi. 27.) monest arts; and the pursuit of So Jacob and Laban threw up the means of satisfying their neces: heaps of stones, as a memorial of sities would prevent the exercise their reconciliation : and the name of any art of luxury. The situaof the newly-dug well, is an evi. tion then of the world after the dence of the league made between Deluge occasioned many of the Abraham and Abimelech. Lastly, arts of the antediluvian world to the cave of Machpelah is bought remain unexercised, and to perish, by Abraham in the presence of requiring to be again invented at witnesses, (xxiii.) and he expects an after period, by fortunate acto remain undisturbed, in the cidents and at afferent occasions. possession of the field; as in Homer, In one word, mankind must necesthe Greeks and 'l rojans expect sarily have receded after the flood, the fulfilment of the concluded and if Moses had made them ado treaty, because both armies were vance in an uninterrupted prod

VOL, VII.

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302 Sketch of English Protestant Persecution. Letter IV: gress from one step to another, from the chimeras of other nations, ih re would then have been ground that the pre-eminent rank of the for su pecuing the genuineness of Mosaic accuunis must be evident his accounts.

from ibat single passage.” 66 5 Frally, if we compare

tbe accounts of Muses with the most ancient accounts of other nations, Sketch of English Protestant Pere

secution.- Letter IV. we may be fully sensible of the pure sources from which the first

Sir, May 31, 1812. are derived.

Amongst all the I proceed now to describe some nations of antiquity there is not Acts of Faith, exhibited by the one that has anything similar, English Protestant Inquisition, or atiains in its most ancient his. which, as before observed, was torp 10 any thing like the sim. erected by the royal commission, pl city, adequacy, and philo-o. of the 12th of April, 1549. Bur. phical truth of this book. Oiher nett says, that

some tradesmen n!onal stories swarm with tables, were brought before these comin which those who place most de. missioners in May, and were per. pendance upon their knowledge of suaded to abjure their former aniquiry and ot symbolical lan. opinions; which were, that a reguage are unable to discover any generate man could not sin, That meaning ; they have been mis. though the outward man sinned, understood by the nations them, the inward man sinned not. That selves, in their early rimes, they there was no Trinity of Persons. have been allered and forced into That Christ was only a holy pro. meaning, by foolisti explanations, phet, and not at all God. That commentari's and interpolations; all we had by Christ was, that he and the ideas which they origin. taught us the way to heaven. ally contained are lost: the ac. That he took no flesh of the Virgin, counts contained in Genesis on and that the baptism of infants the contrary, liave, for the most was not profitable. part, retained their original mean medley is here displayed, of Chris. ing; they breathe in a mude of tian simplicity and pseudo-evanexpression, often highly figura. gelical refinement, tive, but always intelligible, the Among those whom Cranmer conceptions if the pure infancy of and his associate Commissioners the world, and though relating now alarmed into recantation, many surprising events, have no. Strype mentions Michael thing surprising in the mode in Thombe, a butcher, who which they are related. For in. nounced the opinion, that Christ instance, ibat most ancient view took no flesh of our Lady, and that of the origin of ihings, in the 1st the baptism of infants is not pro. chap. Genesis, which in the the. fitable.” He names also ogonies and cosmogonies of other Puttu, a tanner of Colchester,” nations bas assumed a ridiculous and who “ recanted and bare a faggot unmening form, from the miscon. at Paul's Cross, and after that at cert.ns of later times, is amongst. Colchester.” This was probably the Hebrews so full of simplicity, the person designed by Burnett, excellence and truth, and so free where he says, that “ one of those

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« Divers minds out of the manded to carry a faggot next same thing, often draw contrary Sunday at St. Paul's, where there conclusions, as Augustine i bought should be a sermon setting forth devout Anthony to be the rise his heresy.” Two there were, fore full of the Holy Ghost, however, if not more, who refused because, not being able to read, to make shipwreck of faith and he could say the whole Bible, a good conscience, and loved not and interpret it; and Thyreus the their lives eren unto death. Of these Jesuit, for the same rason, doch very few particulars have been pre- think all the Anabaptists to be served, and even those, so far as I poss. ssed.

can find, have never been brought Thyreus was of Nugs n'ar Co. : into one narrative.

logne. According to the Nov, The first victim to the rigour of Dict. llist. 1772, he published the commission, was Joan Bocher or among other works, one Sur les Knel, commonly called, probably, Apparitions des Spectres, to which from the County of her birth, Joan probably Donne has referred. of Kent. Strype relates from Par. Joan Bocher, according to Fox, sons, the Jesuit, that " she was, at was exemplary in her personal first, a great disperser of Tindal's attention to the wants of prisoners. New Testament, translated by liim The Martyrologyst had probably into English, and printed at Co. orien witnessed her labours of len; and was a great reader of love, in this particular instance, scripture herself.

Which book for his language, as many of your she also dispersed in the court ; readers will perceive, is remark. (of Henry the Eightli,] and so ably expressive. Oficiosa maxime became known to certain wo. in eos si quos carceres haberent men of quality, and was more captivos, quibus illa perpetuo particularly acquainted with Mrsi adesse consuevit, One example Anne Ascue. She used, for more Fox gives, in the case of Thumas security, to tie the books in strings Dobbs, a Fellow of St. John's, under her apparel, and so pass Cambridge, who being in St. with them into the court." Fox Paul's, at the elevation of the host, describes Joan Bocher, as well had imprudently interrupted the versed in the scriptures, which, Papal worship, before it was suphowever, according to his account pressed by authority For this she could not read, but must have premature effort of Protestant in. stored her memory from attention dignation, he was imprisoned under to the reading of others. Mulier in the authority of the Lord Mayor scripturis prompta, quum tamen and the Archbishop. In this connihil sciret legere. It is remark- finement he shortly died, just as able that this faculty of memory, his pardon was procured, by the as applied to the scriptures, has influence of Joan Bocher, who been ascribed to the Anabaptists, had constantly mmistused to him by a learned Jesuit of the 17th in prison, and had interceded for century, and attributed to diaboli. him with the protectress, the cal agency. I refer to the follow. Duchess of Somerset. Cui tamen ing passage in Donne's Letters, si ad pauculos superfrisset dies, · 1654.

venia, ac instrumenta jam restitu

364 Sketch of English Protestant Persecution.Letter IV. endi libertatis adparabantur in. is in Latin, according to the then tercedente apud Dutissam D. Pro. prevailing custom. li is ado ressed tectoris Joanna illa Cantian'ı, quce tv the prisoner by the Commission. tum frequens er in carcere minis. ers, who invoke the name of Christ, travit.

and profess to present him as God Thus this excellent woman went alone, before their eyrs. Christi alort doing good, till she became nomine indocato, ar ipsum solum herseif a prisoner; being brought Deum præ oculis nostris nabentes. before the Commissioners in Mary's She is reminded of having main. Chapel St. Paul's, April 30, 1540. tained, before the Commissioners, The process against her, which in frequent confessions and declawould nue be a curiosity, I have raiions, a certain wicked and intol. not been able to discover. Bur- erable error, damned beresy and nelt (ii Rec. 152.) has preserved scandalous opinion. Nefandum the sentence and the report to the et intolerabilem errurem, hæresin king. Tho Commissioners whose damnatam et scandalosam opini. names have incurred an indelible onem subscriptam. Then follows disgrace, by their presence on a description of the heresy, in this occasion, were, Cranmer, plainer terms than would now be Latimer, who now it'sued with justifiable, but which you may the Archbishop as his contidential probably be inclined to excuse, associate, Sir Thomas Smith, for the sake of preserving verbal Cook, Dean of Arches, and Lyall, exactness, in an important bistoDoctor of Laws.

rical document, Viz. That

you Joan Bocher has been considered believe, that the word wos made as an Arian Anabaptist, but what flesh in the Virgin's belly; but were her peculiar sentiments upon that Christ look flesh of the Virgin, various points of theology, it is you believe not ; because the flesh now in vain to enquire. The only of the Virgin, being the outward heresy imputed to her, was an ab. man, was sinfully gotten and burn struse metaphysical notion respect. in sin; but the word, by the coning the nature of Christ, which sent of the inward man of the Vir. she appeared oisposed to honour gin, was made flesh. For this opinion to an unscriptural excess, such as the prisoner is excommunicated, the evident ardour of her piety as an obstinate heretic, and delimight not allow her to perceive. vered over to the secular arm, her

Fox describes her error as re. judges satisfying themselves, that specting the humanity of Christ, ihey performed this strange work for . which she believed to be descended med bearing the name of Christian, from heaven, not derived from with grief of soul and bitterness of his mother, e cælo devectam, nun e heart; cum animi dolore el cordis matre susceptam. Such a notion, amaritudine. a proper Arian, believing in bu On receiving this sentence, Joan man dipravity and the miraculous Bocher is reported, according to conception might, under the in- Strype, (Mem. ii. 214.) to have fluence of a warm imagination, thus addressed her judges : “ It is be likely to entertain.

a goodly matter to consider your The sentence, excepting the de. ignorance. It was not long ago scription of the imputed heresy, since you burned Anne Ascue for

2 piece of bread, and yet came and those which were directly yourselves after, to believe and against the Apostles' creed. That profess the same doctrine for which these were impieties against God, you burned her.

And now, for which a prince, as being God's sooth, you will needs burn me for deputy, ought to punish ; as the a piece of Ash, and, in the end, king's deputies were obliged to you will come to believe this asso, punish offences against the king's wbın you have read the scriptures person. These reasons did rather and understand them.” This ad- silence than satisfy the young king; dress was quite lost upon her who still thought it a hard thing judges, who immediately followed (as in truth it was) to proceed so up their sentence with a petition severely in such cases.

So he set to the king, for condign punish. his hand to the warrant, with tears ment upon a beretic, whom holy in his eyes ; saying lo Cranmer, Mother Church bad cast out as a that if he did wrong, since it was diseased sheep, lest the fold should in subinission to his authority, he be infected ; tanquam orem mor. should answer for it to God. This bidam a grege Domini, ne alios vis struck the Archbishop with much rus subditos sua contagione inficiat. horror, so that he was very un

Cranmer, as the principal Com. willing to have the sentence exea missioner, had now a difficult task cuted. And both he and Ridley 10 perform. Edward, a gentle took the woman, then in custody, stripling, was not inured to scenes to their houses, to see if they could of blood, like the boary courtiers persuade her.” of his father, and sbruck from Besides the hesitation, which the judicial murder of ihis injured the painful reluctance of the young woman. I know not how to pro. king was calculated to excite, ano. ceed with ber tragical story, with ther attempt to lead these Pro. more probability of historical cor- testant persecutors to considera. rectness, than in the words of tion was made during this interBurnett. (ii. 106.)

val. Among the passages, in Fox's The sentence being “ returned Latin work, to which I have been to the council, the good king was so much indebted, immediately moved to sign a warrant for burn. following his short account of ing her, but could not be prevailed Bocher and Paris, and omitted by on to do it. He thought it a piece of him in his Book of Martyrs, is cruelty, too like that which they section, entitled De quodam, qui had condemned in Papists, to burn mortem qua incenduntur homines, any for their consciences. And levem esse dicebat. Mr. Pierce, in a long discourse he had with in his Vindication, (p. 34.) has Sir John Cheek, he seemed much given a translation of this section, confirmed in that opinion. Cran. except the first sentence. This mer was employed to persuade translation I shall readily adopt. him to sign the warrant.

Of one who described Burning gued from the law of Moses, by as an easy Death. which blasphemers were to be Professing to give a history of stoped. He told the king, he ecclesiastical transactions, nuthing made a great difference between should be omitted that appears errors in other points of divinity, fairly to come within the scope of

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