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Mentz, by letters to Cranmer, in. Respecting this martyrdom of terceded for the safety of his kins- George Van Parris, the following man, His wife also, (he means I record is in Fabian's Chronicle, apprehend the wife of the prison. “ 1551. This year was a Dutch. er) implored his life. Herum man brent in Smithfield for bold. kabebat Moguntinum quemdam, ing the opinion of the Arians.” virum nobilem, qui scriptis ad Stow in his Annals, (p. 605) Cant. literis in Anglian magno. gives this notice, “ An Arian pere pro illius salute deprecatus burnt, 1551, the 24th April. est. Idem et ab uxore etiam illius George of Paris, a Dutchman, factitatum, si precibus impetrari was burnt in Smithfield for Arianvita potuisset.
No interference isme." could avail; for George Van Pare: Burnett, (ii. 106.) after men. ris was burnt in Smithfield, April tioning the case of Joan Bocher, 24th, 1551, Fox, attached to adds, “ To end all this matter at the character of Cranmet, and once : two years after this one writing just after his friend's mar: George. Van Pare, a Dutchman, týrdom, endeavours to charge being accused for saying that God upon the imperious influence of the Father was only God, and Northumberland cruelties, so in- that Christ was not very God, he consistent with the natural mild. was dealt with long to abjure, but ness of the archbishop. Fox's would not. So on the sixth of words are these : Sed ingenio mie April, 1551, he was condemned tissimus Cant. qui et ipse, ut post in the same manner that Joan of dice-mus, erustus est, non tam in Kent was ; and on the 25th of eu rzaturam suam, quam ducis Nor- April was burnt in Smithfield. thumbria imperium secutus diceba- He suffered with great constancy tur. I must leave this conjec- of mind, and kissed the stake and ture as I found it, not having met faggots that were to burn him. Of with a confirmation of the rumour this Pure I find a popish writer in any other writer. The Duke saying, that he was a man of most of Northumberland was a wily, wonderful strict life; that he used though at length an outwitted po- not to eat above once in two days; litician, whose religious profession and before he did eat would lie was at the command of his ambi- some time in his devotion pros. tion. Such a man might have trate on the ground. All this they served some interest, or perhaps made use of to lessen the credit of covered some other design by per- those who had suffered formerly ; secuting a small minority of dis. for it was said they saw now that sidents from the church now estab- men of harmless lives might be lished. Yet, as to Cranmer and put to death for heresy, by the Ridley, however amiable they confession of the reformers them. might be as men, as theologians selves. And in all the books pub. it will scarcely be disputed lisbed in Queen Mary's days, that they were genuine persecu- justifying her severity against the tors, and, without any foreign in. Protestants, these instances were fluence, capable of any severities always made use of; and no part connected with that character. of Cranmer's life exposed him VOL. VI
442 Sketch of English Protestant Persecution.-Letter V. more than this did. It was said the Christian religion were deemed he had consented both to Lam- synonimous. To the penalty of bert's and Anne Askew's death, of Death was now added the con. in the former reign, who both fiscation of goods, or in plain lansuffered for opinions, which he guage, the beggary of a surviving himself held now: and he had family. Such were the tender now procured the death of these mercies of English Protestant pertwo persons; and when he was secution, and thus rapidly had brought to suffer himself, after. Cranmer proceeded to make havoc wards, it was called a just retali. of those whom he deemed heretics, ation on bim. One thing was cer- during his short career of power. tain, that what he did in this mat. Nor was Ridley, at this time, ter, flowed from no cruelty of inactive. I find bim now again, temper in him, no man being fure especially preparing to worry the ther from that black disposition of obnoxious Anabaptists. In Concil. mind; but it was truly the effect Mag. Brit. (iv. 61.) are preserved of those principles by which he the Bishop of London's - Articles governed himseli."
of Enquiry for his Diocese, the Such were the life and death of 6th year of Edward.” 1552. Among George Van Parris, according to the articles are the the following: Fox, the second and last martyr,
" Whether any of the Anabapsacrificed at the stake, to the mis- tist sect, or other, use notoriously guided zeal of Cranmer and his any unlawful or private convenassociates. Should Fox be here ticles, wherein they do use doctrine correct, the passage I formerly or administration of sacraments, quoted from Latimer (p. 305.) separating themselves from the rest must refer to crecutions, during of the parish. the reign of Henry.
“Whether any speaketh against The next year, 1552, gave com. baptism of infants." pletion to a learned work, called, Strype (p. 365.) mentions, duraccording to Burnett, (ii. 186.) ing this year, 1552, a commission A Reformation of the Ecclesiasti. to Cranmer, for enquiring after cal Laws. Several eminent church. Anabaptists and Arians, in Kent, men were appointed to this service, Probably, this was the same transthough " Cranmer did the whole action which he describes in his work almost himself.” It “ was di. Mem. Cranm.(p. 291.) Sep. 27, as gested, and cast into 51 titles," "a Letter from the Council to and “prepared by February this Cranmer, to examine a sect newly year.” Burnett gives a large ac- sprung up in Kent." Strype had count of this work, upon which he just before quoted the following bestows unqualified approbation. passage, from a Preface to the Yet he calmly tells us, “the first Jewel of Joy, by Thomas Becon, title was of the Trinity and the Cranmer's chaplain. Catholic Faith; in which those “ What wicked and ungodly who denied the Christian religion opinions are there sown now were to suffer death and the loss days, of the Anabaptists, Davidof their goods.” This is rather cans, Libertines, and such other obscure, though I apprehend the pestilent sects in the hearts of the Trinity, the Catholic faith, and people, unto the great disquietness
of Christ's Church, moving rather sitoribus eragitatus, in publico ju. unto sedition than unto pure re. dicio jam condemnandi quum essent, ligion, unto heresy than unto dixisse fertur : age, inquit, ó rev. things godly.”
erende, statuas in nos licebit in Among these reputed heretics presentia, quod libet. Id autem was, probably, Humphrey Mid- ne dicas tibi non prædictum, de. dleton, whom I mentioned at the nuncio tuas dehinc vices fore pror. beginning of this letter. His imas. Nec fefellit érentus. Pau. story will form an interesting con. cos enim post dies consequta regis clusion to this period of English Edouardi mors, ipsis quidem è Protestant persecution, and is the carcere demissionem, episcopis verð last of my obligations to the Com. vincula ac carceres conciliarit. mentarii of Fox. After describing (Com. p. 202.) the intercourse between Rogers
Mr. Peirce evidently supposes and his friend, quoted (p. 365.) that Cranmer and his associate the historian adds the following Commissioners were prevented passage, according to Mr. Peirce's only by the sudden extinction of translation. As it is short I shall their power, from procuring the subjoin the original.
death of Middleton and his fellow * Much such another instance prisoners, who had probably been is reported concerning one Hum- now, for three years, suffering un. phrey Middleton, (who was after. der ecclesiastical persecution. Nor wards burnt in Queen Mary's is the supposition unfounded. There days) that when he, with some is no trace, during this reign, of others, had been kept prisoners, in any alternative, in the case of the last year of King Edward, by heresy, but recantation or the the archbishop, and had been stake ; exactly after the manner dreadfully teazed by him, and the of Pagan persecution, which enrest in commission with him, and joined incense on the established were now just upon being con- altar, or to the lions. Thus drove demned in open court, he said to on these misguided Reformers, him : ! Well, reverend Sir, pass while their influence was rapidly what sentence you think fit upon declining with the decaying health us; but that you may not say you of Edward. English Protestant was not forewarned, I testify that persecution may be not unaptly your own turn will be next.' And compared to the devil of the Revea accordingly, it came to pass ; for lation, who is described as having a little while after, King Edward great wrath, because he knoweth died; upon which they were set that he hath but a short time. at liberty, and the bishops cast Edward died, July 6th, 1553, into prison.” — Peirce's Vindic. in his sixteenth year. Considering (p. 35.)
how the ignorant spirit of his age, Nec absimile quiddam de Hun. might have tempted him to stain frido Mideltuno, qui postea sub a longer reign with a large effusion Maria crustus est narratur, qui of Christian blood, we may suitcum aliis quibusdam concaptivis, ably apply to his short, but ex. anno regis Edouardi ultimo, in emplary life, the language of an carcere retentus à Cantuariensi, eastern sage. “ He pleased God graviterque ab eo cæterisque disquia and was beloved of him, so that
444 Sketch of English Protestant Persecution. -Letter V. speedily was he taken away, lest plicated, I know not. I cannot, that wickedness should alter his however, close this letter, without understanding, or deceit beguile noticing an assertion, from no inhis soul."
considerable authority, which, if Humphrey Middleton, whom historically correct, would render Fox described as narrowly escap- nugatory every document I have ing this Protestant persecution, was produced in these letters, or could burnt at Canterbury about 1555, bring forward in a continuation of the second year of Mary. (Clarke's them, and the fairest conclusions Martyr. p. 145.) His persecutors drawn from such premises. I re. were brought to the stake, the same fer to a passage in the Archbishop year; not unjustly, admitting the of Canterbury's speech, on Lord principle, which in the exercise of Sidmouth's Bill, as I have it before power they had unhappily estab. me, among papers lately circulished. Suffering was then dealt lated, on Religious Toleration. out to the reformers according to The Archbishop, to several just the measure by which they had and highly liberal remarks, is remeted to others, though, consider. ported to have added, Coercion ing their numbers, and some cruel has never been the practice of the aggravations, it may be said, in English established Church, nor their case, to have been “pressed do I believe it ever will”. down, shaken together and run I know not how to account for ning over.”
this unfounded assertion, but by Here I am glad to relieve you, supposing that the speaker, full of Mr. Editor, your readers, and my- his own ideas of what a church self, by closing this first period of ought to be, entirely forgot what English Protestant persecution, the his own church had proved her. only period during which it ap- self, at least through several ages. pears in its genuine form. I am It is indeed far better for the public Teady to believe that the Protes. interest, that a primate, whose tant church-governors in Edward's office arms him with so much reign, like many of the Papal, in vexatious power, should thus con. the reign of Mary, and probably sign to oblivion, the deeds of too that queen herself, verily thought many of his Protestant predeces. with Paul, that they ought to do sors, some of them perpetrated in inany things against those who his own palace, than that he should, would not conform to their faith. by recognizing them, be inclined I trust, that acting thus ignorantly, to imitate, in any degree, such evil like him, they obtained mercy. examples.
R.G.S. When the Protestant church was again established, on the death of Further Remarks on the Calvinis. Mary, the spirit of persecution,
tic Doctrine of Atonement. under Elizabeth and her succes.
SIR, sors, became gradually blended
July 6, 1812. with state-craft and church.craft, It seems necessary for me to the jealousy of politicians and the take some notice of the animad. ambition of priests.
versions of your correspondents, Whether I may have leisure or Vicinus and A Calvinist, (see resolution, to attempt the disen. *tanglement of a subject so com. • Sec our last No. p.379.-ED.
pages 297 and 299) on my ac- my statement with falsehood, to count of a conversation on Catho. make good the charge, even so far lic emancipation. They charge as themselves and their own im. me with misrepresenting the Cal. proved views of the system are con. vinistic doctrine. If I have done cerned, they are required to give this, it has been unintentionally; a direct answer to the following but I am not yet convinced that questions. 1. Do they admit or my statement of it is erroneous. deny that sinners are pardoned, Your correspondents take for and freed from all the penal con. granted that I intended my remark sequences of sin, on the ground of as applicable to the whole body what Christ did and suffered for of Calvinists; but I only stated it them, independently of their be. as applicable to the person I was coming virtuous characters? It is conversing with at the time. Vicio granted, they suppose, they will nus acknowledges there may be become virtuous as a necessary some who reason in the manner I consequence of their justification ; bave described ; and though he but that is not the point now in will not admit them to be proper question. 2. Do they assert or Calvinists, but calls them Antino. deny that the sinner is made righ. mians, they certainly think and teous, stands righteous in the call themselves Calvinists, yea, sight of God, and is placed in the only proper Calvinists; and a safe state, on the ground of the many, who are not of their party, righteousness of another being im. think them the most consistent puted to him, prior to his becom. Calvinists. It might be well for ing personally righteous, and that your correspondent to inform the his personal righteousness is en. world what proper Calvinism is. tirely consequent upon the før. As he will not admit the state- mer? 3. Do they maintain or ment given of it by Gill and Brine, deny, that the sinner, simply by is there not reason to think he will believing that Christ made atoneobject to it as stated by Calvin ment for his sins, and was righte. himself, and its most distinguished ous in his steal, or by the belief advocates, until the modern refi- of either of these points singly, is ners of it began to reduce it to freed from guilt and the fear of a new form and, retaining the punishment, so as to feel himself name, and, nominally, all the old in a safe state in the sight of God? doctrines, to present it to the It alters not these positions, how. world in an altered and improved ever much it may guard' them edition? It is pleasing to observe from abuse, to say that personal that persons of learning and liber- righteousness will naturally and ality, while they professedly retain necessarily follow, as the effect of the old creed, are, by their new true faith, and that unless“ good definitions and explanations of it, works follow, the faith is not gen. perhaps unintentionally and im. uine but useless. A pious Cal. perceptibly to themselves, under. vinist could not retain the doc. mining its most offensive articles, trine he believes, unless he thought and preparing the way for more it to have a good moral tendency: rational and liberal sentiments. nor could a pious Catholic re. As your correspondents charge tain the doctrines of his church,