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State of Public Affairs. Great expectations are formed of as. War is a melancholy theme at all sistance from Sweden, and it is expectd times. We shall always represent it as that three powers, Sweden, Russia and the disgrace of Christians, and we partiEngland will be united in the boods of cularly lament that there should be rea. friendship. How far the two powers sons for believing, that a nation on whom can really assist Russia, time will shew: we had placed better hopes, should see but Buona parte cannot have laid his reason for entering into this unnatural plans wih his usual prudence, if he state. Provocations we can believe Amedoes not finish the campaign before either rica has received from England, but of the other powers can interfere with taking them at the greatest extent, howsny effect. The ships of Brita n can as- ever they might be justifiable causes of sist the Russian army in no other way, war, according to the idle and ridiculous than by transporting the Swedi-h legions notions of European honour, we gavethe to the scene of action. They cannot Americans credit for more sense and pru. defend the sea-poris, and it will be dence than to follow the foolish fashions of small satisfaction to Russia to see them the old world. They have, however, in battered down by our vessels, should their Congress declared for war, but it Buonaparte enter them in triumph.

not proclaimed by 80 vereign One of the most extraordinary things authority. We still therefore live in in this conflict is, that Buonaparte hopes, that when the account of the re. should be able to go so many hundred vocation of the Orders in Council has miles from his own capital without fear reached America, more pacific measures of iniernal commotions, should make will be entertained, and that the United war upon a potent empire, and should States will not, on account of a few inleave the war in Spain to his generals, juries, enter on a course which, whether without any sol cirude at the success of successful or not, will add to the evils our arms in that quarter. The Spanish they have sustained. We speak the war, so burdensome to England, seems same common language, and are made to the French emperor a little episode to be friends. They who would instiof no consequence, and it almost leads gate either party to war, deserve to be us to imagine, that he is playing there stigmatized as enemies of mankind. with our finances, and wishes us to waste But America is not to be without our strength in a quarter, in which we war. The new state of Buenos Ayres can do him the least injury. Lord Wel is to commence under its auspices, and lington has advanced into Spain, and is to attack the Brazilians, or we should taken Salamanca, and the French troops rather say the court of Brazils, for it retire from him. If we are to believe does not appear that the Brazilians and the papers, our army is received every the inhabitants of the banks of La Plata where with the greatest joy, and the have any reason whatever for cutting strongest aversion is entertained of the each others throats. The court, to be French. The gueriellas are represented be sure, entered into the contest between also 10 be very strong and successful all Buenos Ayres and Monte Video, but it over the kingdom; and in such a case should be considered that this is an Euwe ought naturally to expect that the ropean court, and some allowances strength of the French must be daily should have been made for the follies of diminishing, and that our troops would the old world. We do not know what march to Madrid. The only thing that effect the convulsions of nature in the can e:cite contrary apprehensions, is that Caraccas have had upon the moral feel. the Inquisition, with the priesthood, fol. ings of the surviving inhabitants ; but lows at our rear, whilst they disappear liberty has finished its round very early, in every place where the French arms are and Miranda is become the dictator of triumphant: and, as no tyranny is equal the new republic. In the West Indies to that of the Inquisition, the attach an awful phenomenon gives credit to the ment of Spaniards to the government of stories of antient historians. The Cadiz may justly be doubted. The shower of dust at Barbadoes proceeded, Cortez is to surrender up its powers next it is now found, from a volcano in St. year, when the ordinary Cortez is to Vincents, whose terrific explosions filled meet; but a self-denying ordinance has the whole island with alarms. Thus been introduced, by which none of the the natural and the moral world display present are to be members of the ensu- works of horror, to ercite awful con. ing Cortez. Such a measure after the templations in the serious Christian, who ill success of a similar one in France was though the earth be troubled, and the not to have been expected, and this, mountains be carried into the midst of with several points in the new code, the sea, rejoices that there is a superior gives us but a poor opinion of Spanish power to make every apparent cvil forlegislation.

vard his benevolent purposes.

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ORIGINAL LETTERS.
Goswell Street, July 10, 1812. trying events of life; and, after
Sir,

the approbation of my own mind, The enclosed, which I found will stand among the firmest sup. lately, in examining some old let. ports of an inflexible fortitude, ters, came into my possession, I

I did not

ok, my friend, to believe, among Mr. Wakefield's have quitted you so abruptly.-I papers, when his Memoirs were received assurances, through an preparing for publication. It was indirect channel, frum ministerial not then printed with his corres. authority, that it was not their inpondence, for an obvious reason, tention to send me immediately. which no longer exists. This let. But they knew that I was incapater is too, interesting from the ble of making'any submission, and character and story of the writer, therefore were determined to in. and too honourable to Mr. Wake. sult and deceive a man, whom -field's memory, to be suppressed; even the iron austerity of their and I know not where it would be persecution was not able to sub. read with more gratification than due. But the circle of their con. in your pages.

duct was well rounded. That no I remain, Sir, Yours, fund of human depravity might

J. T. RUTT. remain untouched by them, the Original Letter from the late Jo. rankness of their duplicity was

seph Gerrald, to Mr. Gilbert made to keep pace with the rigour Wakefield.

of their oppression; they attempted

to infuse hope, onlythat they might On board the Sovereign, lying enjoy the dæmon-like satisfaction off St. Helen's, May 17th, 1795. of blasting it; and I was hurried

I should wantonly repress the away, like the vilest of malefactors, warmest emotions of my heart, fettered and without the slightest and feel myself guilty of a breach notice, to the remote shores of the of moral duty, did I depart the Southern Ocean, without those country without bidding adieu to tender consolations of friendship, my respected friend Gilbert Wake. which all good men willingly affield. The tender attention which, ford to those who want, and those during my persecution he, a stran. who deserve them. The zealous ger to every thing but my princi. alacrity of my friends, however, ples, unsolicitedly paid to me, has deadened the blow which mican never be erased from my mind. nisterial malignity had aimed at The recollection of it will be a my heart; and has supplied with consolation to me, under the most liberality those comforts which,

VOL. VII,

1

30

Sir,

478 Letter from Joseph Gerrald to Gilbert Wakefield. to a man enfeebled by long sick During my exile, I hope to bt ness, and macerated by a close supported by the consolation of imprisonment of fourteen months, your correspondence; though even were essentially necessary to the without it I should never cease to preservation of life. Without their cherish Gilbert Wakefield. May friendly aid I must have wanted every bappiness attend him. these comforts, and wanting them

JOSEPH GERRALD. must have perished. Among these P.S. My friend Mr. Morland, friends, the revered name of Sam. who has assiduously allended me uel Parr must ever be remembered. at Portsmouth, is the bearer of Upon my past conduct, and par. this letier. If you think that the ticularly upon that part of it, publication of it will do good, you which marked me out as the vic- are welcome to publish it. tim of persecution, I look back Remember me kindly to George with triumph and exultation. Dyer. Having nothing in view but the good of mankind, my spirit teels Letter from Dr. Watts to Mr. ils purity, and, therefore, must Clement Sharp, of Romsey. be happy. It may indeed be ex. Stoke Neaington, tinguished, but can never be sub.

January 21, 1735-6. dued. This system of terror, (which

Your letter, dated about the however will counteract its own middle of Oct. should have been purposes,) and which government answered long ago bad I not been have adopted, is the base offspring withheld from my study by long of their cruelty, their cowardice illness, nor am I yet fully recovered. and their conscious guilt. They | take pleasure, Sir, to find your scatter false alarms and act upon honest enquiries after truth, and them as if they were real. They that you are not willing either to infuse the panic which they feel; put off your children or to be con. and inflict the punishment which tented yourself with a mere set they fear.

of words, instead of clear and in. For myself, my friend, whatever telligible doctrines. destiny awaits me, I am content. I will therefore write you my The cause which I have embraced thoughts in a few lines of that has taken deep root, and must, I impotency and inability of man to feel, ultimately triumph.--I have believe and repent, and return to my reward. - I see through the God, which arises from the fall, cheering visto of future events, the and which is, I thiok, the test and overthrow of tyranny, and the per. only way to secure our thoughts manent establishment of benedo. from running into the extremes lence and peace.

It is silent as of Antinomian opinions on the the lapse of time, but as certain one side, or Arminian on the other, and inevitable ; for though justice This impotency, though it may be steals along with woollen feet, she called natural or rather native, this strikes at last with iron hands.

it comes to us by nature in its Οψε θεων αλειφι μυλοι, αλευσι δε present corrupted state, yet it is που λεπτα, ,

a want of natural powers, either understanding or will, to know #t

to chuse that which is good : for ral powers, to do what God re. if there were not natural powers quires ; but, at the same time, suficient for this purpose, I do such a native aversion of will, that hot see how men could be charged he never will do it without divine as criminals in not receiving ihe grace; thus there is a fair way laid gracious offers of the gospel: for the necessity of divine grace, this impotence, therefore, is what and yet, at the same time, a just our divines usually call a moral foundation for the condemnation impotence, i.e. their mind will of impenitent sinners. I have noi learn divine things, because spuken something more largely to they shut their eyes; their wills this subject in the 11th sermon Tefuse to receive the proposals of amongsi the Berry Street Sermons, grace, they shut it out of their which were published last year, hearts; they have a delight in sin, in two volumes, in octavo. and à dislike of Christ and his May the wisdom and the grace salvation; they have a rooted of our Lord Jesus Christ direct obstinacy of will against the me. you 10 walk in a safe way to eter. thods of divine mercy, and against nal life; and to lead your children that holiness which is connected therein; at the same time assur. with happiness. And yet this ing you that the happening to take moral impotency is described by a little different turn of thought in such metaphors in scripture, as some of these difficult enquiries is Tepresent us blind or dead in sin, not of so vast importance as some and that we can no more change persons would make it to be, with our natures than the Ethiopian respect to our salvation, provided can change his skin, or the leopard we do but maintain a constant de. his spots: and the reason of these pendence upon the grace of the strong expressions is, because God Spirit of God, in all our duties, knows this native aversion to grace to assist us ; and on the perfect and holiness is so strong and so righteousness or obedience and tooted in their hearts, ihat they sufferings of Christ as our atone. will never renounce sin and receive ment for sin, and the only effece the salvation of Christ, without tual ground of our acceptance the powerful influences of the '

with God. I am, Sir, under frespirit of God, even that same quent returning weaknesses, renspirit which can cure those who dered unable to write much, and are naturally blind, or can raise therefore subscribe myself the dead. Now that this weakness. Your friend & humble servant of man to do that wbicb is good

unknown, is a moral impotence, and not pro

1. WATTS. perly natural, appears by the moral P.S. If you would apply the remedies that are applied to cure general doctrine I have proposed, it; viz. commands, promises, of natural and moral impotency, threatenings, &c. which sorts of to the particular question in your methods would be useless and tj. letter about praying for the Spirit diculous to apply to natural im. of God, it may be done thus:potence, that is, to make the blind every man has such natural powers See, or the dead arise. It must be of understanding and will, that if concluded, therefore, that man he will exert them so far as the has a natural ability, i. e: natu- powers of nature go in seeking the

480 Letter from a Tutor to a Candidate for the Ministry: assistance of the spirit, he has the labour and difficulties attend. " abundant reason to expect that ing exercises preparatory to the promise which is made to them ministry more easy ; and recon. that ask, shall be fulfilled, without cile you (should that be your lot, any consideration whether this which has been the lot of some of man be elected or no, for this is the most upright and best of men,) the usual way of grace, in work. to the suspicions of those preju. ing upon the elect, to set them diced against you, and shield you upon exerting their natural powers from the tongue of slander. to seek salvation, under a rational A bint of this sort cannot be sense and conviction of their own amiss, when it is considered tha: guilt and misery, by reason of Jesus himself met with such treatsin; and there is so much encou- ment, and has suggested to his ragement given to the diligence of followers, that the disciple is not man, in this case, that I am well above his master, nor the servant satisfied, there shall no soul ever above his lord. arise at the day of judgment and You are convinced with me, plead that he has sought salvation my dear friend, I doubt not, that as far as the powers of nature all error has a pernicious tendency, would go, and yet God refused and your concern is to preach the to bestow it upon him. The great truth as it is in Jesus. But where condemnation is, that men love do you expect to find it? Where darkness rather than light, and —but in those very writings which they will not come unto Christ he has given to all his followers. I that they may have life.

cannot but think, that many misI. W. take on this head ; that while they

join to cry out—" The Bible, the Letter from a Tutor in a Dissent. Bible is the religion of Protes

ing Academy, to a Candidate tants,''—they do not, in fact, pay for the Ministry.

that deference to the sacred scripMY DEAR FRIEND, tures which they deserve. Our I cannot but feel myself pecu. grand concern ought to be, that liarly interested in your welfare, we may know and preach just and heartily wish that the plan what they contain, not substitut. you are now pursuing may pro- ing any human interpretation of mote it, in connection with your scripture in the place of scripture being an instrument of advancing itself. This, I fear, is often done: the best interests of others. and phrases, entirely human and

You are, I conceive, strongly arbitrary, become very important; impressed with a sense of the worth ill.will is generated among child. of souls, having been divinely ren of the same family, or sere taught, I sincerely hope, the va. vants of the same master, whose lue of your own. Endeavour, great concern is, mutually to know my friend, always to maintain a and do his will :-hence parties lively sense of this: it will give of Christians, supposing each other vigour to your studies, and con. mistaken, look as shy on each tribute abundantly to your use other, as they would on those who fulness. An habitual conviction reject the common salvation, or that your object is the salvation did not call Christ Lord, or labour of the souls of men, will make to understand and obey his will.,

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