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lon attempted to comfort him, and embourg; he was then in his 8Och by giving him money to buy ano. year. When this became public, ther, alleviated his sorrow; still all the little Savoyard boys assem. he had lost his own cow, and the bled, and went in a body to the tear continued to fall. Pursuing National Assembly: they loudly his journey, Fenelon found the peti'ioned the Assembly for bis very cow which was the object of liberty; and offered that any num. so much afHiction; and like the ber of chem should be constituted good shepherd, he himself drove it prisoners in his stead, as hosiages back before him in a dark night for his good conduct. This, lor to the young man's cottage. i time delayed his faie : but a day “ This,” says the Cardinal de was at logila tixed for his taccu. Maury, “ is, perhaps the finest vion. One of !he poor Savoyards, trait in Fenelon's lite. Woe to whom the ablé hal instrucie land those who read it without being assisted, was at that time, lurn. affected !” “ The virtues of Fene. key of the prison of the Luxemlon," continues the cardinal, “ give buurg. Perceiving his benefactor his history something of the air oi among the victims led out to exeromance: but his name will never cution, he sprang forward, and in die. To this moment, the Flem. a state of distraction, strained him uninders bless his memory, and in his embrace and cried aloud, call him the Good Archbishop.“My father: my father! are you

Then going to die! You, whose life has been an uniform act of goodness!”

6 Be comforted,” Many of Fenelon's relations were ihe abbé said to him, “ death is happy imitators of his virtues, not an evil to him, who can no The ABBE DE FENELON may be longer do good. My dear child, particularly mentioned. After a your sensibility at this moment length of years, uniformly devoted comforts my heart. Farewell, my to religion and virtue, be retired friend ! farewell, Joseph ! Think to Paris, and spent the remainder sometimes upon me.”-“ Alas !" of his life in endeavouring to pro. answered the poor Savoyard, “I cure a religious and moral educa. shall never forget you.” The tion, fo: the poor Savoyard boys, abbé ascended the fatal cart, with with whom, under the ancient sixty-eight other victims. Jie government, Paris abounded. Als exhorted them, during the whole lowing himseli no more than was way, 10 sorrow for their sins, to necessary for bis mere subsistence, confide in God, and to offer up to he contrived, with the remaining him, with resignation, the sacii. part of his income, and with the fice of their lives. Having arcontributions which he raised upon rived at the guillotine, he once his friends, to accomplish this edi- more addressed them; he exhorici fying work. The horrors of the them to form, 'ith all their hearts, Revolution forced him from it, and in an act of repentance for their he retired to the delightful solitude sins! all of them humbly inclined of the Mont St. Valerian. He their beads; he pronounced over was pursued to his retreat, and them the words of absolution ; conveyed to the prison of the Lux- and continued to suggest io :norm

VOL, VII,

CHAP. III.

542 Penal Laws which aggrieve the Catholics of Ireland. sentiments of religion, vill it was offices to each of these 115 other his turn to submit to the instru. corporations gives the number of meal of death.

3,300; and, added to the number Penal Laws which aggrieve the amount to a total of 3,548 corpo

of 248 appearing in Dublin, will Catholics of Ireland. rate offices in Ireland, comprised [From A Statement, &c. Continued within this positive proscription. from the last No. p. 488.)

Thus far do the words and let.

ter of the law extend; but its spiof the Lau's which exclude the rit and necessary operation reach Catholics from municipal Offices farther. They render inaccessible in Cities and Towns Corporate; to Catholics the numerous lucraa and herein of the corporate Frun. tive situations dependant upou, and chise, as enjoyed by Catholics. connected with, those corporate

The exclusion of Catholics offices; the patronage, power, from all corporate offices was ef. preference and profits at their disa fected during the reign of Charles posal. In the city of Dublin II. and in the year 1667. It is alone, the number of these dedifficult to enumerate all the mu- pendant situations exceeds 200, nicipal situations in the various including the entire police estabcities and towns of Ireland, clos. lishment and its officers, paving ed against Catholic industry and and lighting and pipe-water boards, merit. In the city of Dublin commissioners of wide streets, alone we find the offices follow. Court of conscience, grand jury, ing, viz.

city surveyors, craners, collectors, Lord Mayor and Aldermen 24 clerks, secretaries, solicitors, as Sheriffs 2, Sheriff's Peers 38 40 gents, and the various petty offi. Recorder and Treasurer 2 ces of more or less emolumeut Common Council.men 96 derived from those boards. Masters and wardens of Guilds, We may fairly estimate the about

84 number of 1,000, as not exceed: Town Clerks

2 ing the amount of similar minor

offices in the gift or at the dispoOffices 248 sal of the several corporate offi. Passing thence to the other ci. cers in the remaining cities and ties and corporate towns of Ire. towns of Ireland. This number, land, which may be reckoned at added to the number of 200 to 115 in number, (as Cork, Limc. be found in the city of Dublin, rick, Waterford, Belfast, Kilken. will form a total of 1,200 offices ny, Drogheda, Galway, Sligo, in Ireland, from which the Ca. Derry, Cashell, Clonmell, Trim, tholics are excluded by the spirit Enniskillen, Wexford, &c. &c.) and consequential hostility of those we may reasonably take the ave. laws which exclude them from rage number of corporate oftices corporate offices. in each at about 20; wbich pio. Hence it will appear, that the bably falls far short of the real gross number of offices and situa. number, since the city of Dublin tions, from which this class of pe. alone appears to produce nearly nal laws excludes the Catholics 250. 'This average number of 20 may be considered as amounting

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directly and by express enactment, partial imposts; by undue prefer. to about

3548 ences, and accommodation béConsequentially, to about 1200 stowed upon their competitors;

by a local inquisition ; by an un.

Total 4748 certain and unequal measure of Here, then, is an immense num. justice ; by fraud and favourivism ber of officers, diffused through. daily and openly practised to out the different districts of their prejudice. The Catholic Ireland, invested with powers of gentleman, whose misfortune it annoying others, and of protecting may be to reside in or near to and enriching themselves, which any of these cities or towns in Ireare refused to their Catholic fel. land, is hourly exposed to all the low-citizens.

slights and annoyances that a petThe great and general dominion ly sectarian oligarchy may ibink attached to these situations in pub. proper to inflict. The profes. lic and in private life, naturally sional man risks continual inflic. divides the inhabitants of

every
tions

of personal humiliation. city and town in Ireland into two The farmer brings the produce of very distinguishable casts, the his lands to market under beavier masters and the vassals. The vex. tolls. Every species of catholic ations, insults, and other mischiefs industry and mechanical skill is Howing from ibis municipal sys- checked, tased, and rendered pre. tem, almost bafile calculation, carious. and can scarcely be even imagin. In fine, it may be truly affirm. ed, save by the actual sufferers. ed (as was complained in the first Let us, however, attempt a cur. Catholic, pelition, presented to sury outline of them.

Parliament in 1805 by Mr. Fox) All Catholic merchants, trades. " That this interuiction of the men, and artizans ;, all the im. Catholics from all corporate offimense, variety of petty dealers ces is severely felt by them as an and handicraftsmen, shopkeepers ovil, not terminating in itself; for of every kind, smiths, carpenters, by giving advantage over the Ca. masons, shoemakers, , weavers,' tholics to the exclusive possessors &c. &c. are under a necessity of those situations, it establishes (for subsistence sake) of residing a species of qualified monopoly, in these cities and towns, and operating universally in their disunder the yoke of corporate favour ; contrary to the spirit, power. Perhaps these men and and highly , detrimental to the their families amount in number freedom, of trade. to some hundred thousands of the

With respect to the corporate most useful, laborious and valua- franchise, or freedom of cities and ble citizens of Ireland. Such towns :- this freedom is of cunsi. persons, in any well regulated derable value to a citizen, 1. in state, would be deemed fit objects qualifying him to vote at elec. of favour and encouragement, tions of members to represent the at least of protection. But, in corporation in Parliamenti 2, in Ireland, their lor is a grievous one. exonerating the freeman and his They are debased by the galling family from the payment of va. ascendancy of privileged neigh- rious market tolls and local du. bours. They are depressed by ties; and 3. by securing to him

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544 Penal Laws which aggrieve the Catholics of Ireland, an indirect monopoly of the eser. granting freedom by “grace es. cise of various trades and arts, by pecial' being, however, vested in the exclusion of such persons as the existing members of the corhave not scrved legal apprentice. porations, the exercise of it in faships.

vour of Catholics remains suspend. Now the number of catholic free. ed by the hostile spirit of the men in Ireland is very inconside- penal laws; except, perhaps in rable, and, for various reasons, rare and occasional instances, 'must continue so.

where a Catholic, by the influWhen the Catholics, in 1727, ence of private friendship or of were deprived of their right of vol. money, contrives to be a favourite ing at elections of members of with the proprietor of the corporaparliament for cities and towns tion, or with its leading interests. Corporate, and also at the elections

Nay, even where a Catholic of the civic magistrates, they were happens to be legally entitled to stripped of one great inducement bis freedom, cither by birth or to seek the freedom of corpora- service, his admission is generally tions, as well as of the chief re- obstructed. His petition is not, commendation for obtaining it. indeed, directly refused; for, in This disability, co-operating with that case, a mandamus might lie the persecuting spirit of the times, to compel a compliance with it, gradually deterred them from so. but no answer is returned ; and liciting even the imperfect fran. the consideration of the subject is chise that remained. It also be. adjourned “ sine die.This is came more difficult to obtain it. termed, “ cushioning a petition.” Partial prohibitions were enacted, In the city of Dublin, for inby express statutes, against taking stance, the 24 Guilds or Fraterni. Catholic apprentices. Consequent. ties, comprize, as is supposed, ly, freedom by serrice was ren. about 2,400 freemen. Probably dered less attainable : and, the not 100 of this number are Catho. number of Catholic freemen by lics; and these, though free of service being thus circumscribed, their respective Guilds, and capa. those entitled by birth decreascd ble of voting at elections of offi. in proportion. And, although cers within those Guilds, are the rights of voting, which they yet incapable of voting at elections lost by the statute of 1727, were of Members to serve in Parliament nominally restored by the statute for the city ; for they are uniformof 1793, yet the Catholics have ly" cushioned” when petitioning not, in reality, derived any benefit to be made free of the city at from this restoration. For, the large, The like practice prevails long lapse of sixty-six years of in. throughout the other corporations capacity having effected a com. of Ireland. plete exclusion of the Catholics Hence, although no express from Corporations, they were oblig. law prohibits Catholics from beed to resort to the third mode of coming freemen of cities and acquiring their freedom, namely, towns corporate, yet so many are hy grant, or “grace especial," the obstacles and discouragements as it is termed. This power of in their way, that, in fact and

CHAP. IV.

practice, they are almost wholly To this number may be added excluded from this franchise. 25 Commissioners of Bankruptcy,

That this system is just or hon. and 31 assistant barristers, or ourable, or creditable to the Pro. chairman of County Sessions : testant religion, or consistent with for although the Catholics are not, the spirit of any good religion, it by the express letter of the law, would be difficult to demonstrate, disabled from holding these offi

I cannot conceive,” said Ed. ces, yet in practice they are ex. mund Burke, “how any thing worse cluded with scarcely a single ex. can be said of the Protestant re. ceprion. ligion of the Church of England There are, moreover, several than this—that wherever it is judg. other offices of great power and ed proper to give it a legal estab. effect in the administration of the lishment, it becomes necessary to laws, which, though commonly deprive the boily of the people (if termed ecclesiastical offices, yet they adhere to iheir old opinions) are vested with extensive jurisdic. of their liberties, and of all their tion, in temporal matters, over free customs; and reduce them to a the persons and properties of the state of civil servitude..

Catholics. Of this nature are

those which decide upon questions Of the Laws which deny to the of wills of personal property; Catholics the Right of being eli. marriage, tythes, and other inci. gible to various Offices connected dental subjects of moment. Such with the Profession and Adminis- are the offices of Vicars General of tration of the Laws.

the 26 dioceses of Ireland, the The offices of this description, Court of Delegates, Prerogative which the Catholics are forbidden Court, Metropolitan Court, Conto aspire to, by the express letter sistorial Court, &c. of the Statutes are the following,

From all offices in these courts, viz.

probably 50 in number, the Cath Lord High Chancellor, or Keeper olics are excluded, nay, they are or Commissioner of the Great Seal

1 prohibited from practising in them, Master or Keeper of the Rolls

as advocates. Justices of the King's Bench Justices of the Cornmon Pleas

The Proctors in these courts Barons of the Exchequer

4 are, apparently, subject to the Attorney and Solicitor General

2 same regulation. Their number King's Serjeants at Law

in Dublin amounts to nine, and, King's Council (present number) Masters in Chancery

in the country, they may be esti. Chairman of Sessions for the County

mated at forty. of Dublin

Public notaries are marked by
Counsel to the Commissioners of
Revenue

the like proscription; they amount
Recorders of cities and towns, about 60 to about 56 in number.
Advocates in Spiritual Courts, about The consequential operation of

the exclusion of the Catholics from

132 all these offices reaches naturally Sheriffs of Counties of Cities and Towns, about

and necessarily, to all the benefiSub-Sheriffs

cial subordinate situations. Such

are those of Registers to Judges, and Total 224 to Vicars General; Secretaries,

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