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When Lord Sidmouth's Bill French naval oficer, who was op was pending in the House of parole at that place. About ten Lords, Mr. D. was chosen to be days previous to his decease, he chairman of the Committee at was out beyond the hour when Swansca, whose province it was prisoners ought to return to their to watch its progress and termina. lodgings, and on this account the tion. In this official situation he boys collected about, and pelted gave universal satisfaction. Nor bim with stones. His behaviour was there any individual of any on this occasion made one of his religious persuasion that partook brother officers observe, “ tbat he more sincerely of the joy which was soft-that he would faint at the rejection of the Bill occasion. the sight of his own blood.” Le ed throughout the whole kingdom. Courbe gave him the lie; the Indeed he was at all times the en• other struck bim, and the conse. lightened and ardent friend of quence was a challenge. Each civil and religious liberty. He party had his second; but as they was apprized that the sacred cause could only procure one pistol, of freedom is interwoven with the they cast lots who should have the diffusion, and involves the ulti. first fire! It fell on Le Courbe. mate triumphs, of primitive Cbris. Ten yards was the distance ineatianity.

sured out by the seconds. Le To sum up the private charac- Courbe fired, and his ball went ter of the deceased in a few words; through both the thighs of his anof him may be said what was tagonist, who fell on the ground, applied to a plain and honest di- declaring that as Le Courbe had vine of the last century: “The now got satisfaction, he should benefactor, the master, the friend, not take his chance. The seconds the husband, and above all the however, insisted on his firing, Christian, was displayed in the and, helping him up, and support. discharge of those social duties ing him, he, in this shocking siwhich, with the mixture of human tuation (the blood streaming from frailty, adorn and endear our na- bis wounds) took his fire, and ture. His piety was always cheer. his ball went through Le Courbe's ful, nor was his temper discom, neck. Le Courbe died on the posed by those common infirmities 17th of October, and on the 20th which are often attendant on old a Coroner's inquest was held on lbe age and a state of retirement." body, and, strange as it may ap

E. pear, the jury brought in their Islington, Nuo. 91, 1812. verdict-“ Died by the visitation

of God!”—The officer who was

wounded in the thighs is recover. M. Le Courbe.

ing. On the 20th October, was bu. ried at Leek, M. LE COORBE, &

The Examiner, Nov. 8, 1812.

MONTHLY RETROSPECT OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS;

OR,

The Christian's Survey of the Political World.

As the time approaches for the dis- There is a material difference becassion of the Catholic question, the tween the two miversities. At Oxford efforts of the contending parties in- prevails an absurdity, if we ought not crease; and as it is evident that the to stigmatize it with the term of abo. cause of liberality has gained ground minable wickedness, that of insisting by the last vote of the House of Com. apon every young man's subscribing, mons, it becomes necessary for the previous to his admission, to that farfriends of religious intolerance to ex- rago of nonsense, called the thirty-nine ert themselves. The two places in articles. Thus, before he is capable England on which they mostly depend of forming a judgment on points for support, are the universities ; aud wlich have exercised the talents of of them, Oxford is that on which the the profoundest thinkers, he is obliged greatest reliance can be placed. The to declare his belief of them. At real weight that belongs to these two Cambridge such a subscription is not places is not generally known; but it required, nor is any religious test laid is far more considerable than several down, unless the student takes a deof the public papers allow it to be, gree, when he is obliged to subscribe though they have lost much of their previously to the taking of his first deaatient iufluence, and are far from gree, that he is, bona fide, a member being guides of public opinion, of the church of England; and if he

The grounds of their influence are proceeds to the higher degrees, his ac. to be sought for in the connection cess to them is through a subscription that subsists between the members of to the thirty-nine articles. At Oxford, the two houses of the legislatare, and therefore, none but members of the those of the senates of the two univer- established sect can be members of sities. Of the House of Commons se. any college. Cambridge is open verał are fellows of colleges, many to all sects; and the sons of disbave their names on the college senters of wealth frequently go thither, boards and continue medibers of the to the no small advantage of the essenate, thus keeping up a constant tablished sect; as very few frequent connection with the university; and the meeting-house, after they have gone of the remainder a great majority pro- through the discipline of the univerbably have been educated at the uni- sity, versities. Hence, in any question in From this view of the subject, it which the universities are concerned, will be seen that the catholic question or think themselves concerned, they comes before judges, on the minds of can make greater and stronger appli- the majority of whom very strong im. cations to the members of each house pressions have been made in favour of than any other body of men in the the established sect; for if the ques. kingdom; and if they have public tion of intolerance is carried in the opinion on their side, their influence two universities, we may be sure that would be such, that, connected with their decisions, united with the iuftuthe episcopal bench, as most assuredly ence of early habits and associations, it would be, a minister, however pow. will make a deep impression on those wful, would not willingly encounter it. who have been educated in these se. On this account their proceedings as- minaries. It is of importance, howsume a higher degree of importance : ever, to a cause, that the opinion of and indeed from them may be formed the universities should be so decisive, a better opinion of the progress of reli- that full weight may be given to their gious freedom or intoleraace, than influence; otherwise a discussion may from the resolutions of any county, arise which will be unfavourable to city, or borougla.

their wishes. This, we are happy to VOL, VH.

4 x

say, has been the case in the present sities will become, in no long time, instance, and is a presage of a better what they ought to be, universities of mode of thinking in the bigher classes the kingdom, not seminaries of a sect, of the sectariaos etsablished by law. and that of a sect which bears so small

A petition against the Catholics was a proportion to the other sects. It brought forward first in the university may boast of its weight and influence of Oxford, and it was carried by a very with the rich, the noble, and the pow. considerable majority. Eighty votes erful; yet its influence in the commsagainst, and one hundred and seventy nity a large is daily eiminishing, and for it. Great as the majority is against will, ere loug, be annihilated. The the Catholics, there is room for con- universities may feel, and properly solation; for it is a great thing that feel, the necessity of the interference there should be found in Oxford eighty of the legislature i and the great point members of convocation to advocate will be to leave its fellowships open to the cause of religious freedom. This all sects, not confining them, as a Dumber, in every succeeding trial, is present too many are, to the establishlikely to increase At Cambridge, the ed clergy, who are far from being the opponents of the Catholies were not proper persons for the education of so successful, though they carried youth: but whilst they retain tbe ad. their point with a considerable major- vantage of succession to livings, it ity. On taking the votes in the se- shonld not be compulsory on any to pate-house, there were, for the peti profess particular tenets, to become tion, one hundred and four ; against men,bers of the convocation or sevate, it, seventy-eight. If, therefore, we much less to enter into what is called take this' vote as a tolerable test of holy orders, to obtain any dignity or the opinion of the whole budy, three. emolun e tin the nniversities. seventbs of the university of Cam- The Catholic question engages more bridge are for, and four-seventbs a. attention, than that on the reform of gainst the extension of religious liberty, parliament; which, however, has been but we are inclined to believe that if the forced upon the public by che opinions whole body were polled, the proportion advanced by candidates for seats in would be more in favour of religious parliament. It is singular that repreliberty, and that the balance would at sentatives of large cities and countics least incline in its favour. lu Oxford have distinguished themselves as hosonly twenty-tour seventy-fifths of the tile to the measure: and if any have body, are in this manner to be esti- agreed that some reform is necessary, mated friendly to religious freedom; they are particularly, wary against any and if the whole body were polled, species of reform that ever has been one third ou ly of it would at the ut. or can be proposed. Mr. Thornton, most be in its favour. So great is the the member for Southwark, has met difference between the two universi. just and deserved chastisement from ties.

Sir F. Burdett, for the flippancy with But though the question has been which he treated the question at ab thus carried in favour of the establish- election dinner: and Mr. Fawkes, i ed sect, it does by no means feel satis. county gentleman of Yorkshire, who fied in the decision. It is an alarmn- was once member for the county, in ing prospect, that so many should a more elaborate letter, confuted the stand forward as advocates for religi- notions advanced on this subject by ous freedom ; and though the point Lord Milton Jt is not likely to be will not be carried in the presedi ses. well entertained in the present House sions, yet, as iu the discussion on the of Commons; and the advocates for slave trade, it is gaining ground, and the measure, as well as its opponents, we should not be surprised if, before are apt in arguing the point to state the dissolution of the present parlia- as facts what may well be doubted. ment, the question should be carried The question indeed lies in a narrow iu its favour. The friends of religious compass : for though there was a time, liberty must not be discouraged, and that a considerable period from Every discussion adds to its numbers, the Conquest, when no such body as the and as the established sect is dimin. House of Commons existed, yet it canishing every day in its influence, we not be doubled that in the formation entertain hopes that the two "niyer., of such a body, it was never intended

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that representatives should belong to streets in London ; for the streets
places without an inhabitant ; or that have been itfested by such gangs as
a few private persons should find a be- make it doubtful whether we have a
nefit in depopulating a borough. The police, and are to be esteemed a ci-
present state of the House of Commons vilized nation. The old law of Alfred
is at war with its name. At no time would soon put a stop to such prac.
has there been a complete representa- tices, if we may believe the reformation
tion of the people; but in former times he made in a very short time in the
there was a spirit in the lower boronghs state of the country. If the members
which is now extinguished ; and none of the lords and coinmons houses went
were reduced to such an abject state more on foot in the metropolis, and
of dependence or paucity of numbers, a few of them experienced the hust-
as is the case with too many of the lings to which others have been sub-
present boroughs. 'The evil is now jected, the disorders would be reme:
glaring as the sun at noon-day, and died.
being acknowledged, if it is not re- Before this reaches our readers, the
medied, the greatest injury nay be parliament will have been opened by a
expected to the state. It is not pos. speech, it is said, to be delivered by the
sible, in the nature of things, that Priuce Regent himself; but the auspices
such a state can exist, without defeat- of its opening are doubtful One of the
ing the very end for which a House of first things brought before the houses
Communs was formed. The innova. would naturally be their thanks to the
tions of tinie, when not stopped by victorious army at Salamanca , but
the band of reason, lead to destruc subsequent events have very much de-
tion: and when it is the interest of pressed the expectations which it was
the greater part of the peerage and the calculated to excite. Spain was roused
people at large, that a reform should by that battle, and the French were
take place, it may excite wonder that every where in confusion. Madrid fell
it can be prevented. But surprise is into the power of the Cortez, and its
abated, when we consider how much authority was exercised in a manner,
may be done by a few powerful per. which, from want of sufficiently au-
sons leagued together in one enter. thorised details, we are not able to de-
prise; and that the apparent conten- scribe. The defeated army of Mar-
tions in tbe House of Commons do not mont had fled with great precipitation
lead to any change in the present sys. into the north. The guerillas were
tem; since the conteuding parties are every where in action, and the papers
equally desirous, whether ia place or

were filled with their triumphant ex-
not, to obtain as much power as they ploits. But the triumph did not last
can get by the system of a borough- loug; the jests made on the intrusive
mongering oligarchy. Sir Francis king, as he was called by the autho-
Burdett looks the evil full in the face; rities at Madrid, were to be soon re-
and having none of the ends in view torted on those wbo indulged in them,
of the other parties, cannot expect and a new scene was displayed wbich
many to co-operate with him in a de- threatens a long continuance of the
sign which is exclusively for the pub- war in the peninsula.
Jic good, and without the prospect of

In pursuing the remains of Mara job to any individual.

mont's army, Lord Wellington, who The elections in Ireland have been bad already lost some time by his much contested, and with less bitter. mareh to Madrid, was stopped at Bar ness between Papists and Protestants gos. The city he took with great than has ever been known. Upon the ease; but the castle disdained to surwhole, the ministry have been gainers, render, and a siege took place in wbich though it is expected not to a consi- great skill and bravery were displayed derable degree, and there is sufficient on both sides. Dreadful explosivos to make a respectable opposition, in from mines made wide breaches in the . which Mr. Canning may probably be works of the castle ; but the troops reckoned for a little time, that is, till of the allied armies were constantly rehe becomes the minister. Amidst their pulsed from the walls, and the besiegcontests we could wish one subject to ed even made some successful sahies. engage their attention, that is, the This delay was very favourable to the security of the people walking the French, who recovered from their pa

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nic,collected all their troops together in this daring must not be told vitkost the north, and were strengthened by re- the terrible catastrophe by which is inforcements from France. Just at the was attended." The subject is thes time when the allied army had reason exhorted to use every possible means to expect the fall of the castle at Bur- for the destruction of the enemy, and gos, the beateu army advanced towards assured that if with the shattered rethe place, and the English general mains of an army, he should regain was compelled to give orders for his the frontiers of Poland, “ barrassed, forces to retreat. The French com- exhausted, and defeated, he will be mander of the castle was hailed by his for ever rendered incapable of rener countrymen in the most Batteriag ing his presumptuous attempt." terms, and carried in triumph at the A short time will acquaint us with head of the returned army through the the real state of the great conquerer, streets of Burgos. The allies slowly whose situation appears to be critical retraced their steps, falling back up in the extreme. The king of Naples on their depots, and expecting to be has been defeated in a pitched battle, joined by a great body of men, which in which he lost thirty-eight pieces of might enable them in their turn to face cannon and all his baggage; but his the enemy again, and to drive him in- loss in meu did not amount, accordto his former retreat.

ing to the Russian account, to a ninth But difficulties present themselves part of his army. Where Buona parte from another quarter. In consequence is does not appear from any account, of the march of the northern army, and various rumours are "spreadrelai be allies found it necessary to evacu- tive to him. His energies will now be ate Madrid, and the Frepch armies of tried to the utmost; and should be the south and east shewed a disposi- make hiş retreat into Poland, it will tion to advance. They took posses- be an exploit that will distinguish rion again of Madrid and of the ruins him as a general as much as his greatof the Buen Retiro, which had been est victories. We must wait bowever destroyed by the last possessor; and for the French account before we We may easily imagine in what state speak too decisively on this subject. the city must now be, after the short li is certajo that he has been befiled lived government of those, vbo might in his scheme to march a portion of

his term two-thirds of the inhabitants re- troops by the shores of the Baltic to bels. Lord Wellingtou's situation is Petersburgh. They are compelled to thus rendered extremely critical; as retire into Lithuania, and this murder. the hazarding of a battle with the wur- ous campaigu may be completed with thern army might incapacitate him more of death and horrors than has been for meeting those who will now press kuown in the same short period of time upon him from the east. His way is in the history of mankind. open to Portugal, and there in bis A conspiracy at Paris might have strong posts around Lisbun, he may added to the difficulties of Buonaparte, may again deride all the attempts of but the actors in it were seized on the the French, but Spain must be left at instant of its breaking out, and suffered

the usual penalties for such an attempt. Gloomy as is the state of affairs in He is likely, if he succeeds, io mainSpain, the French have great draw- taining his ground in Poland, to have backs on their exultatiou; for their the support of one king, from rea! emperor has evacuated Moscow, and policy, for Denmark is fearful that the is on his retreat from the numerous new alliance between England, Russia hordes of Russians and Cossacks, and Sweden may be fatal to its interests. which are attacking him in every di- Indeed, if it succeeds, he may dread rection. The autocrat is in the high- another attack upon his capital! but est spirit; he has issued 4 proclama- then it will be burned by enemies, bet tion, in which he states in decisive by friends. These strange confederacies terms the late advantages over the formed and broken by miserable expe. French, and trcats with supremne cor dients, do not argue much good to any tempt the attack upon bis dominions party; and depressed as are the affairs For the insult offered to him, he says, of France in the north, the triumple of “policy and justice alike demand á her enemies is not yet complete. serrible punishment. The history of America docs, nos add much to the

their mercy.

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