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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA

А

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

BIOGRAPHY,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.

VOL. I.

NEW EDITION.

Philadelphia:
DESILVER, THOMAS, & CO.

No. 247, MARKET STREET.

................

1836.

LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNI,

DAVIS

EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit Be IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Indopondence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

.“ Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography ; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copios of inaps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, “An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, • An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arls of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

D. CALDWELL,
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

1. Ashmead & Co. Printers.

PREFACE.

It is customary, and very properly so, to reserve the preface of an encyclopedia till the publication of the concluding volume ; but the character of the present work renders it proper to state, briefly, at this time, the particulars in which it differs from the numerous works of that description, with which the public are already acquainted, and to explain the plan which has been pursued by the editors in performing their task.

The German work, which has been adopted as the basis of the ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA, grew out of the wants of the age. The last half century, particularly the latter part of it, has probably been more fertile in memorable events, and important discoveries and inventions, than any equal period in history. How many extraordinary changes have we witnessed in both hemispheres, as well in politics, in the sciences and in opinions, as in the individuals who have borne a conspicuous part in the affairs of the civilized world during that time! How important have been the results of the numberless voyages of discovery, the revolutions of states, and the wars, which have excited so intense an interest during that period an interest which has been the more constantly kept up, as the facility of communication between all the branches of the great human family seems, at the same time, to have gone on increasing in proportion to the multitude of events and circumstances which have thus influenced their destiny. Formerly, years would elapse before

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