Imatges de pÓgina
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It is true that among the Jews, Jeptha į live." All the ideas of Epictetus turn on sacrificed his daughter, and Saul was { this principle. Is this an idolater ? ready to immolate his son; it is also true Marcus Aurelius, perhaps as great on that those who were devoted to the Lord { the throne of the Roman empire as Epicby anathema could not be redeemed, as tetus was in slavery, often speaks, indeed, other beasts were, but 'were doomed to of the gods, either to conform himself to perish.

the received language, or to express

inWe will now speak of the human vic-termediate beings between the Supreme tims sacrificed in all religions.

Being and men ; but in how many places To console mankind for the horrible does he show that he recognises one eterpicture of these pious sacrifices, it is im- nal, infinite God alone ? “Our soul,” portant to know, that amongst almost all says he, “is an emanation from the divinations called idolatrous, there have been {nity. My children, my body, my mind, holy theologies and popular error, secret are derived from God.” worship and public ceremonies ; the reli The Stoics and Platonics admitted a gion of sages, and that of the vulgar. To divine and universal nature ; the Epicuknow that one God alone was taught to reans denied it. The pontiffs spoke only those initiated into the mysteries, it is of a single God in their mysteries. Where only necessary to look at the hymn attri- { then were the idolaters? All our debuted to the ancient Orpheus, which was claimers exclaim against idolatry like little sung in the mysteries of the Eleusinian dogs, who yelp when they hear a great Ceres, so celebrated in Europe and Asia: one bark. “ Contemplate divine nature; illuminate As to the rest, it is one of the greatest thy mind; govern thy heart ; walk in the errors of the Dictionary of Moreri to say, path of justice, that the God of heaven that in the time of Theodosius the younger and earth may be always present to thy } there remained no idolaters except in the eyes : he only self-exists, all beings derive retired countries of Asia and Africa. their existence from him ; he sustains Even in the seventh century there were them all; he has never been seen by many people still heathen in Italy. The mortals, and he sees all things." north of Germany, from the Weser, was

We may also read the passage of the not Christian in the time of Charlemagne. philosopher Maximus, whom we have Poland and all the south remained a long already quoted :-“What man is so gross time after him in what was called idoland stupid as to doubt that there is a atry; the half of Africa, all the kingdoms supreme, eternal, and infinite God, who } beyond the Ganges, Japan, the populace has engendered nothing like himself, { of China, and a hundred hordes of Tarand who is the common father of all į tars, have preserved their ancient religion. things ?"

In Europe there are only a few LaplandThere are a thousand proofs that the {ers, Samoyedes, and Tartars, who bave ancient sages not only abhorred idolatry { persevered in the religion of their anbut polytheism.

Epictetus, that model of resignation Let us conclude with remarking, that and patience, that man so great in a hum- in the time which we call the middle ble condition, never speaks but of one ages, we denominated the country of the God. Read over these maxims :-"God { Mahometans Pagan ; we treated as idolhas created me, God is within me; I aters and adorers of images, a people who carry him everywhere. Can I defile him hold all images in abhorrence. Let us by obscene thoughts, unjust actions, or once more avow, that the Turks are more infamous desires ? My duty is to thank excusable in believing us idolaters, wher. God for all, to praise him for all; and they see our altais loaded with images only to cease blessing him in eeasing to and statues.

cestors.

man,

A gentleman belonging to Prince Ra- { men and medicine. He extricates himgotski, assured me upon his honour, that self from his family as easily as he did being in a coffee-house at Constantinople, from the devil, and escapes without knowthe mistress ordered that he should not ing where to go. He meets with a Moor, be served because he was an idolater. { and disputes with him about the immaHe was a Protestant, and swore to her culate conception. The Moor, who takes that he adored neither host nor images. him exactly for what he is, quits him as "Ah! if that is the case,” said the wo- , speedily as possible. The Biscayan hesi

come to me every day, and you tates whether he shall kill the Moor or shall be served for nothing."

pray to God for his conversion ; he leaves

the decision to his horse ; and the aniIGNATIUS LOYOLA.

mal, rather wiser than its master, took the If you are desirous of obtaining a great road leading to the stable. name, of becoming the founder of a sect Our hero, after this adventure, underor establishment, be completely mad; } takes a pilgrimage to Bethlehem, begging but, be sure that your madness corres- his bread on the way: his madness inponds with the turn and temper of your creases as he proceeds; the Dominicans age. Have in your madness reason take pity on him at Manrosa, and keep enough to guide your extravagancies ; } him in their establishment for some days, and, forget not to be excessively opinion- and then dismiss him uncured. ated and obstinate. It is certainly pos He embarks at Barcelona, and goes to sible that you may get hanged; but if you | Venice; he returns to Barcelona, still escape hanging, you will have altars travelling as a mendicant, always experierected to you.

encing trances and extacies, and frequently In real truth, was there ever a fitter visited by the Holy Virgin and Jesus subject for the Petites-Maisons, or Bed- Christ. lam, than Ignatius, or St. Inigo the Bis At length, he was given to understand cayan, for that was his true name? His that, in order to go to the holy land with head became deranged in consequence of any fair view of converting the Turks, the his reading the “Golden Legend ;” as Christians of the Greek church, the ArDon Quixoie's was, afterwards, by read- menians, and the Jews, it was necessary ing the romances of chivalry, Our Bis- to begin with a little study of theology. cavan hero, in the first place, dubs him- Our hero desires nothing better ; but, to self a knight of the Holy Virgin, and per- become a theologian, it was requisite to forms the Watch of Arms in honour of know something of grammar and a little his lady. The virgin appears to him and Latin ; this gives him no embarrassment accepts his services; she often repeats her whatever : he goes to college at the age visit, and introduces to him her son. The of thirty-three ; he is there laughed at, devil, who watches his opportunity, and and learns nothing. clearly foresees the injury he must in the He was almost broken-hearted at the course of time suffer from the Jesuits, { idea of not being able to go and convert comes and makes a tremendous noise in the infidels. The devil, for this once, the house, and breaks all the windows; took pity on him. He appeared to him, the Biscayan drives him away with the and swore to him, on the faith of a Chrissign of the cross; and the devil flies tian, that, if he would deliver himself over through the wall, leaving in it a large } to him, he would make him the most opening, which was shown to the curious learned and able man in the church of fifty years after the happy event. God. Ignatius, however, was not to be

His family, seeing the very disordered cajoled to place himself under the disstate of his mind, is desirous of his being cipline of such a master; he went back confined and put under a course of regi- } to his class; he occasionally experienced

SECTION I.

the rod, but his learniug made no pro-sations with the angel Gabriel, began his gress.

career with being as much deranged u Expelled from the college of Barcelona, Ignatius ; and perhaps Ignatius, in Mapersecuted by the devil, who punished homet's circumstances, would have perhim for refusing to submit 10 his instruc- formed as great achievements as the protions, and abandoned by the Virgin Mary, phet ; for he was equally ignorant and who took no pains about assisting her de- quite as visionary and intrepid. voted knight, he, nevertheless, does not It is a common observation, that such give way to despair. He joins the pil-cases occur only once: however, it is not grims of St. James in their wanderings long since an English rustic, more ignoover the country. He preaches in the rant than the Spaniard Ignatius, formed streets and public places, from city to the society of people called “ Quakers;" city, and is shut up in the dungeons of a society far superior to that of Ignatius. the Inquisition. Delivered from the In- Count Zinzendorf has, in our own time, quisition, he is put in prison at Alcala. formed the sect of Moravians; and the He escapes thence to Salamanca, and Convulsionaries of Paris were very nearly is there again imprisoned. At length, { upon the point of effecting a revolution. perceiving that he is no prophet in his They were quite mad enough, but they own country, he forms a resolution to go were not sufficiently persevering and obto Paris. He travels thither on foot, stinate. driving before him an ass which carried his baggage, money, and manuscripts.

IGNORANCE. Don Quixote had a horse and an esquire, but Ignatius was not provided with either.

There are many kinds of ignorance; He experiences at Paris the same in- but the worst of all is that of critics, who, sults and injuries as he had endured in it is well known, are doubly bound to Spain. He is absolutely flogged, in all possess information and judgment, as the regular form and ceremony of scho-persons who undertake to attirm and to lastic discipline, at the college of St. censure. When they pronounce erroneBarbe. His vocation, at length, calls him ously, therefore, they are doubly culpato Rome.

ble. How could it possibly come to pass, A man, for example, composes two that a man of such extravagant character large volumes upon a few pages of a and manners, should at length obtain valuable book which he has not underconsideration at the court of Rome, gainstood, and in the first place examines the over a number of disciples, and become following words : the founder of a powerful order, among “ The sea has covered immense tracts. whom are to be found men of unquestion The deep beds of shells which are able worth and learning? The reason is, found in Touraine and elsewhere, could that he was opinionated, obstinate, and have been deposited there only by the enthusiastic; and found enthusiasts like sea. himself, with whom he associated. These, True, it those beds of shells exist in having rather a greater share of reason fact; but the critic ought to be aware that than himself, were instrumental in some- the author himself discovered, or thought what restoring and re-establishing his he had discovered, that those regular beds own; he became more prudent and re- of shells have no existence. gular towards the close of his life, and He ought not to have said :occasionally even displayed in his conduct “ The universal deluge is related by proofs of ability.

Moses with the agreement of all nations." Perhaps Mahomet, in his first conver 1. Because the Pentateuch was long

unknown, not only to the other nations ș slightest relation to Moses, thinks proper of the world, but to the Jews them- to sayselves.

“ That Berosus perfectly agrees with 2. Because only a single copy of the Moses in the number of generations before law was found at the bottom of an old the deluge." chest in the time of King Josiah.

Be it known to you, my dear reader, 3. Because that book was lost during that this same Berosus is the writer who the captivity.

informs us that the fish Oannes came out 4. Because it was restored by Esdras. ; of the river Euphrates every day, to go

5. Because it was always unknown to and preach to the Chaldeans; and that every other nation till the time of its being the same fish wrote with one of its bones translatrd by the Seventy.

a capital book about the origin of things. 6. Because, even after the translation { Such is the writer whom the ingenious escribed to the Seventy, we have not a abbé brings forward as a voucher for single author among the Gentiles who Moses. quotes a single passage from this book, “Is it not evident,” he says, " that a down to the time of Longinus, who lived great number of European families, transunder the Emperor Aurelian.

planted to the coasts of Africa, have be7. Because no other nation ever ad- come, without any mixture of African mitted a universal deluge before Ovid's blood, as black as any of the natives of Metamorphoses ; and even Ovid himself the country ?" does not make his deluge extend beyond It is just the contrary of this, M. l'abbé, the Mediterranean.

that is evident. You are ignorant that 3. Because St. Augustin expressly ac- the “reticulum mucosum” of the negroes knowledges that the universal deluge was is black, although I have mentioned the unknown to all antiquity.

Š fact times innumerable. Were you to 9 Because the first deluge of which have ever so large a number of children any notice is taken by the Gentiles, is born to you in Guinea, of an European that mentioned by Berosus, and which wife, they would not one of them have he fixes at about four thousand four hun-' that black unctuous skin, those dark and dred years before our vulgar era; which thick lips, those round eyes, or that woolly deluge did not extend beyond the Euxine hair, which form the specific differences

of the negro race.

In the same manner, 10. Finally, because no monument of } were your family established in America, a universal deluge remains in any nation they would have beards, while a native of the world.

American will have none. Now extricate In addition to all these reasons, it must yourself from the difficulty, with Adam be observed, that the critic did not even and Eve only, if you can. understand the simple state of the ques “Who was this . Melchom,' you ask, tion. The only inquiry is, whether we have who had taken possession of the country any natural proofs that the sea has succes- of God ? A pleasant sort of god, certainly, sively abandoned many tracts of territory?whom the God of Jeremiah would carry and upon this plain and mere matter of off to be dragged into captivity.” fact subject, M. Abbé François has taken } Ah, ah, M. l'abbé ! you are quite smart occasion to abuse men whom he certainly and lively. You ask, who is this MelDeither knows nor understands. It is far chom? I will immediately inform you. better to be silent, than merely to increase Melek or Melkom signified the Lord, as the quantity of bad books.

did Adoni or Adonai, Baal or Bel, Adad The same critic, in order to prop up or Shadai, Eloi or Eloa. Almost all the old ideas now almost universally despised nations of Syria gave such names to their and derided, and which have not the gods; each had its lord, its protector, its

sea.

god. Even the name of Jehovah was a , ater without any one's reviling or accusing Phenician and proper name; this we i him. At that time, therefore, every one learn from Sanchoniathon, who was cer- } chose his own local God, his own protainly anterior to Moses; and also from tector. Diodorus.

The same Jews, after the death of GiWe well know that God is equally the < deon, adore Baal-berith, which means God, the absolute master, of Egyptians precisely the same as Adonai—the lord, and Jews, of all men and all worlds; but the protector; they change their pro it is not in this light that he is represented tector. when Moses appears before Pharaoh. ; Adonai, in the time of Joshua, becomes He never speaks to that monarch but in { master of the mountains ; but he is unthe name of the God of the Hebrews, as { able to overcome the inhabitants of the an ambassador delivers the orders of the valleys, because they had chariots armed king his master. He speaks so little in with scythes. the name of the Master of all Nature, that Can anything more correctly represent Pharoah replies to him, “I do not know the idea of a local deity, a god who is him.” Moses performs prodigies in the strong in one place, but not so in anname of this God; but the magicians of other? Pharoah perform precisely the same pro Jeptha, the son of Gilead and a condigies in the name of their own. Hitherto cubine, says to the Moabites:-both sides are equal ; the contest is, who “Wilt thou not possess what Chemosh, shall be deemed most powerful, not who thy god, giveth thee to possess ? So, shall be deemed alone powerful. At whomsoever the Lord our God shall length, the God of the Hebrews decidedly drive out from before us, them will we carries the day; he manifests a power by possess. far the greater ; but not the only power. It is then perfectly proved, that the unThus, speaking after the manner of men,, distinguishing Jews, although chosen by Pharoah's incredulity is very excusable. the God of the universe, regarded him It is the same incredulity as Montezuma notwithstanding as a mere local god, the exhibited before Cortez, and Ataliba be- god of a particular territory or people, fore the Pizarros.

like the god of the Amorites, or that of When Joshua called together the Jews, the Moabites, of the mountains or of the he said to them :

valleys. “ Chuse ye this day whom ye will It is unfortunately very evident that it serve, whether the Gods which your fa- was perfectly indifferent to the grandson ther served, that were on the other side of of Moses whether he served Micah's god the flood, or the gods of the Amorites in or his grandfather's. It is clear, and canwhose land ye dwell; but as for me and not but be admitted, that the Jewish remy house, we will serve the Lord.” ligion was not formed, that it was not

The people, therefore, had already given uniform, till the time of Esdras; and themselves up to other gods, and might we must, even then, except the Simariserve whom they pleased. When the family of Micah, in Ephraim,

You

now, probably, have some hire a Levitical priest to conduct the ser- idea of the meaning of this lord or god vice of a strange god; when the whole Melkom. I am not a favourer of his tribe of Dan serve the same god as the cause the Lord deliver me from such family of Micah ; when a grandson of folly !_but when you remark, “ the ged Moses himself becomes a hired priest of which Jeremiah threatened to carry into the same god—no one murmurs; every slavery niust be a curious and pleasant one has his own god, undisturbed ; and sort of deity," I will answer you, M. the grandson of Moses becomes an idol- } l'abbé, with this short piece of advice :

tans.

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