Imatges de pÓgina

tion for the tribunals of the holy inqui- gem to those employed by heretics, that sition, on the means which they ought to he may thus pay the offenders in their employ for the repression and extirpation own coin, and be enabled to adopt the of heretics ; on which account I felt it my language of the apostle, ' Being crafty, I duty to offer it in homage to your holi- caught you with guile.' ness, as to the chief of the Christian re- Page 296. “ The information and depublic."

positions (procés verbal) may be read He declares, elsewhere, that he had it over to the accused, completely suppressreprinted for the instruction of inquisitors; ing the names of the accusers; and then that the work is as much to be admired it is for him to conjecture who the peras respected, and teaches with equal piety sons are that have brought against him and learning the proper means of repress- any particular charges, to challenge them ing and exterminating heretics. He ac- as incompetent witnesses, or to weaken knowledges, however, that he is in pos- their testimony by contrary evidence. session of other useful and judicious } This is the method generally used. The methods, for which he refers to practice, accused must not be permitted to imagine which will instruct much more effectually that challenges of witnesses will be easily than any lessons, and that he more readily allowed in cases of heresy, for it is of no thus silently refers to practice, as there ? consequence whether witnesses are reare certain matters relating to the subject į spectable or infamous, accomplices in the which it is of importance not to divulge, prisoner's offence, excommunicated, hereand, which, at the same time, are gener- tical, or in any manner whatever guilty, ally well known to inquisitors. He cites or perjured, &c. This has been so ruled a vast number of writers, all of whom in favour of the faith." have followed the doctrines of the Direc- Page 202. “ The appeal which a pritory; and he even complains that many soner makes from the inquisition does not have availed themselves of it without preclude that tribunal from trial and senascribing any honour to Eymeric for the tence of him upon other heads of accugood things they have in fact stolen from sation." him.

Page 313. “Although the form of the We will secure ourselves from any re-order for applying the torture may supproach of this description, by pointing pose variation in the answers of the acout exactly what we mean to borrow both cused, and also in addition sufficient from the author and the editor. Eymeric presumptive evidence against him for putsays, in the fifty-eighth page, “ Commi- ting him to the question ; both these cirseration for the children of the criminal, cumstances are not necessary, and either who by the severity used towards him will be sufficient for the purpose without are reduced to beggary, should never be the other.” permitted to mitigate that severity, since Pegna informs us, in the hundred and both by divine and human laws children eighteenth scholium on the third book, are punished for the faults of their fa- that inquisitors generally employ only thers."

five kinds of torture when putting to the Page 123. “If a charge entered for question, although Marsilius mentions prosecution were destitute of every ap- fifteen kinds, and adds, that he has imapearance of truth, the inquisitor should gined others still—such, for example, as not on that account expunge it from his precluding the possibility of sleep, in register, because what at one period has which he is approved by Grillandus and not been discovered, may be so at an- | Locatus. other."

Eymeric continues, page 319:—“Care Page 291. “It is necessary for the should be taken never to state in the form inquisitor to oppose cunning and strata- of absolution, that the prisoner is inno

cent, but merely that there was not suffi- } Page 332. “When the culprit aas cient evidence against him; a precaution been delivered over to the secular authonecessary to prevent the prisoner, absolved riry, it shall pronounce its sentence, and in one case, from pleading that absolution the criminal shall be conveyed to the place in defence against any future charge that of punishment; some pious persons shall may be brought against him."

accompany him, and associate him in Page 324. “Sometimes abjuration their prayers, and even pray with him ; and canonical purgation are prescribed and not leave him till he has rendered up together. This is done, when, to a bad his soul to his creator. But it is their reputation of an individual in point of duty to take particular care neither to say doctrine are joined inconsiderable pre- or io do anything which may hasten the sumptions, which, were they a little moment of his death, for fear of falling stronger, would tend to convict him of into some irregularity. Accordingly, they having really said or done something in- should not exhort the criminal to mount jurious to the faith. The prisoner who the scaffold, or present himself to the stands in these circumstances is compelled executioner, or advise the executioner to to abjure all heresy in general ; and after get ready and arrange his instruments of that, if he falls into any heresy of any punishment, so that the death may take description whatever, however different place more quickly, and the prisoner be from those which may have constituted prevented from lingering; all for the sake the matter of the present charge or sus- of avoiding irregularity.” picion against him, he is punished as a Page 335. “Should it happen that relapsed person, and delivered over to the heretic, when just about to be fixed the secular arm.

to the stake to be burnt, were to give Page 331. Relapsed persons, when signs of conversion, he might perhaps, the relapse is clearly proved, must be out of singular lenity and favour, be aldelivered up to secular justice, whatever } lowed to be received and shut up, like peniprotestation they may make as to their { tent heretics, within four walls, although future conduct, and whatever contrition it would be weak to place much reliance they may express. The inquisitor will, on a confession of this nature, and the inin such circumstances, inform the secular dulgence is not authorised by any express authorities, that on such a particular day { law; such lenity, however, is very danand hour, and in such a particular place, gerous. I was witness of an example a heretic will be delivered up to them, in point at Barcelona :--A priest who and should provide, that notice be given was condemned, with two other impenito the public that they will be expected tent heretics, to be burnt, and who was to be present at the ceremony, as the in- actually in the midst of the flames, called quisitor will deliver a sermon on the on the bye-standers to pull him out inoccasion in defence of the true faith, and stantly, for he was willing to be converted; those who attend will obtain the usual in- She was accordingly extricated, dreadfully dulgences."

scorched on one side. I do not mean to These indulgences are accordingly de- } decide whether this was well or ill done; tạiled : after the form of sentence given but I know that, fourteen years afteragainst the penitent heretic, the inquisitor wards, he was still dogmatising, and had will grant forty days' indulgence to all corrupted a considerable number of perpersons present; three years to those who sons; he was therefore once more given contributed to the apprehension, abju- up to justice, and was burnt to death." ration, condemnation, &c., of the said “No person doubts," says Pegna, heretic; and finally, three years also will scholium 47, “that heretics ought to be he granted by our holy father, the pope, put to death'; but the particular method wall who will denounce any other heretic. of execution may well be a topic of deve cussion.” Alphonso de Castro, in the , and monks, and rendering the population second book of his work, “On the just of a whole kingdom hypocrites. Punishment of Heretics,” considers it a St. Dominic is usually considered as matter of great indifference whether they } the person to whom the world is princiare destroyed by the sword, by fire, or pally indebted for this institution. In any other method ; but Ilostiensis Go- { fact, we have still extant a patent granted dofredus, Covarruvias, Simancas, Roxas, } by that great saint, expressed precisely &c. maintain that they ought decidedly in the following words:—“I, brother to be burnt. In fact, as Hostiensis very } Dominic, reconcile to the church Roger, well expressed it, execution by fire is the the bearer of these presents, on condition punishment appropriate to heresy. We of his being scourged by a priest on three read in St. John, — if any one remain successive Sundays from the entrance of not in me, he shall be cast forth, as a the city to the church doors; of his abbranch, and wither, and men shall gather staining from meat all his life; of his it and cast it into the fire and burn it.':- fasting for the space of three Lents in a " It may be added,” continued Pegna, } year; of his never drinking wine ; of his " that the universal custom of the Chris- carrying about him the san-benito' with tian republic is in support of this opinion. crosses ; of his reciting the breviary every Simancas and Roxas decide that heretics { day, and ten paternosters in the course ought to be burnt alive; but one pre- of the day, and twenty at midnight ; of caution should always be taken in burning his preserving perfect chastity, and of his them, which is tearing out their tongue } presenting himself every month before the and keeping the mouth perfectly closed, parish priest, &c.; the whole under pain in order to prevent their scandalising the of being treated as heretical, perjured, spectators by their impieties.”

and impenitent.” Finally, page 369, Eymeric enjoins Although Dominic was the real founder those whom he addresses to proceed in of the inquisition, yet Louis de Paramo, matters of heresy straight forward, with- { one of the most respectable writers and out any wranglings of advocates, and most brilliant luminaries of the holy without so many forms and solemnities office, relates, in the second chapter of as are generally employed in criminal } his second book, that God was the first cases ; that is, to make the process as instituter of the holy office, and that he short as possible, by cutting off useless exercised the power of the preaching delays, by going on with the hearing and brethren, that is of the Dominican order, trial of such causes, even on days when against Adam. In the first place Adam the labours of the other judges are sus

is cited before the tribunal : « Adam ubi pended; by disallowing every appeal es?"-Adam, where art thou? And in which has for its apparent object merely } fact, a:lds Paramo, the want of this citaa postponement of final judgment; and tion would have rendered the whole proby not admitting an unnecessary multi- } cedure of God null. tude of witnesses, &c.

The dresses formed of skins, which This revolting system of jurisprudence God made for Adam and Eve, were the has simply been put under some restric- model of the “san-benito,' which the tion in Spain and Portugal; while at { holy office requires to be worn by hereMilan the inquisition itself has at length tics. It is true that, according to this been entirely suppressed.

argument, God was the first tailor; it is

{ not however the less evident, on account SECTION II.

of that ludicrous and profane inference, The inquisition is well known to be that he was the first inquisitor. an admirable and truly Christian inven- Adam was deprived of the immoveable tion for increasing the power of the pope property he possessed in the terrestrias


paradise, and hence the holy office con they had in Arragon and Castile. Diffifiscates the property of all whom it con- } culties however arose between the court demns.

; of Rome and that of Lisbon ; tempers Louis de Paramo remarks, that the became irritated, the inquisition suffered inhabitants of Sodom were burnt as he- } by it, and was far from being perfectly retics because their crime is a formal established. heresy. He thence passes to the history In 1539, there appeared at Lisbon a of the Jews : and in every part of it dis- į legate of the pope, who came, he said, to covers the holy office.

establish the holy inquisition on immoveJesus Christ is the first inquisitor of able foundations. He delivered his letthe new law; the popes were inquisitors ters to King John III. from Pope Paul by divine right ; ana they afterwards {III. He had other letters from Rome communicated their power to St. Do- for the chief officers of the court; his minic.

patents as legate were duly sealed and He afterwards estimates the number signed ; and he exhibited the most ample of all those whom the inquisition has put powers for creating a grand inquisitor to death ; he stutes it to be considerably and all the judges of the holy office. above a hundred thousand.

He was however in fact an impostor, of His book was printed in 1589, at the name of Saavedra, who had the talent Madrid, with the approbation of doctors, of counterfeiting hand-writings, seals, the eulogiums of bishops, and the privi- { and coats of arms. He had acquired the lege of the king. We can, at the present { art at Rome, and was perfected in it at day, scarcely form any idea of horrors at Seville, at which place he arrived in once so extravagant and abominable ;{ company with two other sharpers. His but at that period nothing appeared more train was magnificent, consisting of more natural and edifying. All men resemble than a hundred and twenty domestics, Louis de Paramo when they are fanatics. To defray, at least in part, the enormous

Paramo was a plain direct man, very expense with which all this splendour exact in dates, omitting no interesting was attended, he and his associates bor, fact, and calculating with precision the rowed at Seville large sums in the name number of human victims immolated by of the apostolic chamber of Rome; everythe holy office throughout the world. thing was concerted with the most con

He relates, with great naïveté, the es- summate art. tablishment of the inquisition in Portugal, The King of Portugal was at first and coincides perfectly with four other perfectly astonished at the pope's dishistorians who have treated of that sub-patching a legate to him without any ject. The following account they unani- previous announcement to him of his inmously agree in :

tention. The legate hastily observed,

that in a concern so urgent as that of Singular Establishment of the Inquisition establishing the inquisition on a firm in Portugal.

į foundation, his holiness could admit of Pope Boniface had long before, at the no delays, and that the king might conbeginning of the fifteenth century, dele- sider himself honoured by the holy fagated some Dominican friars to go to ther's having appointed a legate to be the Portugal, from one city to another, to first person to announce his intention. burn heretics, mussulmen, and Jews; The king did not venture to reply. The but these were itinerant and not station- { legate on that very day constituted a ary; and even the kings sometimes com- grand inquisitor, and sent about collectors plained of the vexations caused by them. I to receive the tenths ; and before the Pope Clement VII. was desirous of giving court could obtain answers from Rome them a fixed residence in Portugal, as į to its representations on the subject, the

legate had brought two hundred victims such at least was the mar.ner of its proto the stake, and collected more than two ceeding down to our own times. Surely hundred thousand crowns.

in this we must perceive something deHowever, the Marquis of Villanova, a cidedly divine ; for it is absolutely inSpanish nobleman, of whom the legate { comprehensible that men should have had borrowed at Seville a very consider-patiently submitted to this yoke....... able sum upon

ged bills, determined, At length Count Aranda has obtained if possible, to repay himself the money the blessings of all Europe by paring the with his own hands, instead of going to nails and filing the teeth of the monster Lisbon and exposing himself to the in- in Spain ; it breathes, however, still. trigues and influence of the swindler there. The legate was at this time making

INSTINCT. his circuit through the country, and hap- INSTINCTUS, impulsus,' impulse ;pened very conveniently to be on the but what power impels us ? borders of Spain. The marquis unex- All feeling is instinct. pectedly advanced upon him with fifty A secret conformity of our organs to men well-armed, carried him off prisover, their respective objects forms our instinct. and conducted him to Madrid.

It is solely by instinct that we perform The whole imposture was speedily dis- $ numberless involuntary movements, just covered at Lisbon; the council of Madrid, as it is by instinct that we possess curicondemned the legate Saavedra to be osity, that we run after noveliy, that meflogged, and sent to the galleys for tennaces terrify us, that contempt irritates years; but the most admirable circum- us, that an air of submission appeases stance was, that Pope Paul IV. confirmed us, and that tears soften us. subsequently all that the impostor had We are governed by instinct, as well established; out of the plenitude of his as cats and goats; this is one further divine power he rectified all the little ir- circumstance in which we resemble the regularities of the various procedures, mere animal tribes—a resemblance as and rendered sacred what before was incontestable as that of our blood, our merely human. Of what importance the necessities, and the various functions of arm which God employs in his sacred our bodies. service ?

Our instinct is never so shrewd and

skilful as theirs, and does not even apQu'importe de quel bras Dieu daigne se servir !

proach it; a calf and a lamb, as soon as Such was the manner in which the they are born, rush to the fountain of inquisition became established at Lisbon; their mother's milk; but unless the moand the whole kingdom extolled the wis- įther of the infant clasped it in her arms, dom and providence of God on the oc- į and folded it to her bosom, it would incasion.

evitably perish. To conclude, the methods of procedure No woman in a state of pregnancy adopted by this tribunal are generally was ever invincibly impelled to prepare known; it is well known how strongly for her infant a convenient wicker cradle, they are opposed to the false equity and as the wren with its bill and claws preblind reason of all other tribunals in the pares a nest for her offspring. But the world. Men are imprisoned on the mere power of reflection which we possess, in accusation of persons the most infamous; conjunction with two industrious hands a son may denounce his father, and the presented to us by nature, raises us to wife her husband; the accused is never an equality with the instinct of animals, confronted with the accusers; and the and in the course of time places us infiproperty of the person convicted is con- nitely above them, both in respect to fiscated for the benefit of the judges : { good and evil:-a proposition condemned

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