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The original relater of the story on which this play is formed, was Luigi da Porto, a gentleman of Vicenza, who died in 1529. His novel did not appear till some years after his death; being first printed at Venice in 1535, with the following title: "Hystoria Novella mente Ritrovata di dui nobili Amanti : Con la loro Pietosa Morte: Intervenuta gia nella Citta di Verona Nel tempio del Signor Bartholomeo Scala." A second edition was published in 1539; and it was again reprinted at the same place in 1553, (without the author's name). Of the author some account may be found prefixed to the poem of Romeus and Juliet.
In 1554 Bandello published, at Lucca, a novel on the same subject; [Tom. II. Nov. IX.] and shortly afterwards Boisteau exhibited one in French, founded on the Italian narratives, but varying from them in many particulars. From Boisteau's novel the same story was, in 1562, formed into an English poem, with considerable alterations and large additions, by Mr. Arthur Brooke. This piece, which the reader may find at the end of the present play, was printed by Richard Tottel with the following title, written probably, according to the fashion of that time, by the bookseller: The Tragicall Hystory of Romeus and Juliet, containing a rare Example of true Constancie: with the subtill Counsels, and Practices of an old Fryer, and their ill event. It was again published by the same bookseller in 1582. Painter in the second volume of his Palace of Pleasure, 1567, published a prose translation from the French of Boisteau, which he entitled Rhomeo and Julietta. Shakspeare had probably read Painter's novel, having taken one circumstance from it or some other prose translation of Boisteau; but his play was undoubtedly formed on the poem of Arthur Brooke. This is proved decisively by the following circumstances. 1. In the poem the prince of Verona is called Escalus; so also in the play.-In Painter's translation from Boisteau he is named Signor Escala; and sometimes Lord Bartholomew of Escala. 2. In Painter's novel the family of Romeo are called the Montesches; in the poem and in the play, the Montagues. 3. The messenger employed by friar Lawrence to carry a letter to Romeo to inform him when Juliet would awake from her trance, is in Painter's translation called Anselme : in the poem, and in the play, friar John is employed in this business. 4. The circumstance of Capulet's writing down the names of the guests whom he invites to supper, is found in the poem and in the play, but is not mentioned by Painter, nor is it found in the original Italian novel. 5. The residence of the Capulets, in the original, and in Painter, is called Villa Franca; in the poem and in the play Freetown. 6. Several passages of Romeo and Juliet appear to have been formed on hints furnished by the poem, of which no traces are found either in Painter's novel, or in Boisteau, or the original; and several expressions
are borrowed from thence, which will be found in their proper places.
As what has been now stated has been controverted, (for what may not be controverted?) I should enter more largely into the subject, but that the various passages of the poem which I have quoted in the following notes, furnish such a decisive proof of the play's having been constructed upon it, as not to leave, in my apprehension, a shadow of doubt upon the subject. The question is not, whether Shakspeare had read other novels, or other poetical pieces, founded on this story, but whether the poem written by Arthur Brooke was the basis on which this play was built.
With respect to the name of Romeo, this also Shakspeare might have found in the poem; for in one place that name is given to him or he might have had it from Painter's novel, from which or from some other prose translation of the same story he has, as I have already said, taken one circumstance not mentioned in the poem. In 1570 was entered on the Stationers' books by Henry Bynneman, The Pitifull Hystory of ij lovyng Italians, which I suspect was a prose narrative of the story on which our author's play is constructed.
Breval says in his travels, that on a strict inquiry into the histories of Verona, he found that Shakspeare had varied very little from the truth, either in the names, characters, or other circum-stances of his play. MALONE.
It is plain, from more than one circumstance, that Shakspeare had read this novel, both in its prosaick and metrical form. He might likewise have met with other poetical pieces on the same subject. We are not yet at the end of our discoveries relative to the originals of our author's dramatick pieces. STEEVENS.
This play, as Mr. Malone conjectured, was written in 1596. See his Essay on the Chronological Order of Shakspeare's Plays. There are four early quarto editions in 1597, 1599, 1609, and one without a date. The variations of any consequence are marked in the margin, quarto A, B, C, and D. And as many passages are omitted in the quarto 1597, I have distinguished them by the following mark (1) where they have not already been specified in the notes, that the curious reader may learn how our author improved upon his first conceptions. BosWELL.
Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life; Whose misadventur'd piteous overthrows
Do, with their death, bury their parents' strife. The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love, And the continuance of their parents' rage, Which, but their children's end, nought could re
Is now the two hours' traffick of our stage; The which if you with patient ears attend, What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend'.
This prologue, after the first copy was published in 1597, received several alterations, both in respect of correctness and versification. In the folio it is omitted. The play was originally performed by the Right Hon. the Lord of Hunsdon his servants.
In the first of King James I. was made an act of parliament for some restraint or limitation of noblemen in the protection of players, or of players under their sanction. STEEVENS.
Under the word Prologue, in the copy of 1599, is printed Chorus, which I suppose meant only that the prologue was to be spoken by the same person who personated the chorus at the end of the first Act.
The original prologue, in the quarto of 1597, stands thus: "Two household frends, alike in dignitie,
"In faire Verona, where we lay our scene,
"From civill broyles broke into enmitie,
"Whose civill warre makes civill handes uncleane.
"From forth the fatall loynes of these two foes
"The which if you with patient cares attend,
"What here we want, wee'll studie to amend." MALONE.
ESCALUS, Prince of Verona.
PARIS, a young Nobleman, Kinsman to the Prince. Heads of two Houses, at variance
with each other.
An old Man, Uncle to Capulet.
ROMEO, Son to Montague.
MERCUTIO, Kinsman to the Prince, and Friend to Romeo.
BENVOLIO, Nephew to Montague, and Friend to Romeo.
TYBALT, Nephew to Lady Capulet.
Friar LAWRENCE, a Franciscan.
CHORUS. Boy; Page to Paris; PETER; an Officer.
LADY MONTAGUE, Wife to Montague.
LADY CAPULET, Wife to Capulet.
JULIET, Daughter to Capulet.
Nurse to Juliet.
Citizens of Verona; several Men and Women, Relations to both Houses; Maskers, Guards, Watchmen, and Attendants.
SCENE during the greater Part of the Play, in Verona once in the fifth Act, at Mantua.
ROMEO AND JULIET.
ACT I. SCENE I.
A publick Place.
Enter SAMPSON and GREGORY, armed with Swords and Bucklers.
SAM. Gregory, o'my word, we'll not carry coals *. GRE. No, for then we should be colliers.
* Quarto A, Ile carrie no coales; and Quarto A, No, for if you doe you should be a collier.
we'll not carry coals.] Dr. Warburton very justly observes, that this was a phrase formerly in use to signify the bearing injuries; but, as he has given no instances in support of his declaration, I thought it necessary to subjoin the following. So, Skelton:
Again, Nash, in his Have With You to Saffron Walden, 1595, says: "We will bear no coles, I warrant you."
Again, in Marston's Antonio and Mellida, 2nd part, 1602: "He has had wrong, and if I were he, I would bear no coles." Again, in Law Tricks, or, Who Would Have Thought It? a comedy, by John Day, 1608: "I'll carry coals an you will, no horns." Again, in May-Day, a comedy, by Chapman, 1610: "You must swear by no man's beard but your own; for that may breed a quarrel: above all things, you must carry no coals." And again, in the same play: "Now my ancient being a man of an un-coal-carrying spirit," &c. Again, in Ben Jonson's Every Man out of his Humour: "Here comes one that will carry coals; ergo, will hold my dog." And, lastly, in the poet's own King Henry V.: "At Calais they stole a fireshovel; I knew by that piece of service the men would carry coals." Again, in The