Imatges de pÓgina

richer, to signify this to the doctor; for, for me to put him to his purgation, would, perhaps, plunge him into more choler.

GUIL. Good my lord, put your discourse into some frame, and start not so wildly from my affair. HAM. I am tamé, sir:-pronounce.

GUIL. The queen, your mother, in most great affliction of spirit, hath sent me to you.

HAM. You are welcome.

GUIL. Nay, good my lord, this courtesy is not of the right breed. If it shall please you to make me a wholesome answer, I will do your mother's commandment: if not, your pardon, and my return, shall be the end of my business.

HAM. Sir, I cannot.

GUIL. What, my lord?

HAM. Make you a wholesome answer; my wit's diseased: But, sir, such answer as I can make, you shall command; or, rather, as you say, my mother: therefore no more, but to the matter: My mother, you say,

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Ros. Then thus she says; Your behaviour hath struck her into amazement and admiration.

HAM. O wonderful son, that can so astonish a mother!-But is there no sequel at the heels of this mother's admiration? impart†.

Ros. She desires to speak with you in her closet, ere you go to bed.

HAM. We shall obey, were she ten times our mother. Have you any further trade with us? Ros. My lord, you once did love me.

*First folio, far more.

† First folio omits impart.

8 further TRADE-] Further business; further dealing.



So Nicholas Grimald, in his translation of Cicero de Officiis, 1555, describes that work as "a matter containing the whole trade how to live among men discreetly and honestly." BOSWELL.

HAM. And do still, by these pickers and stealers9. Ros. Good my lord, what is your cause of distemper? you do, surely, but bar the door upon your own liberty, if you deny your griefs to your friend.

HAM. Sir, I lack advancement.

Ros. How can that be, when you have the voice of the king himself for your succession in Denmark1?

HAM. Ay, sir, but, While the grass grows,—the proverb is something musty 2.

Enter the Players, with Recorders 3.

O, the recorders :-let me see one.-To withdraw *First folio, freely bar the door of.


by these PICKERS, &c.] By these hands. JOHNSON. "By these hands," says Dr. Johnson, and rightly. But the phrase is taken from our church catechism, where the catechumen, in his duty to his neighbour, is taught to keep his hands from picking and stealing. WHALLEY.

I when you have the voice of the king himself for your succession in Denmark ?] See p. 199, n, 1. MALONE.


Ay, sir, but, WHILE THE GRASS GROWS,-the proverb is something musty.] The remainder of this old proverb is preserved in Whetstone's Promos and Cassandra, 1578:


Whylst grass doth growe, oft sterves the seely steede." Again, in The Paradise of Daintie Devises, 1578: "To whom of old this proverbe well it serves, "While grass doth growe, the silly horse he starves." Hamlet means to intimate, that whilst he is waiting for the succession to the throne of Denmark, he may himself be taken off by death. MALONE.

3-Recorders.] i. e. a kind of large flute. See vol. v. p. 317, n. 3.

To record anciently signified to sing or modulate. STEEVENS. Sir J. Hawkins, in vol. iv. p. 479, of his valuable History of Musick, has offered very good proofs that the recorder was a flagelet, and he maintains that the flute was improperly termed a recorder, and that the expressions have been confounded: yet his opinion that the books of instructions entitled for the recorder' belong in reality to the flute, seems rather doubtful. The confusion is in having blended the genus with the species. VOL. VII: 2 B

with you:-Why do you go about to recover the wind of me, as if you would drive me into a toil ?

GUIL. O, my lord, if my duty be too bold, my love is too unmannerly".

In the Promptuarium Parvulorum, 1516, 4to. a recorder is defined to be a "lytell pype." In Udall's Flowres for Latine Spekyng selected oute of Terence, 1532, 12mo. the line from Virgil's Bucolics,

Nec te poeniteat calamo trivisse labellum,

is rendered, "and thynke it not a smalle thynge to have lerned to playe on the pype or the recorder : and it is not a little curious that in modern cant language the recorders of corporations are termed flutes. The following story in Wits Fits and Fancies, 1595, 4to. shows that the pipe and recorder were different; such is the uncertainty of definition among old writers: "A merrie recorder of London mistaking the name of one Pepper, call'd him Piper: whereunto the partie excepting, and saying: Sir, you mistake, my name is Pepper, not Piper; hee answered: Why, what difference is there (I pray thee) between Piper in Latin, and Pepper in English; is it not all one? No, sir (reply'd the other) there is even as much difference betweene them, as is between a pipe and a recorder." DOUCE.

4 To withdraw with you :] These last words have no meaning, as they stand yet none of the editors have attempted to amend them. They were probably spoken to the Players, whom Hamlet wished to get rid of:-I therefore should suppose that we ought to read, "So, withdraw you;" or, "So withdraw, will you?" M. MASON.

Here Mr. Malone added the following stage direction :-[Taking Guildenstern aside.] But the foregoing obscure words may refer to some gesture which Guildenstern had used, and which, at first, was interpreted by Hamlet into a signal for him to attend the speaker into another room. "To withdraw with you?" (says he) Is that your meaning? But finding his friends continue to move mysteriously about him, he adds, with some resentment, a question more easily intelligible. STEEVENS.

5 -

recover the wind of me,] So, in an ancient MS. play entitled The Second Maiden's Tragedy:


Is that next?


Why, then I have your ladyship in the wind." STEEVENS. Again, in Churchyard's Worthiness of Wales:

"Their cunning can with craft so cloke a troeth,
"That hardly we shall have them in the winde,
"To smell them forth or yet their fineness finde."


HAM. I do not well understand that. Will you play upon this pipe?

GUIL. My lord, I cannot.
HAM. I pray you.

GUIL. Believe me, I cannot.

HAM. I do beseech you.

GUIL. I know no touch of it, my lord.

HAM. "Tis as easy as lying: govern these ventages with your finger and thumb, give it breath

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6 O, my lord, if my duty be too bold, my love is too unmannerly.] i. e. if my duty to the king makes me press you a little, my love to you makes me still more importunate. If that makes me bold, this makes me even unmannerly. WARBurton.

I believe we should read-my love is not unmannerly. My conception of this passage is, that, in consequence of Hamlet's moving to take the recorder, Guildenstern also shifts his ground, in order to place himself beneath the prince in his new position. This, Hamlet ludicrously calls "going about to recover the wind." &c. and Guildenstern may answer properly enough, I think, and like a courtier: "if my duty to the king makes me too bold in pressing you upon a disagreeable subject, my love to you will make me not unmannerly, in showing you all possible marks of respect and attention." TYRWHITT.

7-ventages -] The holes of a flute.


8- and thumb,] The first quarto reads-" with your fingers and the umber." This may probably be the ancient name for that piece of moveable brass at the end of a flute which is either raised or depressed by the finger. The word umber is used by Stowe the chronicler, who, describing a single combat between two knights, says "he brast up his umber three times." Here the umber means the visor of the helmet. So, in Spenser's Fairy Queene, b. iii. c. i. st. 42:

"But the brave maid would not disarmed be,
"But only vented up her umbriere,

"And so did let her goodly visage to appere." Again, book iv. c. iv.:

"And therewith smote him on his umbriere."

Again, in the second book of Lidgate on the Trojan War, 1513: "Thorough the umber into Troylus' face." STEEVENS.

If a recorder had a brass key like the German flute, we are to follow the reading of the quarto; for then the thumb is not concerned in the government of the ventages or stops. If a recorder was like a tabourer's pipe, which has no brass key, but has a stop for the thumb, we are to read-Govern these ventages with


with your mouth, and it will discourse most eloquent musick. Look you, these are the stops 9. GUIL. But these cannot I command to any utterance of harmony; I have not the skill.

HAM. Why look you now, how unworthy a thing you make of me? You would play upon me; you would seem to know my stops; you would pluck out the heart of my mystery: you would sound me from my lowest note to the top of my compass: and there is much musick, excellent voice, in this little organ; yet cannot you make it speak. 'Sblood, do you think, I am easier to be played on than a pipe? Call me what instrument you will, though you can fret me, you cannot play upon me.


God bless you, sir!

POL. My lord, the queen would speak with you, and presently.

HAM. Do you see yonder cloud, that's almost in shape of a camel ?

POL. By the mass, and 'tis like a camel, indeed.
HAM. Methinks, it is like a weasel '.

*First folio, excellent.

+ First folio, Why.

your finger and thumb. In Cotgrave's Dictionary, ombre, ombraire, ombriere, and ombrelle, are all from the Latin umbra, and signify a shadow, an umbrella, or any thing that shades or hides the face from the sun; and hence they may have been applied to any thing that hides or covers another; as for example, they may have been applied to the brass key that covers the hole in the German flute. So, Spenser used umbriere for the visor of the helmet, as Rous's History of the Kings of England uses umbrella in the same sense. TOLLET.

9 the STOPS.] The sounds formed by occasionally stopping the holes, while the instrument is played upon. So, in the Prologue to King Henry V.:


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Rumour is a pipe –

"And of so easy and so plain a stop," &c. MALONE. Methinks, &c.] This passage has been printed in modern.

editions thus:

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