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ness of rational and spiritual universality, made the old solidarities, the old energies, which had their sources in pugnacity, in kinship, seem pitifully unreal. Anger and pugnacity and gregariousness had once furnished the energies through which social justice had been maintained. But the newer ideal of the love of one's enemies was attempting to turn the old instincts into highly spiritualized channels. The state, with its army and its religion of kinship, was dead.
The crown of thorns, the purple robe, and the inscription over the cross: This is Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews, symbolized the final expulsion of the state from the deepest moral consciousness. It was the prelude to the development of an organization in which this newer moral consciousness could preserve itself. When, as in the days of David, men's hearts were in the state, it could survive any opposition. But when the conscience has been disassociated from the state, when the moral personality is outside the state, as in the mystery religions of Greece and Rome, and in the book of Revelation, the state is left to fall a prey to its enemies. The state declined as the monastery grew in power. The Christian must rely upon the public opinion of his community; his conscience will find no support in the state (Matt. 18:17). The stone which the builders rejected will grind the state to powder (Matt. 21:44). What has been first shall be last. The authority of those who dominate will be as nothing to the power of those who serve (Matt. 20:25, 26).
Here we see the most powerful organization of antiquity disassociated from the will and the heart,
from what was coming to be the ruling moral consciousness of the world.
Now if gregariousness be an instinct, if we are unhappy when solitary, if our wills need witnesses for their moral support, then the repression in the newer consciousness of the sense of solidarity which had been associated with the state for a thousand years must have brought into the mind of Christendom a moral dualism which shook the will to its very foundations.
The Inner Life and the Family
This newer consciousness that man is an inner spirit found itself in open antithesis to the old ideal of the family. The naturalism and objectivity of the older ethics were in stark opposition to the inner life. The old family system was founded on a tradition of inheritance and property and kinship which was the antithesis of the ideal of the inner life. This inner life could make men brothers in spite of property and kinship and tradition. The moral consciousness actually attempted to slough off the instinct of sex.
We moderns have this sense of reverence which the ancients had toward sex, as we behold the processes of reproduction in plants and in the lower animal organisms. We too see in the evergreen and in the lily and in the egg the symbol of an undying life.
When, however, we come to the sexual life of the mammals, there arises in our minds a consciousness of shame. The sex processes of the mammal are as necessary to the perpetuation of life as the sex processes
of plants; but we experience toward the former a sense of shame which is wholly lacking in our attitude toward the latter.
This sense of shame is due to the fact that we read into the sex processes of the higher animals elements of will and reason and self-consciousness which are necessarily present in our minds but which do not exist in the animal mind.
Here, then, we find the secret of the sense of shame which we experience toward the instinct of sex. The instinct of sex in man is just as necessary, just as close to the heart of mother nature, as the processes of reproduction in plants. But in the evergreen, the lily, the egg, we see the immediate life and will of mother nature herself. Our own lives, on the contrary, cannot be so immediately one with the life of mother nature. Will, reason, and self-consciousness have come in to disturb the unity of mother nature's processes. A dualism arises between nature's processes and man's will. In the animal kingdom the processes of sex issue in the birth of the young, whose presence stimulates the instinct of parenthood. These instincts in primitive man and in the most ancient civilizations are organized by group sentiment and tradition into the institution of the family. Religion and art and morality all enter into the organization and control of the instinct of sex.
With the development, however, of introspection and self-consciousness, a dualism arises between man's will and the processes of nature. The worship of Apollo, the god of pure reason, supplants the worship of mother nature. In the sphere of pure reason sex
is an unbearable intrusion. It is a denial of this inner will; it is an affront to a lofty spiritual consciousness. It is as a protest against any form of the degradation of sex that the ideal of chastity arose. This is the explanation of the worship of the Virgin. After the development of introspection and self-consciousness, the old attitude of unconscious relaxation in the arms of mother nature became forever impossible. The old objectivity was gone. Man could no longer be emotionally one with the flow of nature's life. From the garden of unity with nature man had been expelled by his own self-consciousness. He had entered a new era, an era of self-control, of “individual integration."
Rationalism, which has been the prevailing orthodox ethical philosophy, drawing its sources largely from Plato and the scholastics of the Middle Ages, has regarded the instincts, and especially the sex instinct, as belonging to the animal plane of life and positively opposed to the higher rational and voluntary life. This has led to a chronic repression by the ego-complex or rational self of the whole sexual life. This repression of the sex life has led to a divided consciousness. Sex has become taboo; the very consciousness of sex, deepened and strengthened by repression, has become associated with shame. The exaggerated sense of sin of the Church Fathers and mediæval scholastics was undoubtedly connected with their devotion to celibacy. The early church, that gave final form to the New Testament, discouraged marriage, despised the body, and had as little as possible to do with the industrial and political world. To Paul the body and
the instinct of sex have no place in the Christian man's ideal. This completely reversed the ethics of parenthood expressed in the Old Testament. And not only has this Pauline tradition entered into our philosophy of life, but we have added to this ideal of an inner life, independent of the instincts and the animal body, our modern self-conscious individualism which thinks of the individual will as independent of the race and as an end in itself. In the plant and animal, the sexual life in the male spontaneously responds to that of the female. And in the early life of mankind this spontaneity of the sex life still exists. But with the conflict of the inner life and the instincts, the will is actually disassociated from the sexual life. This is especially true in the case of women. The dualism between will and sex which the western world has inherited from Paul and Augustine has become a part of our dominant tradition. In this way we have associated a terrible sense of shame with the sexual life. This sense of shame has brought about a repression of the sexual life. This repression of the sex life has, in the case of some women, produced such a dualism of will and instinct, they have so identified their ego with this purely interior life, that they have acquired a double personality. The chief emphasis of the moral and religious life is laid on the subjection of sex and the exaltation of an inner life.
In the old morality sex meant the birth of children, the prolongation of the family, the continuity of the race. Sex was accordingly a part of the dominant moral and religious tradition. It was associated with joy and pride and the furthering of life. Into this