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secular world, art, science, the family, industry. Greek philosophy, the Hebrew prophets, and the teaching of the Nazarene began to fashion the life and ideals of the western races.
The chief forms which the Christian ideal acquired were Roman organization, Greek philosophy, and the Germanic idea of the social group. We will take up first the Roman contribution of the idea of organization.
For three centuries the Roman state was the great enemy of the Christian religion; in the Book of Revelation Rome is pictured as a beast that devours the saints. In the fourth century Christianity was made the state religion; the State and the Church were coordinate powers. The Church, overawed by the majesty of the Roman political organization, gladly welcomed the authority of the Empire now placed at her disposal. Roman citizenship had been extended to all subjects of the Empire, and this citizenship gave definite social status and protection. From the fourth century the idea obtained that God used the state as his instrument in the government of the world; the state was indispensable to the church. But this was not all. The removal of the seat of government from Rome to Constantinople in 476 made the Pope the greatest person in the West. The so-called Donation of Constantine, framed in the eighth or ninth century, which gave the papacy power over great territory, reveals the mediæval idea of the political function of the church. In the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries the church had a jurisdiction of her own, parallel to that of the state. This is shown by the development of
Canon Law, modelled after the Roman civil law. Nor did the development stop here for there finally was evolved the idea that the church, as the arbiter of men's souls, had supreme authority on earth. The history of this development is clear. Leo the First in the fifth century asserted the primacy of the Roman bishop. The bishopric in its development followed the territorial Roman division; there were metropolitan bishops and patriarchs. In the East, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople were rivals. Rome had no such rival in the West; hence the Roman bishop became the œcumenical bishop. The assertion of political power was natural; the masterful Leo went forth to overawe with his spiritual presence the superstitious barbarians. Charlemagne was crowned emperor by the Pope in 800. Otto the Great in 962 was crowned by the Pope emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Gregory VII (1073-85) actually made the church supreme over the state; it was he who humbled Henry VI at Canossa. In Innocent III the papacy was at the height of its temporal power. From the twelfth century the ecclesiastical courts had control over marriage, which had become a sacrament and was indissoluble; the Council of Trent (1545-63) required that the marriage ceremony be performed by a priest in the presence of two witnesses. So far had the church gone in its attempt to govern the world.
As Carter says, the Oriental element of world-denial could not survive in the West. Neo-Platonism had no organization, and of course failed to win the Roman world. Mithraism had an organization and a system of ritual, but it lacked the sympathy and love of the
common man that came from the Nazarene. Christianity had the personality and social teaching of its founder as its greatest asset; hence its success. And so in the fourth century Constantine as emperor of Rome adopted Christianity as the religion of the state. Furthermore Constantine removed his capital to Constantinople, leaving Rome a free field for the evolution of the Holy Roman Empire-the old Rome with its culture and government interpreted in terms of the New Testament as it was then understood. The emperor Gratian in the fourth century, under the guidance of Ambrose, cut off the old pagan cults from the financial support of the state. Gregory (604) gave definite outline to the institution of the Catholic Church which embodied the Christian ideal in a definite organization, and so enabled the old Roman world of philosophy and culture and government to continue in spite of the barbarian invasion.
In the Middle Ages church and state went together; the church represented the inner spiritual life of the New Testament, and the state the old Roman idea of a social order which had rested on "status." The state was the body, the church was the soul, of mediæval society. In estimating the central idea of the mediæval period we must keep in mind the fact that freedom of political action and of religious belief was impossible until individual citizens had reached a point in their moral and social development where they would voluntarily carry out those common social ideals which in the medieval world were guaranteed by the emperor and the pope. When in the Reformation period the separation of church and state did take
place, immediately each nation set up its own state church founded on its own kind of dogma. In England it was the Church of England; in Germany it was Lutheranism; in Scotland it was Presbyterianism. Individuals could not separate themselves from scholasticism, ecclesiasticism, the unity of church and state, from authority, until they had achieved for themselves a system of institutions, educational, religious, political, which was the free expression of a voluntary but social will. The elements of license and individualism in the Renaissance show that it takes time for men to achieve a free church and a free social order. In his dealing with Zwingli, for instance, we see not Luther the modern reformer, but Luther the medieval scholastic. The same story is repeated in Calvin's treatment of Socinus. The fact that the Middle Ages was a period of authority must not prevent us from seeing that it was an epoch in which the old pagan social order was being spiritualized. It was a period in which the earlier world-denying type of Christianity was learning to master the forms of social organization through which it could christianize the world.
The old Hebrew, Greek, and Roman civilizations believed in the reality and divinity of the civic consciousness. But Greek philosophy, in the person of Socrates, brought to self-consciousness the inner life of western civilization; it brought the Hebrew mind to selfconsciousness also; this is seen, for example, in the Fourth Gospel. At the beginning of the Christian era the chief interest of the whole Greco-Roman world had become cosmopolitan; the highest virtue consisted in an inner, universal state of mind, and because the
underlying condition of the mind was cosmopolitan, the old social virtues, which centered in the family, the community, the state, were regarded as local and accidental. This was the atmosphere in which early Christianity developed; hence its tendency toward worlddenial. Church was against state because the Roman state was founded on principles incompatible with the newer virtues for which Christianity stood. In Revelation Rome was represented as Babylon because she destroyed the saints. But the inner, pietistic type of Christian life changed as the centuries passed by; the inner spiritual kingdom came to be regarded as a kingdom realizable, at least in part, in this world. This change was furthered by the continual postponement of the supernatural coming of the kingdom; but, more to the point still, the Christian Church fell heir to the legacy of the old Greco-Roman civilization. Early Christianity preached the separation of church and state; it declared that the kingdom would come through means extraneous to the state. Later Christianity controlled and transformed the state; it used the state as an instrument to establish its kingdom on the earth. There existed warfare and opposition between Christianity and paganism for four hundred years; then there was a truce for a thousand years. What does this mean? It means that the Greco-Roman civilization represented the old social institutions, and that the Greek reason and the Christian will were beginning to transform these fundamental institutions of the old social régime. This is the explanation of the political interests of the medieval Church. At first the Empire was the enemy of the new conscience; then it was due