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ELEMENTARY SPELLER :

A CRITICAL WORK ON PRONUNCIATION;

EMBRACING

A STRICTLY GRADED CLASSIFICATION OF THE PRIMITIVE AND
THE MORE IMPORTANT DERIVATIVE WORDS OF THE
ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FOR ORAL SPELLING; EXER-
CISES FOR WRITING FROM DICTATION:
PREFIXES, AFFIXES, ETC., ETC.

By J. MADISON WATSON,

Author of the National Readers, Spellers, and Primer; The Independent
Readers: The Hand-Bock of Gymnastics; Manual of Calisthenics, etc.

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A. S. BARNES & COMPANY,
NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.

1873.

Educ T 758.73.935

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

GIFT OF THE

GRADUATE SCHOTEATHERS.

Ark 15 1927

conducting recitations in this work, classes should be required,

IN

1. TO READ OR PRONOUNCE THE LIST OF WORDS assigned for oral spelling, omitting letters that appear in italics, and distinctly uttering the sounds of consonants, and of vowels that occur in unaccented syllables. While pupils are thus acquiring a correct pronunciation, their atten tion is so carefully directed to the form of words as to render this a valuable exercise in orthography.

2. TO SPELL ORALLY.-The teacher should pronounce the words correctly, without regard to their orthography; and pupils, in general, should merely name the letters of words, making a marked pause at the end of each syllable, and imitating the teacher in their pronunciation. Pupils who misspell words should be required to write them on the blackboard, and to correct them before the class.

3. TO READ THE DICTATION EXERCISES.-After pupils have pronounced the words assigned, and spelled them orally, they should be required to read the corresponding Dictation Exercises with great care. This will serve both to test their pronunciation and to recall their attention to the form of the words.

4. TO WRITE DICTATION EXERCISES.-The teacher should read the sentences, slowly and distinctly, while the pupils write them. When siates are used, they may be expeditiously examined by requiring pupils to exchange, so that each one shall become the inspector of his neighbor's work, while the teacher spells the several words.

THE NATIONAL SERIES OF READERS.

IN TWO DISTINCT PARTS, EACH COMPLETE IN ITSELF.

I.-ORIGINAL SERIES.

64 PP.
pp.

No. 1, National Primer,.
No. 2, National ist Reader, 128 p
No. 3, National 2d Reader, 228 pp.
No. 4, National 3d Reader, 288 pp.
No. 5, National 4th Reader,432 pp.
No. 6, National 5th Reader,600 pp.

N. E. S.

80 pp.

160 pp.

II. INDEPENDENT
Independent ist Reader,
Independent Reader,
Independent 3d Reader, 240 pp.
Independent 4th Reader,. 264 pp
Independent 5th Reader,. 336 pp.
Independent 6th Reader,. 474 PP.

III. WATSON'S SPELLERS.
To accompany either Series.

1. Watson's Elementary Speller,
2. Watson's Pronouncing Speller,

SERIES.

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160 pp. 188 pp.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, by
A. S. BARNES & CO.,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

PREFACE.

THE

HE constantly increasing demand, among the most experienced and successful educators, for a small, comprehensive text-book, adapted to the wants of Public Schools and the lower classes in Academies and Seminaries, which shall furnish the most approved methods of teaching Orthography and Orthoëpy, has induced us to devote several months to the preparation of this little volume.

The following facts, which are now so generally recognized, have determined its form and arrangement: That the most expeditious mode of learning Spelling is by the eye; that the definitions and the use of words, as well as their orthography, are soonest acquired by frequently writing Exercises from dictation; that, by a thorough classification, the Spelling and Pronunciation of extended lists of words may be learned with nearly the same facility as of separate ones; and that Orthoëpy and Orthography should be simultaneously taught.

Consistently with these views, the words presented are strictly classified with regard to their formation, vowel sounds, alphabetic equivalents, accent, and number of syllables; and, by the use of nurabered vowels and marked consonants, a list of which will be found on each leaf, their exact pronunciation is invariably given. The monosyllables are first introduced, commencing with the three words of one letter, in accordance with our well-known system of word-building; and these are followed by dissyllables, trisyllables, and polysyllables. So carefully has the orthoëpical department been prepared, that the omission of silent letters, which appear in italics, renders this a purely phonetic Spelling-book.

Conscious of the importance of restricting this work to the least possible limits that shall not impair its usefulness, we have taken special pains to exclude derivatives that do not so vary from their primitives as to lead to errors in spelling, pronunciation, or signification. The omissions thus made are provided for by lists of Prefixes

and Affixes, which are fully explained. The vocabulary has also been enriched by the introduction of several hundred euphonious and peculiarly significant words which have not heretofore appeared in similar text-books.

The lists of words are invariably followed by exercises for writing from dictation. These exercises are composed of short, perspicuous, and carefully-framed sentences, which embrace words that are liable to be mispronounced or misspelled, as well as numerous definitions. In these sentences we have aimed to give a clear conception of the peculiar import of unusual words; and to discriminate between synonymous terms, using them in their appropriate sense. Many words, however, have been purposely omitted, with the expectation that pupils will be required to construct short sentences, in which the meaning and the use of all words that do not appear in the Dictation Exercises shall be correctly represented.

The introductory exercises of this volume are simple, terse, and complete, presenting the definitions and the elements of Orthography and Orthoëpy. At its close, Miscellaneous Exercises are added, containing-Effect of Accent in Certain Words; Names of Persons; Rules for Spelling; Prefixes and Affixes, their Meaning and Effect; Rules for the use of Capital Letters; Marks used in Written Language; Choice of Prepositions; Abbreviations; and Foreign Words and Phrases. These exercises are accompanied with explanations and Dictation Exercises illustrative of their use and application.

In the revision of this work, DR. WEBSTER'S UNABRIDGED DICTIONARY, as revised in 1864, has been adopted as our standard of orthography. This work has also been our principal authority on the subject of pronunciation; though, in disputed cases, we have constantly consulted DR. WORCESTER'S DICTIONARY, and the works of B. H. SMART, Esq., the veteran orthoëpist of England-always, however, employing one of the forms approved by DR. WEBSTER.

Advantage has been taken of the opportunity which has arisen from the necessity of resetting this work and casting new electrotype plates to make numerous correctioLS and improvements, none of which, how. ever, will prevent the use of previous editions.

NEW YORK, April, 1871.

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