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HUNT'S Religious Thought in England gives in its earlier pages an impartial and well-executed summary of the more important controversial literature of the time. The History of the Early Puritans (1853), by the late REV. J. B. MARSDEN, is a work of merit; while in DR. MAITLAND'S Essays on the Reformation (1849), we have a series of masterly criticisms, by a writer of a different school, in which the unscrupulous tactics of many of the early Reformers are skilfully exposed.

In MR. MOTLEY'S Rise of the Dutch Republic, and Motley. History of the United Netherlands, productions of very high historical excellence, will be found, and, especially in the latter work, much useful incidental illustration of the influences by which the English foreign policy was, at this period, to a great extent determined.

The best recent outline of the history of the Jesuits Histories of is that by professor HUBER;' but for more original Order. the Jesuit information the works of JUVENCIUS, BARTOLI, and TANNER should be consulted.

Der Jesuitenorden nach seiner Verfassung und Doctrin, Wirksamkeit und Geschichte characterisirt. Von Joh. Huber. Berlin, 1873.

* A Selection from these, comprising Trials for Treason (1327–1660), has been edited by Mr. J. W. Willis-Bund. Cambridge University Press. 1880.

State

The great collection of State Trials, by COBBETT Cobbett's and HOWELL, now begins to be indispensable to the Trials. student. The first volume comprises the period A.D. 1163 to 1600.2

For the history of the East India Company, founded The East by royal charter in the year 1600, the work of BRUCE India Comaffords, for the first century, almost all the necessary information.3

pany.

Annals of the East India Company, from their establishment by the Charter of Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1600, to the Union of the London and English East India Companies in 1707-8. By John Bruce. 3 vols. quarto. 1810.

CHAP.
VI.

CHAP.

VI.

Biographi

cal Works

by Words

worth, and Seebohm.

'Lives of Cranmer,

Parker,

Grindal,
Whitgift,
Nowell.

Lives of
Hatton and
Davison by
Sir H.
Nicolas.

Lives of Sir Philip Sidney.

The Ecclesiastical Biography of DR. WORDSWORTH is chiefly devoted to Lives of sixteenth century divines, many of which are taken from Foxe. They are accompanied by useful notes. Among the most important are those of Colet, Wolsey, Cromwell, Tyndal, Latimer, Cranmer, Jewel, Hooker, Whitgift, and Donne. Of Colet and his times we have an excellent study in MR. SEEBOHM'S Oxford Reformers of 1498. The lives of the most distinguished churchmen of the period- Cranmer, Parker, Grindal, and Whitgift-as given in Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, well deserve to be consulted, though inferior to the same writer's preceding studies in carefulness of execution and accuracy of detail. The Life of Alexander Nowell' (alias Hooker), dean of St. Paul's, by CHURTON, is a valuable sketch of one whom his biographer not inaptly styles 'the last surviving Father of the English Reformation.' The view here taken of the history and policy of the Marian Exiles would appear to be more just and dispassionate than that of many subsequent writers. For the statesmen of the age, besides the Lives in Campbell and Foss, those of William Davison and Sir Christopher Hatton, by SIR HARRIS NICOLAS, may be named. In the Appendix to the former will be found the four 'Apologies' left by Davison, relative to his remarkable trial. The Life of Sir Philip Sidney by his personal friend and admirer, LORD BROOKE (1652), will always continue to be read as a graceful and touching tribute to the worth of a heroic character; but as a source of information, this work, as well as the Life by ZOUCH (1808), has been superseded by the Memoir by MR. Fox BOURNE (1862), a work of much literary merit founded on a careful consultation of

The Life of Alexander Nowell: chiefly compiled from Registers, Letters, and other authentic Evidences. By Ralph Churton. M.A. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1809.

relating to

Scots.

original documents. The biographical literature relating to MARY, queen of Scots, is voluminous and exceptionally controversial. The controversy appears to have been excited, in the first instance, by the histories. of Hume and Robertson, both of whom inclined to an unfavourable estimate of Mary's character. Their conclusions were challenged by WILLIAM TYTLER, who published in 1759 his Inquiry, historical and critical, into Literature the Evidence against Mary, Queen of Scots (2 vols. Mary, 8vo. 1790). A far more thorough investigation of the Queen of evidence is to be found in the comparatively recent work of MIGNET,' who reverted to the view of Hume. MR. HOSACK,2 in a yet later contribution to the subject, sides again with Tytler, looking upon Mary as the 'victim of sectarian violence and barbarous state-craft.' The Life of the first Earl of Essex, in MR. DEVEREUX'S Lives of Lives and Letters of the Devereux, is of special interest the Defrom the new and somewhat startling light in which it Walter Raleigh, places the character of Elizabeth. For the career of Sir and Knox. Walter Raleigh, the Life by OLDYS, published in 1733, is the original storehouse of facts. This has, however, been to some extent superseded by the work of MR. EDWARDS incorporating the results of Oldys's research, and also additional material unaccessible, for the most part, at the time when the earlier work was compiled.3 M'CCRIE'S Life of Knox (1812), is still the standard source of reference for all that relates to the great Scotch reformer.

vereux, Sir

The whole of our sixteenth history is further illus

'Histoire de Marie Stuart. 3rd edit. 2 vols. Paris, 1854.

2 Mary, Queen of Scots, and her Accusers: embracing a Narrative of Events from the Death of James V. in 1542 until the Death of Queen Mary in 1587. By John Hosack. 2 vols. 2nd edit. 1870.

The Life of Sir Walter Ralegh. Based on Contemporary Documents preserved in the Rolls House, the Privy Council Office, Hatfield House, the British Museum, &c. By Edward Edwards. Vol. i. The Life; vol. ii. Letters. 1868.

CHAP.
VI.

CHAP.
VI.

Cooper's Athenae Cantabri gienses.

trated by a biographical collection of exceptional merit and importance-the Athenae Cantabrigienses, by the brothers CHARLES HENRY, and THOMPSON COOPER, which extends from the year 1500 to 1609. A more admirable series of concise biographies is nowhere to be found, while the aid afforded to the student by the lists of authorities and works of reference appended to each life is of the highest value. In the impartiality of its criticisms, and the thoroughness of its execution, this work greatly surpasses the Athenae Oxonienses of Anthony Wood, above mentioned (p. 323).

[ADDENDUM. Students of this period will also find it useful to consult the treatise of Nicolas Sander, entitled Historia Schismatis Anglicani, which extends from the twenty-first year of the reign of Henry VIII. to the twenty-seventh of Elizabeth. This was first published in 1585; subsequent editions, with additions by other hands, appearing in 1610 and 1628. Sander was an Oxford professor with strong Catholic sympathies, who finally quitted England for the continent in 1561. His treatise is frequently appealed to by writers of his party as authoritative, and embodies, they maintain, a more truthful representation of events than that given by Protestant writers. It may here be further observed that it is of high importance clearly to distinguish the successive influences of Lutheran, Zwinglian, and Calvinistic doctrine in this country, and for this purpose Sander's treatise will be found of considerable assistance. The work has been translated, with introduction and notes, by Mr. David Lewis (1877).J

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CHAPTER VII.

FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES I. TO THE ESTAB-
LISHMENT OF THE PROTECTORATE.

'

State Papers.-Party spirit, already excessive under the influence of theological differences, becomes, in the seventeenth century, still further intensified by political animosities. Rushworth, in dedicating his Collections to Richard Cromwell, says, ' most writers now-a-days appear in public crooksided, warped, and bowed to the right or to the left.' The few, indeed, who supply a dispassionate and candid record of events are of minor importance as writers, and generally not distinguished by ability. In this dearth of competent and unprejudiced contemporary historians, the State Papers of the period necessarily assume the highest degree of importance, and the Calendars of these, by Mr. Lemon, Mr. Bruce, Mr. Hamilton,2 and Mrs. Everett Green, afford invaluable aid. The Hardwicke Papers, already described (supra, p. 314), contain papers relating to the Spanish Match and to the French Match; correspondence of Charles I.

3

1 See supra, p. 312, note 1.

2 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of Charles the First. 16 vols. Edited (i-xii.) by John Bruce, Esq.; vol. xiii. by Bruce and Hamilton; and vols. xiv. xv. and xvi. by W. D. Hamilton, Esq. R. S. 1858-80.

⚫ Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, during the Commonwealth. Edited by Mary Ann Everett Green. 5 vols. 1875-8. For Stale Papers of Reign of James I. by same editor, see supra, p. 312.

CHAP.
VII.

State Papers of the period.

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