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siderable importance. Sir Edmund Verney attended the king on his expedition against the Scottish Covenanters in 1639, and has left one of the most circumstantial accounts of that ignoble campaign. The Memoirs of the Verney family which Mr. Bruce has interwoven with their correspondence are also of interest and value.

CHAP.
VII.

lock's Me

From the commencement of the reign of Charles Whiteto the year 1660, WHITELOCK'S Memorials1 furnish morials. one of the best accounts of the general home administration. Whitelock was a man of acknowledged veracity and moderation of character, and his opportunities for observation in the important offices which he successively filled, and the fulness of his disclosures, render the work one of the highest authority for the period to which it relates.

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With the year 1638 commences the important Thurloe Papers. collection known as the Thurloe Papers.2 THURLOE was secretary to the Council of State, and to Oliver and Richard Cromwell successively, and the papers which he collected and transcribed during his tenure of office were preserved in the library of Lord Somers. They consist (1) of letters written by the Council of State, 1639. Printed from the original MSS. in the possession of Sir Harry Verney, Bart. Edited by John Bruce. C.S. 1852.

Memorials of the English Affairs: or, an Historical Account of what passed from the beginning of the Reign of King Charles I. to King Charles II. his happy Restauration. Containing the Public Transactions, Civil and Military: together with the private Consultations and Secrets of the Cabinet. By Mr. Whitelock. London, 1732. [Comparison with a more succinct edition in MS., now in the possession of lord Bute, points to the conclusion that, while it is undoubtedly Whitelock's work, much (at least of the earlier part) was written from memory, and consequently partakes of the defects inseparable from such a process. S. R. G.]

2 A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Esq. In 7 vols. : containing authentic Memorials of the English Affairs from the year 1638 to the Restoration of King Charles II. By Thomas Birch, M.A

CHAP.
VII.

May's

the

For the history of the Long Parliament, the work History of of MAY' is generally accepted as a standard authority; it is preceded by a notice of some of the earlier parliaments. His narrative, considering the period, is remarkably free from invective and rancour, and tends to induce the belief that the statements it contains are on the whole faithful and impartial. For more precise reports of some of the speeches we are indebted to the Notes of SIR RALPH VERNEY; while the Collection by SCOBELL supplies the texts of such Acts and Ordinances as were of general scope and permanent force, down to the year 1656. A volume published by the Camden Society, containing documents relating to the parliaments of 1640 and certain proceedings (connected with their enactments) in Kent, illustrates the condition of the

Parliament.

Verney's
Notes.

Scobell's
Collection.

and by the two Cromwells during the Protectorate; (2) letters from English ambassadors or envoys, and naval and military commanders during the same period; (3) letters from other functionaries in high office; (4) accounts of the revenues of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

Parliaments of 1640.

The History of the Parliament of England, which began Nov. 3, 1640: with a short and necessary View of some precedent Years. Written by Thomas May, Esq. Clarendon Press. 1854.

2 Notes of Proceedings in the Long Parliament, temp. Charles I., printed from original pencil memoranda taken in the House by Sir Ralph Verney, Kt. Edited by John Bruce, Esq. C. S. 1845.

A Collection of Acts and Ordinances of General Use made in the Parliament begun and held at Westminster the third day of November, anno 1640, and since unto the adjournment of the Parliament begun and holden the 17th of September, anno 1656, &c. By Henry Scobell, Esq., Clerk of the Parliament; examined by the original Records and now printed by special Order of Parliament. London, 1658.

• Proceedings principally in the county of Kent, in connection with the Parliaments called in 1640, and especially with the Committee of Religion appointed in that year. Edited by the Rev. Lambert B. Larking. C. S.

Church at this period, and the administration of archbishop Laud.

In the reign of James II., NALSON, a zealous royalist, Nalson's published a series of documents relating to the ten years Collection. from the outbreak of the Scottish rebellion to the execution of King Charles (A.D. 1639-49). The work is dedicated to James; and in his introduction Nalson endeavours to convict Rushworth of tampering with documents, and prints parallel passages to prove his assertions. His Introduction is also noticeable as containing an exposition of the doctrine of non-resistance in its most servile form.

1 An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs of State, from the beginning of the Scotch Rebellion in the year 1639, to the Murther of King Charles I., wherein the first Occasions and the whole Series of the late Troubles in England, Scotland, and Ireland are faithfully represented. By John Nalson, LL.D. 2 vols. 1682.

For the rebellion in Ireland in 1641, and the subsequent history of Irish affairs, the Ormonde Papers are (in the present absence of a Calendar of the State Papers) the main source of information, the post of Lord Lieutenant and Governor of the country having been filled by Ormonde for periods amounting in the aggregate to nearly thirty years. These collections contain also much that relates to events occurring in England. With these the student should compare Clarendon's Claren'Short View,' in the seventh volume of his History, don's written in defence of the royal Irish policy throughout, and especially to vindicate Ormonde. A Contemporary ContemHistory of Affairs in Ireland from 1641 to 1652, edited by porary History of Mr. J. T. Gilbert,3 offers a valuable contribution to the Ireland.

Short View

2 A Collection of Original Letters and Papers concerning the Affairs of England, from the year 1641 to 1660, found among the Duke of Ormonde's Papers. By Thomas Carte. 2 vols. London, 1739.

In 6 parts. Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society. 1879 and

1880.

CHAP.
VII.

Affairs in

Ireland.
Papers.

Ormonde

CHAP.
VII.

Special events, &c.

Gun

powder Plot.

Trial of
Somerset.

The
Spanish
Marriage.

Expedition 10 Rochelle.

literature of the subject, and includes numerous original documents. The general tenour of the evidence supplied is unfavourable to the English conduct of affairs, and, in contradiction to Clarendon, serves to convict both Ormonde and Charles of complicity with the Irish Catholics in 1641, in order to secure their assistance against the English Parliament.

Turning now to special events and particular characters, we have, for the Gunpowder Plot, FATHER GERARD'S Narrative, contained in the volume by Morris, already named (supra, p. 318), and the documents contained in MR. JARDINE'S work. For the trial of the earl of Somerset and his countess, MR. AMOS'S volume 2 furnishes original material, although his treatment of the evidence is altogether wanting in critical value.

Of the Spanish Marriage, viewed in the light in which the facts would present themselves to a Spanish Catholic, the treatise of FRAY FRANCISCO is a trustworthy representation, and supplies a full statement of the case, on behalf of Spain, against king James and prince Charles.

An account written by Lord HERBERT OF CherBURY of the Expedition to the Island of Rhé,1 is designed to vindicate the whole conception and conduct of the undertaking; its value, however, is somewhat diminished by the consideration of the fact that the writer was the confidant and personal friend of Buckingham. In his 'Preface to the Reader,' he refers to four other accounts of the expedition.

The Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot. By D. Jardine. 1856.

The Great Oyer of Poisoning: the Trial of the Earl of Somerset for the Poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury in the Tower of London. By Andrew Amos. 1846.

Narrative of the Spanish Marriage Treaty. Edited and translated by S. R. Gardiner. C. S. 1869.

The Expedition to the Isle of Rhé. By Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Phil. S. 1860.

VII.

Declara

The Large Declaration,' published in 1639 by royal CHAP. authority, was the work of DR. BALCANQUAL, although it does not bear his name. It is valuable on account of The Large the documents printed in it, and also as giving the tion. royalist version of king Charles's case against the Covenanters. The negotiations between the king and the Borough's Covenanters in 1640 have received additional illustration in a volume edited by the late Mr. Bruce.2

Notes.

Annales.

The Annales of Scotland, by SIR JAMES BALFOUR of Balfour's Kinnaird,3 lord Lyon King at Arms to Charles I. and Charles II., extend from A.D. 1507 to 1603. The last two volumes giving, under the title of Some Brief Memorials and Passages of Church and State,' a chronicle of events from 1641 to 1652, are a valuable contemporary record.

Memoirs

The Memoirs of Henry Guthry, bishop of Dunkeld, Guthry's embrace the period 1637 to 1649. GUTHRY was originally a Covenanter, but subsequently espoused the cause of Charles I., and, on the re-establishment of episcopacy, was made a bishop. His narrative fairly deserves the praise of being one of the most temperate and candid specimens of the minor historical literature of the time.

It was in the year 1640 that torture was resorted to, for the last time in England, as a legal means for ex

A large Declaration concerning the late tumults in Scotland. Fol.

1639.

2 Notes of the Treaty carried on at Ripon between King Charles 1. and the Covenanters of Scotland, A.D 640, taken by Sir John rough, Garter King of Arms. Edited from the Original MS. in the possession of Lieutenant-Colonel Carew, by John Bruce. C. S. 1869. Historical Works of Sir James Balfour. with a prefatory Memoir. 4 vols. 1825.

Edited by James Haig,

The Memoirs of Henry Guthry, late Bishop of Dunkeld: containing an Impartial Relation of the Affairs of Scotland, civil and ecclesiastical, from the year 1637 to the Death of Charles I. 2nd edit. Glasgow,

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