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dition in which the powers of the economy are capable of remedying the effects of disease.”
Our author now proceeds to investigate the history of particular aneurisms ;--and, in distinct sections, he gives a very minute and detailed account of everything connected with the formation, progress, termination, and treatment of each variety. But here it is not our intention to go into details. It is suffi. cient to remark, that, under the heads of carotid aneurism, axillary and subclavian aneurisms,- brachial, radial, and ulnar aneurisms,-inguinal aneurism,-gluteal and ischiadico-femoral, popliteal, and tibial aneurisms, the reader will be gratified with a variety of interesting cases and observations, and by an account of those brilliant operations which reflect so much honour on modern surgery. The subject of wounded arteries, including the
processes of nature and of art for the suppression of hæmore rhage, is also discussed with much ability by Mr Hodgson. His observations on the diseases of veins are no less worthy of notice, and we regret that our limits, already transgressed, do not permit us to introduce our readers to at least a superficial acquaintance with them. The diseases of the veins are respectively considered under the heads of inflammation of the veins,morbid changes of their coats,--and varicose veins. There is also a section on the obliteration of veins, and venous collateral circulation, highly deserving a careful perusal. To conclude, we can, with great confidence, recommend this volume to the attention of our readers, as embodying a great variety of fact and illustration, and presenting a very faithful and interesting record of the improved state of science and of art in pathology
Materia Medica of Hindoostan, and Artisan's and Agricul
turist's Nomenclature. By WHITELAW AINSLIE, M. D. Superintending Surgeon of the Madras Establishment. 4to.
Madras, 1813. pp. 301. ALTHOUGH one-half of this work does not come within the
object of our Journal, the other is in itself so important, and it is so seldom that India furnishes us with a subject for the exercise of our critical talents, that we hasten to make our readers in some degree acquainted with it. We have often occasion to find fault with the fineness of the paper, and beauty of the typography, extravagantly lavished upon productions otherwise insignificant. In the present instance, we have the opposite fauit tu censure, so far as the types are concerned. While the Tamool and Dukhanie characters are sharp and clear, the Roman and Italic letters used in printing this work seem to have been exported to Madras after having been worn out in the service of an encyclopædia or newspaper in this country. This is no fault of the author, but it is certainly disgraceful to the Government press of Madras, at which it is printed, and inclines us to suppose that in that settlement no competition is permitted to excite in it any desire to excel.
The medical part of the work contains three sections, the first and second containing a short notice of articles of the Bri. tish Materia Medica found in Asiatic countries, many of which are in common use among the Indian practitioners. The third section embraces several subjects connected with Indian Materia Medica. A dictionary of medicines of the Tamool Materia Medica, many of which are in common use amongst the Telingas and Mahometans, although but few of them have been hitherto much inquired after by European practitioners.
A table, shewing the doses of such Tamool medicines as are not included in the British Materia Medica.
The weights in use amongst the native druggists of Lower Hindoostan.
Forms of prescriptions in use amongst the native medical practitioners of Lower Hindoostan.
In an appendix, we have a table of the names of diseases in the English, Tamool, Dukhanie, and Telingoo languages; a list of books (chiefly medical) in the Tamool, Persian, Arabic, and Sanscrit languages; some further particulars concerning the purging croton nut; and some additional articles omitted in the body of the work.
It is impossible to give any further analysis of a work of this kind, or to extract the information it contains, from the manner in which it is dispersed among the numerous articles noticed in these dictionaries; we have, therefore, no other method by which an idea of the execution of the work can be formed, than by transcribing an article from each of them.
“ MYROBOLAN, CHEBULIC. Kádukāi (Tam.)Huldah (Duk.)
Ahleelujcabulee * (Arab. )- Hélceléhkélan (Pers.) Har also Hara (Hind.)-- Carākàia (Tel.) - Haratākā (Sans.)-TERMINALIA CHEBU
Willd. “ This species is infinitely more astringent than the preceding (Myrobolan, Belleric.) Nay, it would appear, by some experiments made by Dr Roxburgh, † that it is even more so than the Aleppo Galls.
“ Kadukai, well rubbed, in conjunction with Galls, and Cuttacāmboo (of each equal parts), is considered by the Vytians as an excellent external application in the aphthous affections of children and adults; the last of which is a most dangerous disease amongst the native Indians.
“ The tree which produces the Kadukāi is common in Mysore, where it is called Arulay; and hence the botanical name (Myrobolanus Arula) given to it by Dr Buchanan.”
“ Nērvālum cottay (Tam.) ---Jummal gotta (Hind. and Duk.) Dund (Pers.)—Bātoo (Arab.)- Naypālum vittiloo (Tel )-Jayūpīlā (Can.)–PURGING CRoton Nut.-CROTON TIGLIUM, Lin.-Dunti beeja, also Népála (Sans.)
“ These seeds, which were formerly known in Europe under the name of Grana Molucca, are of a convex shape on one side, and bluntly angular on the other, are reckoned by the Vytians amongst their drastic purges, and are frequently prescribed by them in maniacal cases, or on other occasions when powerful cathartics are required. Their operation is rendered much less violent when the seeds f are cleared from the thin filament in which each is closely enveloped; then, as far as one of the seeds may be given as a dose.
The Malay name of the fruit is Bori. The plant || is the Cadel Avanācu of the Hort. Mal.
“ A fixed oil is prepared from the seeds of the Nervalum, called Nervalum unnay, which is considered as a valuable external application in Rheumatic affections.
From these extracts, it will be seen that Dr Ainslie has distinguished himself, both professionally as a collector of Indian Materia Medica, and as an oriental linguist. Indeed, we have seldom met with a work in which industry, learning, and knowledge, were so judiciously combined. We cannot resist our inclination to transcribe the following interesting account of the Hindoo physicians.
* D'Herbelot is of opinion that the Arabic name of this Myrabolan is taken from the word Cabul, the article having been first brought to Arabia from the country so named.
+ See Oriental Repertory, Vol. I.
# For very valuable and interesting accounts of the Purging Croton, as it has been used as a purgative in Guzerat, the reader is referred to communications from Dr D. White of Bombay, and Mr Marshall, Assistant Surgeon of that establishment; which may be seen in the Appendix of this work.
|| Rheede tells us, that the leaves of this plant, rubbed and soaked in water, are also purgative; he, at the same time, adds, that, when dried, and reduced to powder, they are a useful remedy against the bite of a Cobra Capella, applied to the bitten part. Ses Hort. Mal. part 2d, page 62.
“ I shall not perhaps find a better occasion than the present, for doing what I conceive to be a justice to the Hindoo medical men of these provinces; attacked as they have been, somewhat roughly, by Monsieur Sonnerat, in his “ Voyage to the East Indies.” That gentleman says, that the Indians are mostly all pretenders to some knowledge of medicine ; that there is not one physician amongst them more learned than another ; that they are generally individuals who have been washermen, weavers, or blacksmiths, but a few months before ; and, to crown all, that they administer few remedies inwardly, and make little use of ointments or cataplasms. *
“ In reply to the latter part of this gentleman's remarks, I shall only offer a perusal of the Tamool Materia Medica, and list of Medical Books contained in this work; to the fornier I must say, that either Monsieur Sonnerat has been a little remiss in his inquiries, or that I have been particularly fortunate in meeting with Vytians of a very different description from those he alludes to. That there may. occasionally be found in this, as well as in other countries, men who, with more impudence than education or talents, push themselves into notice, will not be disputed; but it is as certain that there are many Hindoo physicians who are doctors by long descent, who, from their early youth, have been intended for the profession, and taught every thing that was thought necessary to be learned respecting it. Not a few of them have I known, who were not only intimately acquainted with all the medical Sastrums, great part of which they had by heart; but who, in other respects, were in their lives and manners, correct, obliging, and communicative; and I am happy to see that a character nearly similar to this has been given of the same description of people in Bengal by Sir William Jones, who speaks of them in the following terms: “ All the tracts on medicine must indeed be studied by the Vydyas, (Doctors,) and they have often more learning, and far less pride, than any of the Brahmins. They are usually poets, grammarians, rhetoricians, and moralists; and may in fact be esteemed the most virtuous and amiable of the Hindoos."
“ There are no medical tracts of any note in Dukhanie : + Such of the Hakeems as have any pretensions to learning, are sufficiently well
* See Sonnerat's “ Voyage to the East Indies and China.” Vol. II. p. 136, 137. English Translation
+ What is commonly understood by Dukhanie, is the language currently spoken by the Mahometans of Lower Hindoostan. It has a great affinity with the Hindoostanee of the Higher provinces ; like it, too, it has two different styles, viz. the low jargon of the common people, which is a very poor dialect ; and
acquainted with the Persian and Arabic to read with case the professional works that are written in these languages ; and some of them, by combining a knowledge of the Tamool Materia Medica with the opinions and doctrines which they find in the books they peruse, possess a great deal of information, and are in general men of polite man pers, liberal minded, and humane.”
Researches on Pulmonary Phthisis, from the French of G. L.
Bayle, D. M. P. By WILLIAM BARROW, M. D. Senior Physician to the Fever Hospital, Lunatic Asylum, and Workhouse, Liverpool. Liverpool, 1815. pp. 479. 8vo.
with which it is introduced to our notice by the translator, almost prepossessed us against it. But a translator must be looked upon as a lover, who has eyes only for his mistress, and thinks « this present age yields not a woman worthy to be her second.” We readily admit, that “ the indefatigable industry and perseverance of M. Bayle, his unassuming modesty and candour, the perspicuity and genuine philosophy he has displayed, certainly entitle him to the esteem and respect of every country :" but Don Quixote was less unsuccessful in getting the transcendent beauty of his Dulcinea acknowledged, by force of arms, than Dr Barrow will be in his attempts to convince the pupils of the London and Edinburgh schools of the right of France to exult, even“ at present, in her claim to pre-eminence, either in pathological or practical knowledge,” or “ to boast that one of her physicians has done more towards establishing an accurate knowledge of disease of the lungs, than had been effected in other countries (Why other countries only? Why except France itself from the censure ?) in two thousand years.”
We agree perfectly with Dr Barrow on the great value of morbid anatomy, and lament with him most sincerely the obstacles which exist in this country to pathological investigation,
that in use amongst the more enlightened and high cast of Moosulmans, which, by containing a great many Arabic, Persian, Sanscrit, and eyen Tamool and Telingoo words, is rich, copio:is, expressive, and energetic.