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it was finally proved, that the impulse to the motion of the organs of respiration likewise proceeds from the spinal marrow, and that in animals, after their heads were cut off, respiration could be supplied by the blowing in of air. P. H. Nysten shewed, by experiments, to what changes the chemical properties of the expired air are subject in diseases. *

Comparisons with the phenomena in other classes of animals are nowhere more necessary than for the explanation of respiration. Hence the observations and experiments of F. L. A. IV. Sorg,+ and of C. L. Nitzsche, I were very valuable, as explaining the difference of the changes which respiration produces in the lower classes of animals; hence likewise F. v. P. Gruithuisen, in his above-mentioned Organozoonomy, and L. Oken, in his Philosophy of Nature, justly believed direct respiration, without circulation, to consist in the gases passing immediately into the body, but that, in the higher classes of animals, and in man, in particular, the changes of the fluids in respiration are produced more by an internal activity. Hence it is necessary to limit the earlier assertion of Humphrey Davy and J. Bostock, that, even in man, oxygen, and even nitrogen, are really consumed in respiration, and that the former is not employed only for the formation of carbonic acid gas. This opinion was, indeed, totally refuted by W. Allen and W. H. Pepys, || who proved, that, in man, the blood never absorbg any nitrogen in respiration, and that the whole of the oxygen is employed for the formation of carbonic acid. Humboldi, Provençal, and Configliacchi, on the contrary, pointed out the immediate passage of the gases in fishes and the lower animals, and their deposition in the swimming-bladder of the former.

L. Oken examined also more carefully the respiration of the fætus in utero, ** and pointed out that the vessels of the navel-string are only subservient to the oxydation, not to the nourishment of the child. Nasse tried to prove that this oxydation is very imperfect, and that, therefore, an imperfectly oxydized blood is sufficient for the nourishment of the child.

* Recherches de Physiologie et de Chimie Pathologique. Paris, 1811. 8.

+ Disquisitiones Physiologicae circa respirationem insectorum et vermium. Rudolst. 1805. 8.

# Diss. de respiratione animalium. Witteb. 1808. 4. u. in Reil's Archiv, B. 10. S. 440.

Versuch über das Athemholen. Aus dem Engl. von A. F. Nolde. Frf. 1809. 8.

|| Harles's Journ. B. 10. und Schweigger's Journ. B. 1. S. 182.
| Schweigger's Journ. B. 1.
* Siebold's Lucina, B. 3. St. 3.

J. B.Wilbrand + published general views of respiration according to the new philosophy; S. Méhes, † a collection of the known facts according to J. F. Ackermann's Theory; and E. Bartels, s a critical history of this function.

The doctrine of the generation and growth of the embryo was subjected to accurate investigation, which was crowned with successful results. The idea that the embryo of the higher animals passed from its first origin, through the various stages observed in the lower animals, first hinted at by Harvey and K. F. Wolf, was beautifully explained by L. Oken, || J. F. Meckel, and F. Tiedemann. ** The use of the vesicula umbilicalis at the earlier period of the embryo, and the origin of the intestinal canal from it, were pointed out by D. G. Kiesert+ and Oken. IF The latter explained from this fact the production of umbilical ruptures. The diverticula of the intestinal canal, as they are called, were likewise explained in the same way by 7. F. Meckel Il and by J. B. Lucä. 1 The function of the thymu, gland was by Flor. Caldani thought to consist in *** the dilution and assimilation of the lymph and chyle ; and for this purpose he endeavoured to shew à communication between this organ and the thoracic duct The influence of the thymus gland, in preserving the imperfect state of oxydation in the blood, was explained by J. F. Meckel from its enlargement in deficient respiration. ttt A. W. Otto illustrated these and other relations from the examination of monsters. [1] His view of the production of monsters without heads or brains, in consequence of hydrocephalus, was not quite agreeable to the

* Reil's Archiv, B. 10. S. 263.
+ Ueber das Verhalten der Luft zur Organisation. Münster, 1807. 8.

De Respiratione Animalium Commentatio. Heidelb. 1808.
Die Respiration. Berl. 1814. 4,

Die Zeugung. Bamb. 1805. 8. 1 Abhandl. aus der menschl. und vergleich. Anatomie. Halle, 1806. 8. ** Anatomie der kopflosen Missgeburten. Landsh. 1813. fol. At Der Ursprung des Darmranais aus der vesicula umbilicalis. Gött. 1810. 8.

Beytr. zur vergl. Zoonomie. H. 1. Bamb. 1806. 8. $0 Preisschrift über die Entstehung und Heilung der Nabelbrüche. Landsh. 1810. 8.

!!!| Beytr. zur vergl. u. menschl. Anat. H. 1. Handbuch der patholog. Anatomie. S. 560.

11 Anatom. Benierkungen über die Diverticula am Darmcanal und über die Höhlen der Thymus. Nürnb. 1813. 4.

Conghiettura sopra l'uso della glandola timo. Venez. 1808. 4. ttt Handb. der pathol. Anal. S. 489. $FF Monstrorum sex humanorum anat, et physiol. disquisitio. Frcf. 1811. 4.

***

true history of the evolution of the human embryo. · J. C. Zinmer made some interesting observations in dissecting monsters ; * still he did not explain the malconformations, ascribed to the fault of the mother, so happily as J. F. Neckel, who regarded them as consequences of interrupted organization. A. Wienholt adopted a dynamic influence of the mother upon the child, and thought he was able to explain many monstrous births from mechanical principles. † Vinc. Malacarne ex. plained admirably the origin of monsters without heads, and of the enlarged hydrocephalus; and, at the same time, refuted Gall's view of the unfolding of the brain. I

The difference and similarity between the parts of generation in both sexes, was first demonstrated by J. F. Ackermann ; § but with more precision, and more comprehensively, by J. H. F. Autenrieth, || J. C. Rosenmüller, f A. Meckel, with reference to the formation of the intestines, ** and by K. F. Burdach. HSimilar comparisons, illustrated from the history of developement, were instituted by L. Oken, even with the bones of the cranium and the rest of the skeleton ; and he imagined the thorax to be copied in the nasal-bones, and the extremities in the jaw-bones. | How very useful comparative anatomy, and the history of the developement of the human embryo, are for explaining almost all congenital malconformations, was excellently demonstrated by J. F. Meckel. og In this manner we were enabled to explain, among others, the hare lip, which baffled Jos. Anna. Il General illustrations of developement were given by J. W. T. Zanders, 19 J. Malfatti, with application to pathology, *** S. C. Luca, H and A. Hanke. #11

1807. 8.

* Physiol. Untersuchungen über Missgeburten. Rudolst. 1806. 8. | Sieben Vorlesungen über die Entstehung der Missgeburten. · Bremen,

Oggetti più interessanti di ostetricia e d'istoria naturale. Pad. 1807. 4.

Infantis androgyni historia et ichnographia. Jen. 1805. fol. || Reil's Archiv, B. 7. S. 1. | Abh. der physic. medic. Societät zu Erlangen, B. 1. ** Diss. de genitalium et intestinorum analogia. Hal. 1810. 4. tt Anat. Untersuchungen. Leipz. 1814. 4. If Ueber die Bedeutung der Schädelknochen. Jen. 1807. 4 $ 9 Handb. der Pathol. Anatomie. B. 1. Leipz. 1812. 8. Il Beschreibung u. Abbik, eines Wolfsrachens. Rast. 1805. 8. TT Beyträge zu einer Geschichte der Thiermetamorphose. Köln. 1807. 8.

*** Entwurf einer Pathogenie aus der Evolution und Revolution des Lebens. Wien, 1809. 8.

ttt Unters. über einige Gegenstände des Zeugungsgeschäfts. 19. Frkf. a. M. 18!3.

#11 Uber die Entwickelungs-Perioden des menschlichen Organismus. Nürnb. 1813. 8,

After L. Calza's * investigation of the two muscular layers of the uterus with intervening cellular substance, the function of the uterus was explained by J. C. Reil by polarity; t against which, some weighty objections were urged by J. C. G. Jörg, I to whom we are also indebted for an excellent comparative represen. tation of the organs of parturition in women and other animals.

We conclude this review of the progress of physiology with enumerating the discoveries and corrections upon particular subjects. Sir E. Home examined more accurately the structure and functions of the spleen. He believes he has found that the drink passes directly from ihe stomach into the spleen. Upon the system of the vena portarum, Conr. Hönlein published an admirable work, on account of its illustrations derived rom comparative anatomy. 1 The lymphatic system has been investigated by Stanis. Gilibert, ** the system of the skin by Gautier, # the capillary vessels by G. Prochaska, # by whom also the permeability of the sides of the vessels has been adopted, in which J. F. S. Posewitz had before asserted, that there were pores actually visible. gg H.C. A. Osthoff explained the doctrine of nutrition and assimilation minutely and profoundly; || and Emmert determined exactly the chemical relations of chyle. If The use of the epiglottis was doubted by Magendie, because he observed in dogs, from which it was removed, a complete closure of the glottis when they drank. But A. C. Mey. er Ht shewed very satisfactorily, that, in man, the epigloutis actually prevented the entrance of what was swallowed into the glottis, and also contributed to the formation of the voice.

* Reil's Archiv, B. 7. S. 341.

Daselbst, S. 394-501.
I Neues Journ. der Erf, St. 19.

Ueber das Gebär-Organ des Menschen und der Säugthiere. Leipz. 1808. fol.

# Nicholson's Journ. Vol. XX. No. 90. ; Vol. XXI. No. 92. Reil's Archiv, B. 9. S. 525.

Descriptio anatomica systematis venae portarum. Mogant. 1808. fol.
** Essai sur le systeme lymphatique. Paris, 1805. 8.
++ Recherches Anat. sur le système cutané. Paris, 1811. 4.

If Bemerkungen über den Organismus des menschl. Körpers. Wien, 1810. 8.

$$ Bestimmung des durch die Gefäss-und Nerven-Porèn entweichenden Rüch. gen Stoffes. Giessen, 1805. %.

lll Rhapsodieen aus der Lehre von der assimilativen und reproductiven Function des Organismus. Erl. 1806. 8.

ff Reil's Archiv, B. 8. S. 145. fol.

*** Zwey Abh. über das Erbrechen und den Nutzen des Kehldeckels beyne Verschlucken. Aus dem Franz. von Dittmar. Bremen, 1814. 8.

+t Salzb. Med. Zeit. 1814. B. 3, S. 181

That various, particularly metalline substances, and among these quicksilver, resist the process of assiinilation, and pass directly into the blood, was proved by the experiments of C. M. Zeller, * who obtained metallic quicksilver from the blood of animals upon which he had rubbed it ; and that quicksilver reappeared in the perspiration, during a mercurial treatment, was again observed. |

(To be continued.)

II.

An Experiment to ascertain the Effects produced on Sound Eyes,

by the Application of the Discharge from Eyes affected with Ophthalmia, in its different Stages ; with Remarks. By J.

MACKESY, Surgeon, 1st Battalion 62d Regiment.
Ist.
PHILIE

Hilip BRIDGES, private in the 1st battalion 62d regi

ment, was admitted into regimental hospital 17th of April 1808, labouring under ophthalmia. The conjunctiva was much inflamed ; its vessels on the globe of the eye turgid with dark blood, and presented the appearance of incipient chemosis. Palpebræ, particularly the upper, much swelled ; a puriform discharge, and flow of tears considerable. Duration of the disa ease 20 days. 2d. SERGEANT MASSEY. The inflammation of both

eyes had been considerable ; is now on the decline; conjunctiva red; its vessels still turgid ; a moderate purulent discharge. Has been 13 days in hospital.

3d. JAMES Mason, admitted the 29th April. The inside of the lids and conjunctiva moderately inflamed; the discharge not remarkably profuse. The 8th day of the disease.

4th. GEORGE VALLANCE, admitted the 7th of May; a resent case ; both eyes much inflamed ; violent pain ; intoler. ance of light ; a profuse flow of tears, but no purulent discharge.

Experimenta circa hydrargyri effectus in animalia viva. Tub. 1808. 8.Reil's Archiv, B. 8. S. 213. fol.

+ Horn's Archiv, 1810. Jul. S. 252.

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