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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND

BIOGRAPHY.

A NEW EDITION;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

Conversations-Lexicon.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.

VOL. IX.

BOSTON:

BAZIN AND ELLSWORTH.

18 5 9.

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£niered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1831, by

CAREY AND LEA, To the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

MONOTHEISM; the belief in, and wor- “ to the unknown God,” mentioned in the ship of, a single God, opposed to a plural- Acts of the Apostles, is also a proof of the ity of gods (polytheism). The most prevalence of the same feeling. Reflectancient written records (the Bible), and ing minds, too, were always found, who the traditions of the most ancient nations, deviated from the national polytheism, as give us cause to regard this religion (in an the heathen philosophers, Parmenides, imperfect state indeed) as the oldest and Socrates, Plato, &c., and many later Plaoriginal religion. The Mosaic annals tonists, the Egyptian philosopher Psam- . speak of God as the Creator of heaven mon, who, according to Plutarch (Life of wid earth; and the ancient doctrines of the Alexander), inculcated the doctrine that Eramiys speak of a single divine nature God is the general Father of all men, holding preeminence over the three other choosing the best of them for his child principal divinities, which are to be re- dren. The history of the Hebrews afgarded, as it were, as the three chief ener- fords the most striking instance of the gies of a supreme God, viz. of the Para- preservation of monotheism amid the brama, who is fully and clearly set forth, corruptions of paganism. Notwithstandwith all the attributes of divinity. The ing the errors into which they were freChaldeans,also, besides the light which they quently led by the example of the nations opposed to darkness, believed in a higher around them, they still preserved the idea increate light, which is eternal, almighty, of one God, the Creator of heaven and wise and good, and from which first pro- earth, till

, from their view of Jehovah, ceeded the corporeal light. The Persians whom they regarded and adored, for the placed above their Ormuzd and Ahriman most part, only as the original God of the their Zeruanon Akherme, and the eternal chosen people, was unfolded the purer word. Even the Egyptians bad, in their and more comprehensive monotheisin of Eikton, a Supreme Being, at least for their Christianity. secret religion. All the different my- MONOTHELITE. (See Maronites.) thologies bave, among the host of gods MONROE, James, one of the presidents with which they people heaven and earth, of the U. States, was born April 28, 1758, some supreme God, inore or less defined, in Westmoreland county, Virginia, on the but, in every case, distinguished above the Potomac, on land of which, a century and others. And in every instance we see, a half before, his ancestor, who first miin these mythologies, the gods gradually grated to this country, was the original multiplied, as man departed, farther and grantee. He was educated at William farther, from the simple and original reve- and Mary college, and, in 1776, entered lation, till lost in the multitude of deified the revolutionary army as cadet. He personifications which he had himself cre- was soon after appointed a lieutenant, and, uted; but even in the case of the most in the summer of that year, marched to refined polytheism, there always remains New York, and joined the army under the un idea of something more powerful, to command of general Washington. He which even the gods are subject

, as the was engaged in the battle of Harlen. Fate of the ancients. The ultar at Athens, Heights, in that of White Plains in the

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