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NOTES TO LECTURE IV.
NOTE (1), page 149.
"BEAUSOBRE says, that these paschal sodalities were called brotherhoods, and the guests, companions or friends; and that our Saviour's reproof of Judas, by calling him friend, or companion, was both just and cutting, because he betrayed him, after having eaten the Passover with him."- Horne's Introduction, vol. iii. p. 302.
Dr. Lightfoot remarks on this place, in his Hora Hebraica, that it was usual for a master to kiss his disciple, but very rare for a disciple to kiss his master; and he doubts, whether the object of Judas was, to counterfeit a more than ordinary degree of affection, or to offer an insult, and a mark of contempt. But Erasmus is, probably, correct, when, in his Paraphrase on St. Matthew, he observes, that " he came with a kiss after such sort, as though he would have told him some news."
NOTE (2), page 149.
"Jesus did not abate any part of his gentleness towards the traitor: he only nipped him by the conscience, saying: My friend, for what intent art thou come?
He knew, right well, how he would never turn from his wickedness, and yet used he all the means that might be, to reform him: teaching us hereby, to use all the gentleness, and fair means we can possibly, towards sinners, because we be uncertain, whether they will one day turn, and come to amendment. If they amend, then have we won the soul-health of our fellow Christians, [lucrifecimus proximorum salutem]: if they amend not, yet shall not our gentle demeanour be unrewarded." Erasmus. Paraphrase on St. Mark, xiv.
The reader must be aware, that, at the commencement of the Reformation, a translation of Erasmus's Paraphrase "was set up in all churches, for the better instruction of priests in the sense and knowledge of the Scriptures." This translation was originally undertaken, at the expense of Queen Catharine Parr, and under the superintendence of Nicolas Udal, a learned divine, afterwards Prebendary of Windsor. Strype conjectures, that the Queen herself assisted in the translation; and she certainly endeavoured, but in vain, to interest the Lady Mary in the work. The whole Paraphrase on the New Testament, was printed at least twice, under King Edward. See Strype. Memorials, vol. ii. ch. i. pp. 45-49.
NOTE (3), page 154.
"After that they were come to themselves again, and made ready to set upon Jesus the second time, the Lord asked them once again, whom they did seek. And, when they had now answered as before, saying they sought Jesus of Nazareth, he made them a like bold answer as he had done before; and said, I told you, even very now,
that I am the same man ye look for. And if ye me, I do license you to meddle only with me: suffer ye, therefore, these to go their way, against whom I give you no interest at this present. The cause why Jesus did this, was to declare, by a manifest token, that he could not have been apprehended, except he had permitted himself to be taken; in that he had once, with one word, put back and cast down to the ground both a desperate and an armed multitude of soldiers, and Judas' self, too, that shameless traitor. Moreover, like as he gave them leave to take himself, so, on the other hand, he restrained them from having power over his disciples: because he had told before hand, that the fierceness of that storm should, for that present time, light upon his own head alone; and as for the rest, although they were somewhat overthrown and deject, yet should they be safe, without hurt, until he should see them again: herein declaring himself to play the part of a good shepherd, which redeemeth the health of his flock, with the loss of his own life."— Erasmus. Paraphrase on St. John, xviii.
NOTE (4), page 155.
"Jesus performed this miracle, to teach us, that we should do good, even to those who do evil to us.
The name of Malchus was added by the Evangelist, that those for whom he was writing, might make inquiry, and ascertain, whether the fact really was as he stated it. It seems to me, that he mentioned the ear, to show the vehemence of the Apostle, who aimed at the very head
of his opponent."- St. Chrysostom. Hom. in S. Joan. lxxxiii. al. lxxxiv.
NOTE (5), page 155.
"These words are thus interpreted by Grotius and others: Put up thy sword; thou needest not to use it in my cause, against the injuries of the Jews; for, by God's sentence and decree, they that take the sword to shed the blood of the innocent, shall perish by the sword; and this the Jews will find, by that tremendous vengeance the sword of the Romans shall execute upon them for this fact." Whitby. Note 21, on S. Matt. xxvi. Dr. Hammond, following St. Augustine, paraphrases the thus: "Do nothing contrary to law; for passage all they that draw and use the sword, without authority from those which bear the sword, shall fall themselves by it; shall incur the punishment of death."
NOTE (6), page 157.
"It is lawful," says Erasmus, "for weak persons to fly, who are not, as yet, meet and able to suffer persecution. Albeit, there chanceth a time, when that to fly, is nothing else, but to deny Christ. Then, must we not fly, but, even of our own accord, hasten to die. When that, by thy death, the Gospel taketh more disprofit than commodity, then fly away and hide thyself. But, when that, by the same, the Gospel hath much profit, and, contrarily, great disprofit and hinderance if thou
avoid the danger thereof, then stick not to go and meet the hangman." - Paraphrase on St. Mark, p. lxxxviii.
NOTE (7), page 161.
Bishop Pococke observes, in describing the dresses of the people of Egypt, that it is almost a general custom among the Arabs, and Mahometan natives of the country, to wear a large blanket, either white or brown, and in summer a blue and white cotton sheet, which the Christians constantly use in the country: putting one corner before, over the left shoulder, they bring it behind, and under the right arm, and so over their bodies, throwing it behind over the left shoulder, and so the right arm is left bare for action. When it is hot, and they are on horseback, they let it fall down on the saddle round them: and about Fariune, I particularly observed, that young people especially, and the poorer sort, had nothing on whatever, but this blanket; and it is probable the young man was clothed in this manner, who followed our Saviour when he was taken, having a linen cloth cast about his body; and when the young men laid he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked." Harmer. Observations on diverse Passages of Scripture. vol. ii. p. 419.
hold on him,
By Epiphanius, St. Jerome, and Theophylact, it is asserted, that this young man was St. James; who was afterward Bishop of Jerusalem, and author of the Canonical Epistle. Nor is this improbable. For, although not a disciple, yet, as a relation of our Lord, he would naturally feel interested in the result, as soon as, having seen the armed retinue, he had ascertained its destin