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CRASSUS-CRAVAT.

riches. He possessed a fortune equal to ed his hair to grow: then standing collars, $5,000,000. He once gave an entertain- embroidered and pinked, the plaited colment to the whole people, in which 10,000 larettes, the neck-band, plain or laced and tables were set, and, besides this, distrib- pointed, encompassed the neck chin-deep; uted corn enough to last each family three and, when Louis XIV adopted those enormonths. In the years of Rome 683 and mous periwigs, which hardly left the throat 698, he was a colleague of Pompey, in the visible, all these splendid envelopes gave consulship, and, in 688, censor. As he way to ribands, tied in brilliant bows. was one of the most influential men in Next came the epoch of the dangerous Rome, and very ambitious, his friendship subjection of the neck to constriction and was sought by Cæsar, who formed, with compression, from which it had hitherto him and Pompey, the famous triumvirate. been exempt. In 1660, a foreign regiment He perished, with a great part of his army, arrived in France, composed of Croats, in in an expedition against the Parthians, whose singular costume one thing was undertaken from motives of avarice and generally admired and imitated. It was a ambition, B. C. 53.

bandage about the neck, consisting of CRATER. (See Volcano.)

common stuff for the soldiers, and of CRAVAT; an unhealthy, uncomfortable, muslin or silk for the officers. The ends unbecoming article of European and were disposed in a bow, or garnished American dress. The ancients were un- with a tuft or a tassel, and hung not unacquainted with this ridiculous and injuri- gracefully over the breast.

This new ous style of bundling up the neck. They article of dress was at first called a croate, left unconfined that important region of and afterwards, by corruption, a cravat. the body, through which so many vessels The military and the rich, at that time, pass, and in which are situated so many wore very fine cravats, with the border organs, which will endure no constraint embroidered, or edged with broad lace. with impunity. In some cases, indeed, Those of the soldiers consisted of a scrap they defended themselves from the cold by of cloth, of cotton, or, at the best, of black, a woollen, cotton or silk band, called, in plaited taffeta, bound round the neck by Latin, focale, from fauces, throat. But no two small cords. Afterwards, the place one could venture to use this contrivance of these cords was supplied by clasps or a publicly, unless he was sick; in which buckle, and then cravats took the name of case he might cover his head, and the stocks. Under Louis XVI, the stocks upper part of the shoulders, and even yielded to the cravats à la chancelière. wear breeches (q. v.), without disgrace. The last flourished but for a moment: the Palliolum, sicut fascias et focalia," says revolution came, and with it disappeared Quinetilian, “ sola excusare potest valetudo.cravats, and even tight breeches. Soon It was allowable, indeed, to cover the after this epoch (1796), the cravat recovneck with the toga in bad weather, or to ered its popularity, and increased to an hold the hand over it, for the preservation incredible degree of extravagance. Some or restoration of the natural temperature. persons enveloped the neck with whole The Poles never wear any thing round pieces of muslin; others, with a padded the neck, notwithstanding the severity of cushion, on which were wrapped numertheir winters. The same custom prevails ous folds. In this way, the neck was among the Orientals, hy whom a white, puffed out so as to be larger than the head, round neck is compared to the beauty of with which it was imperceptibly conan ivory tower. The bare neck gradually founded. The shirt-collar arose above became unfashionable in Europe. It was the ears, and the upper edge of the craat first surrounded, but not constrained, by vat buried up the chin and the mouth a starched band of fine linen, on the upper nose-deep; so that the visage, bristling on edge of the shirt, falling back natural- either side with a grove of bushy whis. ly upon the bust, where it was fastened kers, and its upper regions ensconced to the by a small cord. This was the origin of eyes by the hair flattened down over the all the different species of collars since brows, absolutely showed nothing except used-the innocent parent of those thick, the nose, projecting in all its plenitude. hot folds, in which the neck was destined The exquisites thus cravatted resembled to be afterwards muffled. Ruffs, stiffened any thing rather than men, and afforded or plaited, single or in many rows,—an excellent subjects for caricatures. If they liconvenient, indeed, but not a dangerous wished to look any way except straight ornament,—had their turn, and lasted as forward, they were obliged to turn the long as short hair was in fashion. They whole trunk, with which the neck and were abandoned, when Louis XIII allow- head formed but one piece. It was im

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possible to incline the head in any direc- produced to form a rostrum or beak; the tion. Most fashions have been invented abdomen large, slightly attenuated posteto hide an infirmity or a deformity: large riorly, composed of six joints, forming a cravats were probably first used to conceal tail quite as long, when extended, as the some disagreeable scars, or some unlucky body, and terminating in five broad-fringmalforination. A singer or a public speak- ed, swimming appendages, which fold er cannot use bis voice to advantage dur- laterally upon each other. In both sexes, ing the time when his cravat is tied too the under part of the abdomen is generally tight. The habit of wearing large cravats provided with five pairs of false claws, renders the neck

very liable to be affected each terminated by two plates or plaby exposure. By uncovering the neck ments. The exterior jaw-feet are mostly imprudently when heated, severe and narrow, elongated, and do not entirely dangerous diseases have often been con- cover the other parts of the mouth. The tracted. A young man or young lady, on gills are pyramidal, brush-shaped, or leaving a party in a warın apartment, plume-like, separated from each other by should be careful to protect the neck and tendinous slips, and situated beneath the breast from cold.

sides of the great superior shell, over the CRAVEN, Elizabeth, lady; margravine external base of the feet. Of the latter, of Anspach, youngest daughter of the earl the second and third pairs are elongated, of Berkeley ; born in 1750, and married in slender, and furnished at the last joint, 1767, to William, last earl of Craven, by which is movable, with small pincers; whom she had seven children. But, after the fourth and fifth pairs have the last a connexion of 14 years, in consequence joints simply pointed or hooked. The of his ill-treatment, a separation was sexual organs are placed, in both sexes, in agreed upon in 1781. Lady Craven, after the basal joint of the last pair of feet. this, lived successively at the courts of The species belonging to this genus, as Versailles, Madrid, Lisbon, Vienna, Berlin, at present restricted, do not exceed six. Constantinople, Warsaw, St. Petersburg, Some of these kinds are peculiar to salt Rome, Florence and Naples; then in An- and others to fresh water. Of the former, spach, where she became acquainted with the most celebrated is the lobster (astacus the margrave Christian Frederic Charles gammarus), so prominent among the luxAlexander, a nephew of Frederic the uries of New York, and our other eastern Great. On this tour, in 1787, she was maritime cities. In their modes of living, persuaded by the count Choiseul-Gouffier, the crawfish generally resemble the aquatFrench ambassador to Constantinople, to ic crabs (see Crab), feeding on putrefying descend into the grotto of Antiparos, animal matter, spending their time on the which no woman had ever before visited. sandy or rocky bottom of deep waters, After the death of lord Craven, at Lisbon, and only approaching the shallows when in 1791, the margrave married her, sur- impelled by the necessity of undergoing rendered his estates to the king of Prussia their change of shell, or when under the for a yearly pension, and went, with his sexual influence. The common lobster : consort, to England, where he purchased the largest species, and grows to a size an estate (Brandenburg), not far from which may well appear wonderful to perHammersmith, and died in 1806. From sons accustomed to see none but small that time, lady Craven has lived partly in ones. They are brought to the New York England, partly in Naples. The account market more than two feet in length, and of her travels through the Crimea to Con- weighing 20 pounds and upward Such stantinople, in a series of letters, was first individuals, however, are not preferred for published in 1789. A new enlarged edi- the table, as their size is a good indication tion appeared in 1814. Besides these, of their age, and their period of life is she has written poems, plays and roman- stated to extend to 20 years and more. The ces; also her own memoirs (Memoirs of smaller, or half-sized lobsters, are considthe Margravine of Anspach, formerly Lady ered the best. The quite small, or young Craven, &c., London, 1825). These are ones, which are commonly sold in New interesting on account of her intercourse Haven (Connecticut), as too small for the with Catharine II, Joseph II, and other New York market, are, in our opinion, far princes.

superior to either.—The fresh-water crawCrawfisu (astacus, Fab.); a crustaceous fish, of which one species (astacus bartnoir genus, belonging to the family decapoda very common in most of the freshmicroura (ten legged, long tailed), charac- water streams and brooks fruni Pennsylterized by having the anterior part of the vanja southward, affords us the best opelongated semi-cylindric superior shell portunity for observing their habits. We

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CRAWFISH-CREAM OF TARTAR.

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find them inhabiting excavations of con- nobody will ever surpass thee!" The siderable depth along the borders, or a city of Ghent alone had 21 altar-pieces by short distance within the current of the him. In Flanders and Brabant are many stream, at the bottom of which they lie of his works, and some of his pictures are nid. In the spring of the year, by cau- in the public collections at Vienna and tiously approaching, and remaining quietly Münich. His paintings are praised for on the margin of such a stream, we may fidelity to nature, excellent drawing, and a see the crawfish industriously bringing coloring approaching the manner of Vanfrom the lower part of their caves the dirt dyke. The latter was his friend, and took accumulated there; and this enables us to his likeness. Crayer died in 1669. comprehend the manner in which they CRAYONS ; a general name for all color originally made their retreats. Upon the ed stones, earths, or other minerals and two great claws, folded towards each oth- substances used in designing or painting er, and thus forming, with the front of the in pastel, whether they have been beaten, body, a sort of shelf, the dirt is carefully and reduced to a paste, or are used in their brought to the surface, and thrown down primitive consistence, after being sawn or just where the current will sweep it away. cut into long, narrow slips. The sticks of As the substances thus brought up are dry colors which go under this name, and very light, it requires a very gentle move- which are cemented into a friable mass, by ment of the animal to avoid spilling, or means of gum or size, and sometimes of rather washing, off his lading; and he clay, afford a very simple means of applytherefore rises in the gentlest and most ing colors, being merely rubbed upon pacircumspect manner. We can testify to per, after which the shades are blended or the patience with which this labor is con- softened by means of a stump or small tinued, as, with the view of observing the roll of leather or paper. The drawings operation, we have often quietly pushed require to be protected by a glass covering, in the earth from the edge of the water, to save them from being defaced, unless which they as often have toiled on to some means have been adopted to fix

It is upon these fresh-water them, so that they may not be liable to be species that the observations have been rubbed off. This may be done by brushmade, relative to the re-production of ing the back of the paper with a strong limbs or claws violently broken off. But solution of isinglass, or by passing the a short time elapses before a growth or drawing through a powerful press, in convegetation occurs at the stump or broken tact with a moist paper. part, and a new limb, similar to the origi- CREAM OF TARTAR (potassæ supertar nal, though sometimes rather smaller, is tras ; cremor tartari). This salt exists in soon formed. This facility of re-produc- grapes and in tamarinds. The dregs of tion is found to extend throughout the wine also contain a considerable quantity crustaceous class. Fresh-water crawfish of it. Cream of tartar contains a very are regarded by many as furnishing a del- considerable proportion of super-tartrate icate dish for the table, though their small of potassa, about seven or eight hundredths size, and the trouble of collecting a suffi- of tartrate of lime, and a small quantity of cient number of them, are great obstacles silica, albumen, iron, &c. It is insoluble to their being extensively employed in this in alcohol, but may be dissolved in 15 way. They are preyed upon by various parts of boiling and 60 of cold water. It animals, especially by certain birds, whose may be rendered much more soluble by long bilis are adapted to picking them out mixing with it a certain quantity of bofrom the bottom of their dens.

racic acid or borate of soda, which renCRAYER, Gaspar, a Dutch painter, born ders the cream of tartar soluble in its own in 1582, at Antwerp, was a pupil of Raph- weight of cold water, and in the half only ael Coxie, and became, by the study of of this menstruum when boiling. This nature, one of the greatest historical and preparation is known by the name of soluportrait painters. At the Spanish court in ble cream of tartar. Its aqueous solution is Brussels, he painted the portrait of the soon decomposed by the contact of the cardinal Ferdinand, brother of the king, air. It is obtained by dissolving in boiland received a pension. He established ing water the common tartar - white or hiinself in Ghent, where he constantly reddish crystalline matter, which forms on executed works for the court. He labored the internal sides of the vessels in which with industry and perseverance till his wine has been kept-mixing with it some 86th year. When Rubens saw his finest clay, which precipitates the coloring matpainting in the refectory of the abbey of ter, and then permitting the liquor to Afleghem, he cried out, “Crayer, Crayer, crystallize. The action of this substance

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varies according to the dose in which it is yet it suited the taste of the age. His administered. In small doses, it is ab- chef d'auvre, at least according to La sorbed, and acts as a temperant; and, in Harpe, is his Rhadamiste (1711). But Boithis quality, it is employed in jaundice, leau, on his death-bed, hearing the first foulness of the stomach and intestines, &c. scenes of this tragedy read to him by LeIn larger doses, it principally spends its verrier, could not help exclaiming to his action on the mucous intestinal membrane, friends, “ Heavens! do you wish to hasten and induces alvine evacuations, especially my death? Why, the Boyers and Pradons when given in powder. Its taste being were suns to this author! I shall be more rather less unpleasant than that of some willing to leave the world, since our age other neutral salts used in medicine, and is becoming inundated with silly trasl).” its operation being of a very gentle nature, Most persons of the present day would it is very frequently administered. In probably agree with Boileau. In eight France, the soluble cream of tartar is gen- , days, the Rhadamiste passed through two erally preferred.

editions, and Paris and Versailles vied CRÉBILLON, Prosper Jolyot de, the with each other in admiring it. Crébillon elder, a writer of tragedy, who is com- had been told that his talent lay in the pared, by his countrymen, even to Æschy- terrible, and thought, therefore, that he sus, born at Dijon, Feb. 15, 1674, early could not exert himself too much in scenes manifested talent at the school of the Jesu- of horror, and hence was called the terriits in his native town, but, at the same ble. Xerxes (1714) exceeded, in this retime, a boisterous and heedless temper. spect, all that he had before written, but Being designed for the profession of law, soon disappeared from the stage. Semirhe was placed with an attorney named amis (1717), the mother enamoured of her Prieur at Paris; but they were both lov- son, and not cured of her passion by the ers of the theatre, so that the youth made discovery of his relationship, was severely little progress in his studies. The attor- censured. It was not till nine years after ney perceived, too, that his pupil was dis- this that his Pyrrhus appeared (1726), and qualified for the profession by his passion- met with a good reception, contrary to the ate temperament, but showed penetration expectation of the author, who, in this and judgment in his criticisms on dra- work, had abstained from the frightful matic performances: he therefore advised and shocking. Domestic distress and him, though he had, as yet, written noth- poverty seem, from this time, to have ing but some trifling songs and scraps of crippled the powers of his genius. His verse, to apply himself to dramatic com- small patrimony was absorbed by debts position. Crébillon_did so; but his first and law expenses. A father and a beloved piece, La Mort des Enfans de Brutus, was wife were taken from him within a short rejected by the players. He burnt the time. Amidst the embarrassments in manuscript, and resolved to have no more which he was involved, he refused, with to do with the drama; but, subsequently, characteristic inflexibility, all the offers of at the persuasion of Prieur, he wrote Idomé- assistance which were made him. When née, which, in 1705, was brought upon the madame de Pompadour wished to humble stage. The faults of the play were over- Voltaire, Crébillon was thought of as a fit looked in consideration of the youth of instrument for her purpose. The king the author, and the promising talent gave him the office of censor of the police, which it displayed; and the promptness a yearly pension of 1000 francs, and an with which the author in five days wrote appointment in the library. Thus freed anew the last act, which had displeased at from anxiety, he finished his Catiline, the first representation, drew the attention which was represented, at the king's exof the public to the young poet, whose pense, in 1749, with all the pomp that the I talents, after the appearance of his Atrée, court theatre could display. This piece, in 1707, were loudly applauded. Prieur, overrated by the party opposed to Volthough sick, requested to be carried to the taire, is undervalued by La Harpe. To theatre, and said to the young tragedian, make some atonement to the character of «I die content ; I have made you a poet, Cicero, which was thought to have been and leave in you a man who belongs to wronged in his Catiline, he wrote, at 71, the nation.” A strange taste for unnatural the Triumvirate, or the Death of Cicero, declamation had been excited by the Rho- which was brought upon the stage in his dogune, and this manner was carried to 81st year. The defects of the piece were excess by Crébillon, in the Atrée. In 1709 overlooked, from respect to the age ot'the appeared his Electre, which is as declam- author. Thus much for his dramatir atory and as intricate as his earlier plays; compositions. In general, Crébillon snoux

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ninie, of the true elevation of the tragic PÉsprit (Hague, 1736, 3 vols.), perhaps the ar, but only an imitation, sometimes a most successful, but unfinished. One of happy one, of the manner struck out by his most voluptuous pieces is Le Sopha Corneille. He was a man of a proud and (1745, 2 vols.). In the same licentious independent character, disdained to flatter strain are most of his other writings comthe great, and passed much of his life in a posed. It is still a disputed point whether condition bordering on poverty. More he was the author of the Lettres de la Marfortunate circumstances might have given quise de Pompadour. They are not inmore amenity to his spirit; but, neglected, cluded in the edition of 1779, 7 vols., as he imagined, by mankind, he sought 12mo. Crébillon held a small office in consolation in the company of dogs and the censorship of the press. He died at cats, which he picked up in the streets Paris, April 12, 1777. (the poorest and most sickly were those Crecy or CRESSY EN PONTHIEU ; a which he preferred), and found a species town in France, in Somme; 10 miles N. of enjoyment in an irregular manner of of Abbeville, and 100 N. of Paris; populiving. In 1731, he became a member of lation, 1650. It is celebrated on account the academy. Crébillon died June 17, of a battle fought here Aug. 26, 1316, be1762, at the age of 88. Louis XV erected tween the English and French. Edward a magnificent monument to him in the III and his son, the Black Prince, were church of St. Gervais, which, however, both engaged, and the French were dewas never entirely completed till it was feated with great slaughter, 30,000 foot removed to the museum of French monu- and 1200 horse being left dead in the ments (aux petits Augustins). Besides the field; among whom were the king of Bosplendid edition of Crébillon's works pub- hemia, the count of Alençon, Louis count lished by the order of Louis XV, for the of Flanders, with many others of the benefit of the author, after the successful French nobility. performance of Catiline (Euvres de Cré- CREDIT, in economy, is the postpone. billon, imprimerie R. du Louvre, 1750, 2 ment agreed on by the parties of the payvols. 4to.), there is another published by ment of a debt to a future day. It imDidot the elder, 1812, 3 vols., in both of plies confidence of the creditor in the which, however, six verses are omitted in debtor; and a “credit system” is one of genCatiline, which had been left out in the eral confidence of people in each other's representation, as applicable to madame honesty, solvency and resources. Credit de Pompadour.

is not confined to civilized countries; Mr. CRÉBillon, Claude Prosper Jolyot de, Park mentions instances of it among the the younger, son of the preceding, born Africans; but it will not prevail extenat Paris in 1707, succeeded as an author sively where the laws do not protect propin an age of licentiousness. By the exhi- erty, and enforce the fulfilment of prombition of gross ideas, covered only with a ises. Public credit is founded upon a thin veil, and by the subtleties with which confidence in the resources, yood faith he excuses licentious principles, Crébillon and stability of the government; and it contributed to diffuse a general corruption does not always flourish or decline at the of manners, before confined to the higher same time and rate as private credit; for circles of Parisian society. In later times, the people may have either greater or less the French taste has been so much chang- confidence in the government than in ed, especially by the revolution, that such each other : still there is some sympathy indelicacies as are found in his works and correspondence between the two; for would not be tolerated at the present day. a general individual confidence can rarely, His own morals, however, appear to have if ever, take place in the midst of distrust been the opposite of those which he por- of the government; and, vice versa, a firmi trayed. We are told of his cheerfulness, reliance upon the government promotes his rectitude of principle, and his blame- a corresponding individual confidence less life. In the circle of the Dominicaux among the citizens. The history of every a Sunday society), he was a favorite, and industrious and commercial community, the caveau where Piron, Gallet, Collé, under a stable government, will present wrote their songs and uttered their jests, successive alternate periods of credit and was made respectable by his company. distrust, following each other with a good Of his works, the best areLettres de la deal of regularity. A general feeling of Marquise *** au Comte de *** (1732, 2 prosperity produces extension and facilivols., 12mo.); Tanzai et Néadarné (less ties of credit. The mere opinion or imlicentious, but full of now unintelligible agination of a prevailing success has, of Ilusions); Les Éguremens du Caur et de its own force, a most powerful influence

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