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POPULAR DICTIONARY

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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND

BIOGRAPHY,

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RASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, ló til i
Be it REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independent of the
United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office
the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit.

“Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and
Biography, brought down to the present Time ; including a copious Collection of Original Article 7 American
Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Fraocis Lieber,
assisted by E. Wigglesworth.”

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement on learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary u as act, entitled, • An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;' and extending the benefits thereof to ibe arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints.'

D. CALDWETT,
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

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Printed by T. 6. & P. G Colline

ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

CRANTARA

ANTARA (Gaelic, crean tarigh); the crape brought from China is of a more cross of shame, because, says sir Walter substantial fabric. Scott, in his note on the passage of the CRAPELET; father and son; two printers. Lady of the Lake (canto 3), in which he The father, Charles, born at Bourmont, has made such a fine use of it, disobedi- Nov. 13, 1762, established his printingence to what the symbol implied, infer- office in 1789, and died Oct. 19, 1809. He red infamy. The Highlanders of Scot- might be called the French Baskerville. land appear to have borrowed it from the Like this printer, he endeavored to unite ancient Scandinavians, of the use of it the greatest simplicity with elegance, to among whom, for rousing the people to deliver the art of printing from the heteroarms, Olaus Magnus gives a particular geneous ornaments with which it was so wcount. As late as the insurrection in overloaded, particularly in France, and 1745, the crantara, or fiery cross, was cir- from which even Didot could not entirely ‘ulated in Scotland, and, on one occasion, free himself; but he surpassed his model 1 passed through the district of Breadal- in the form of his types and the regularity bane, a tract of 32 miles, in three hours. of his work. His editions are no less corAfter Charles Edward had marched into rect than neat and beautiful. He has also England, two of the king's frigates threat- been successful in printing on parchinent, ened the coast with a descent. The cran- and has shown his skill by producing an tara was sent through the district of Ap- impression in gold (13 copies of Audepine by Alexander Stuart of Invernahyle bert's Oiseaux dorés, Paris, 1802, 2 vols., (who related the circumstance to sir Wal- folio).-A. G. Crapelet has extended his ter Scott), and, in a few hours, a sufficient father's business, and has even excelled force was collected to render the attempt him in elegance. His Lafontaine (1814), of the English hopeless.

Montesquieu (1816), Rousseau and VolCRAPE; a light, transparent stuff, like taire (both 1819), are monuments of his gauze, made of raw silk, gummed and taste; and the large vellum-paper copies twisted on the mill, woven without cross- are truly splendid works. The words ing, and much used in mourning. Crapes “ De l'imprimerie de Crapeletare a great are either craped (i. e., crisped) or smooth. recommendation. Renouard has had all The silk destined for the first is more the editions published at his expense twisted than that for the second, it being printed by Crapelet, who, in 1800, em. the greater or less degree of twisting, ployed 22 presses. especially of the warp, which produces

ČRassus. Two Romans of this name the crisping given to it, when taken out of are here to be mentioned. 1. Lucius Lithe loom, steeped in clear water, and rub- cinius Crassus, who was made consul bed with a piece of wax for the purpose. A. U.C. 658 (B. C. 96), and passed for the Crapes are all dyed raw. This stuff came greatest orator of his time. He was disoriginally from Bologna; but, till of late tinguished for talent, presence of mind years, Lyons is said to have had the chief and integrity. 2. M. Licinius Crassus, surmanufacture of it. It is now manufactur- named Dives (the rich), so called, like maed in various parts of Great Britain. The ny of his family, on account of his vast

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