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M. N. 39
29.75 36 38
28 29.7 37
29 29.91 30 37
30.35 32 40
Jan. 1 1815.2 30.5
5 30.28 39
30.28 32 36 7 29.85 36 39 8 29.85 30 35 9 29.88 36 45 10 29.65 37 40 11 29.5 30 40 12 30.12 30 40 13 30. 36 42 14 30. 39 44 15 30.4 32 36 16 30.4 35 40 17 30.51 37 42 18 30.51 35 38 19 30.35 37 39 20 30.21 37 39 21 30.2 35 38 22 30.2 31 38 23 30.1 27 36 24 29.85 29 39 25 29.9 21
Quantity of Rain,........... 1.42
High Water at Leith for February 1815.
H. M. H. M.
6 32 Fr. 17 7 28 Sa. 18 8
Su. 19 10
Tu. 21 12 45
Th. 23 2
Last Quart. 1. New Moon, 9. First Quart. 17. Full Moon 23.
9 26 14 10 58
MOON'S PHASES For FEBRUARY 1815. Apparent time at Edinburgh.
D. H. M.
5 3 morn. 9 33 morn. 4 45 morn. 8 17 after.
EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
For JANUARY 1815.
Observations on the Advantages of Parish or Savings Banks, and the mode in which they may be most advantageously conducted.
Description of EGLINTON CASTLE. EGLINTON Castle, the seat of the
Earl of Eglinton, was built in the year 1798. It is situated in Ayrshire, about three miles to the north of the town of Irvine. It is undoubt edly one of the most magnificent edifices with which that county is adorned. From the plate annexed an idea may be formed of its external appearance. The magnificence and beauty of the interior entirely corresponds. The entrance hall, which is spacious, leads to a saloon' in the is spacious, leads to a saloon in the centre, which is 36 feet in diameter, and rises to the whole height of the building, receiving light from above, and from it the principal rooms enter. One of the apartments in front of the castle is 52 feet long, 32 wide, and 24 in height.
The Earl of Eglinton is well known to take the lead, both in extent of property and political influence, among the land-holders this extensive county. The family this extensive county. The family have been hereditary supporters of every scheme which tended to improve the agricultural and commercial prosperity of Ayrshire.
Nan age, when the principles of universal benevolence are so well
understood, and in a country where practice, no apology can be required these principles have been reduced to for calling the attention of the public, to a scheme which has for its object the welfare of the lower orders of society, and, through them, of the whole community.
ranks can effectually give aid to the One way, by which the higher lower in their temporal concerns, is by affording every possible encouragement to industry and virtue,--by inducing them to provide for their own support and comfort,-by cherishing in them that spirit of independence, which is the parent of so many virtues, and by judiciously rewarding extraordinary efforts of economy, and extraordinary instances of good conduct. Some of these objects have been promoted by the privileges, which the legislature have laudably granted to Friendly Societies. But, excellent as institutions of this kind
respect appear calculated to promote undoubtedly are, they do not in every the intended effect; and they are lia ble to certain disadvantages, which it would be desirable to avoid. It frequently happens, that these Societies, by holding out more advantageous terms to the members than the state
of the funds ultimately justify, bear of the funds ultimately justify, bear in themselves the seeds of their own dissolution: Moreover, it is obvious, that a Friendly Society does not accommodate itself so much as could be wished to the varying circumstances
and abilities of its members. A certain monthly or quarterly contribution is required, which can neither be increased nor diminished; although some individuals, who may be desirous of making every exertion to support themselves, may find it impossible regularly to advance so much, and others have it easily in their power to advance a great deal more.
It appears sufficiently evident, therefore, that something is still wanting, for the purpose of encouraging the lower orders to provide for the future exigencies of life; and that no small benefit would be conferred on them, if an institution could be devised, that should be founded on such principles, as to leave the members in a great measure at liberty to consult their own convenience, with respect to the amount of their payments, and to the time of making them, and that should hold out advantages to each individual, exactly proportioned to the sums he may deposit. Such an institution promises to form a powerful stimulus to industry and frugality amongst the labouring classes, as it would enable persons in that rank of life, to lay up a provision for the necessities of disease and old age. This object might indeed be accomplished by each individual for himself, had he the steadiness to persevere in laying up his superfluous earnings in a corner of his chest, till it should amount to a sum sufficient to deposit in a Bank. But those who know any thing of the situation and habits of the lower orders, will readily be aware of the discouragements to which a plan of this kind must necessarily be subjected, and will not be surprised, that it is seldom resorted to, and still seldomer adhered to. Besides, it is contrary to the rules which the public Banks have found it necessary to adopt, to receive a deposit of any sum less than ten pounds; and how few of the labouring classes can all at once find themselves masters of so large a sum!
To accumulate so much by the weekly or monthly saving of a few shillings, appears at first view almost a hopeless task; and should an individual have the foresight to attempt it, the temptation to break in upon his little stock at every call of necessity, might be too strong to resist. At all events, the progressive addition of interest is lost during the period of accumulation, on the small sums successively laid aside to form the amount which public Banks will receive. To such an extent, indeed, do discouragements operate, in deterring the lower orders from attempting to save a pittance for sickness or old age, that in manufacturing towns, the high wages which are obtained by the labouring part of the community, instead of promoting their domestic comfort, are well known to produce an effect of a nature directly opposite, and are found, in most instances, only to furnish additional encouragement to drunkenness, and to vice of every description.
To apply a remedy for this unhappy tendency, is not perhaps so difficult as one might at first sight imagine, and the means seem to rise naturally out of the principles already laid down. Give these people the certainty that their savings will be preserved to them, and will be forthcoming for the supply of their future wants, and you will not fail to inspire them with new wishes, new hopes, and new habits of industry. Such of them as have an honourable ambition, or even common prudence, will eagerly grasp at a prospect so flattering to their feelings, as that of an old age rendered independent and comfortable by their exertions.
From this, it is sufficiently evident, that, in order to induce the labouring class to pursue a system of saving, it is only necessary to present them with facilities for depositing their surplus earnings, in a situation which combines security with profit. A plan, which should be so contrived as distinctly