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had fled to Florence. This extraordinary event, it is added, had produced some movements of a very numerous party at Rome, who wished a secular government, and were dissatisfied at seeing all offices filled by abbes, monks, and priests.
In the event of hostilities commencing, according to the Brussels papers, three great armies are to act simultaneously against France-that on the north to be command. ed by the Duke of Wellington--that on the east by Prince Blucher-that on the south by Prince Schwartzenberg.
A decree has been issued by the Emperor of Austria, in which, after deploring the disappointment of his hopes in regard to the looked for blessings of a permanent peace, by the events that have lately occurred, he states the necessity under which he feels himself of making new exertions that exceed the ordinary resources of his states, and accordingly orders a loan to be opened for fifty millions of florins. For the payment of the interest and principal of this loan, besides the collected revenue, the produce of the salt mines of Gallicia is to be given as a security, and a sinking fund is to be established for the liquidation of
It appears to be the determination of the British government, to act in concert with the powers on the continent; and accordingly a courier, who arrived in this country from France, was ordered back with his dispatches unopened. A second, who got to London without being recognised at the out-ports, delivered his dispatches, but was also sent back without any answer, and the dispatches were forwarded to Vienna. In the Commons house of Parliament, on the 21st, Lord Castlereagh avowed the treaty of the 25th March as a genuine document, and further added, that ministers were prepared to advise the Prince Regent to ratify it.
states which had been guaranteed to them : from that son, whose birth inspired you with so lively a joy, and who ought to have been to all the sovereigns a sacred pledge. All these attempts, made in violation of plighted faith, have restored me to my throne and my liberty..
"Frenchmen! soon I shall be in my capital; I come surrounded by my brave brethren in arms after having delivered our provinces of the south, and my good city of Lyons from the reign of fanaticism, which is that of the Bourbons. Fifteen days have sufficed me to unite faithful warriors, the honour of France: and before the 30th of this month, your happy Emperor, the Sovereign of your choice, will put to flight those slothful Princes, who wish to render you tributary to foreigners, and the contempt of Europe. France shall still be the happiest country in the world. France shall still be the great nation-Paris shall again become the Queen of cities, as well as the seat of sciences and the arts.
"In concert with you, I will take measures, in order that the State may be governed constitutionally, and that a wise liberty may never degenerate into licentious.
"I will mitigate, to the satisfaction of all, those imposts become odious, which the Bourbons gave you their princely word they would abolish, under the title of Droits Reunis, and which they have re-established under the title of indirect impositions.
Property shall be, without distinction, respected and sacred, as well as individual liberty.
The general tranquillity shall be constantly the object of my efforts; commerce, our flourishing manufactures; and agriculture, which under my reign attained so high a prosperity, shall be relieved from the enormous imposts with which an ephemeral Government have burthened them.
"Every thing shall be restored to order, and the dissipation of the finances of the State, to gratify the luxury of the Court, shall be immediately repressed.
"No vengeance; it is far from my heart; the Bourbons have set a price on my head, and I pardon them. If they fall into my power, I will protect them; I will deliver them to their allies, if they wish it, or to that foreign country where their Chief has already reigned nineteen years, and where he may continue this glorious reign. To this my vengeance is limited.
"Be calm, Parisians, and you, national guards of that noble city-you who have already rendered such great services-you who, but for treason, would have been enabled to defend it for some hours longer, against
Address of the Ministers to Bonaparte.
"SIRE,-Providence, which watches over our destinies, has opened to your Majesty the path to the throne to which you were elevated by the free choice of the people and the national gratitude. The country raises again her majestic head. She salutes, for the second time, the Prince who dethroned anarchy, and whose existence can alone consolidate our liberal institutions. The most just of revolutions, that which restored to man his dignity, and political rights, has hurled from the throne the race of the Bourbons. After twenty-five years of the calamities of war, all the efforts of the foreigner have not been able to reawaken the affections which were either extinguished, or utterly unknown. The interests of a few are sacrificed to those of the nation. The decrees of fate are accomplished. The cause of the people, the only legi ́timate right, has triumphed. Your Majesty is restored to the wishes of the French; you have resumed the reins of government, amidst the blessings of your people and your army. France, Sire, has for its guarantee its will, and its dearest interests.She has also the expressions of your Majes ty uttered amidst the assemblies that crowded around you on your journey. The Bourbons have not forgotten any thing.Their promises have been broken-those of your Majesty will be kept inviolate. Your Majesty will only remember the services rendered to the nation, and will prove that in your eyes and in your heart, whatever may have been the opinions and exaspera. tion of parties, all Citizens are the same be fore you, as they are before the law. Your Majesty will also forget that we have been the masters of the nations that surround us. This noble sentiment adds to the glory already acquired. Your Majesty has prescribed to your Ministers the path they should follow. You have announced to the nation the maxims by which you desire that it should be governed for the future. We are to have no foreign war, unless it be to repulse unjust aggression; no internal re
action, no arbitrary acts. Personal safety, protection of property, the free utterance of thought, such are the principles which your Majesty has pledged to us. Happy, Sire, are those who are called upon to co-operate in such sublime acts. Such benefactions will acquire for you in posterity, when adulation shall be no more, the title of the father of the people.-They will be gauranteed to our children by the august heir of your Majesty, who will speedily be crowned.. -Cambaceres-Le Duc de Gaete-Le Duc de Bassano-Le Duc D'Oirante-Mollien.-Caulincourt, Duc de Vicenza.-Carnot.-Prince Eckmuhl."
His Majesty's Reply." The sentiments you express are my own. All for the Nation, all for France,' that is my motto. Myself and family, whom this great people have raised to the Throne of the French, and whom they have maintained there, notwithstanding political storms and vicissi tudes, we desire, we deserve, we claim ne other titles.'
Extract from the Register of the Deliberations of the French Council of State, in the sitlings of the 25th March.
The Council of State, in resuming its functions, thinks proper to make known the principles which form the rule of its opinions and conduct :
"All sovereignty resides in the peoplethis is the only legitimate source of power.
"In 1789 the nation reconquered its rights, so long usurped or mistaken.
"The National Assembly abolished the Feudal Monarchy, established a Constitutional Monarchy, and the representative form of Government.
"The resistance of the Bourbons to the wishes of the people led to their downfall, and to their banishment from the French territory.
"Twice the people consecrated, by their votes, the new form of Government established by their representatives.
"In the year 8, Bonaparte, already crowned by victory, was called to the Government by the national consent: a Constitution created the Consular Magistracy.
"The Senatus Consultum of the 16th Thermidor, year 10, nominated Bonaparte Consul for life.
"The Senatus Consultum of the 29th Floreal, year 12, conferred on Napoleon the Imperial dignity, and rendered it hereditary in his family.
"These three solemn acts were submit. ted to the acceptance of the people, who rendered them sacred by nearly four mil lions of votes.
"Thus for 22 years the Bourbons had ceased to reign in France; they were forgotten by their contemporaries; strangers to our laws, to our institutions, our manners, and our glory; the present generation only knew them by the recollection of the foreign war which they had excited against the country, and the intestine dissentions which they had lighted up.
"In 1814, France was invaded by hos tile armies, and the capital occupied. Foreigners created a pretended Provisional Government. They assembled the minority of the Senators, and forced them, contrary to their missions and their wishes, to destroy the existing Constitutions, to overthrow the Imperial Throne, and to recall the family of the Bourbons.
"The Senate, which had been instituted merely to preserve the Constitution of the Empire, acknowledged of itself that it had no power to change them. It decreed, that the project of the Constitution which it had prepared should be submitted to the acceptance of the people, and that Louis Stanislaus Xavier should be proclaimed King of the French, as soon as he had accepted the Constitution and sworn to observe it, and to cause it to be observed.
"The abdication of the Emperor Napoleon was merely the result of the unfortunate situation to which France and the Emperor had been reduced by the events of the war, by treachery, and the occupation of the capital; his abdication had only for its object, to avoid a civil war and the effusion of French blood. Not being consecrated by the will of the people, this act could not destroy the solemn contract which had been formed between them and the Emperor; and even if Napoleon could have personally abdicated the throne, he could not have sacrificed the rights of his son, who was called to reign after him.
declaring, that the acts which emanated from the will of the people were only the products of a long revolt, he granted voluntarily, and by the free exercise of his royal authority, a Constitutional Charter, called "an Ordinance of Reformation ;" and, for its whole sanction, he made it be read in presence of a new Body which he had just created, and a meeting of Deputies, which was not free, which did not accept him, none of whom were clothed with a charac ter to entitle them to consent to this change, and two-fifths of whom had not even the character of representatives.
"All these acts are therefore illegal. Done in presence of hostile armies and under foreign domination, they are only the works of violence, they are essentially null and degradatory to the honour, the liberty, and the rights of the people.
"Nevertheless, a Bourbon was appointed Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom, and assumed the reins of government.
"Louis Stanislaus Xavier arrived in France; he made his entrance into the capital; he took possession of the throne, according to the order established in the ancient feudal monarchy.
"He had not accepted the Constitution decreed by the Senate, he had not sworn to observe it and to cause it to be observed; it had not been submitted to the people; the people, subjugated by the presence of foreign armies, could not even express free ly nor validly their wishes.
"Under their protection, after having thanked a foreign Prince for having caused him to re-ascend the throne, Louis Stanis laus Xavier dated the first act of his authority in the 19th year of his reign, thus
The document, after stating that Louis had violated all his promises, proceeds:
"The Emperor, in re-ascending the throne erected by the people, is called to guarantee anew, by institutions (and he has engaged to do so in his proclamations to the nation and army) all liberal principles, individual liberty, and equality of rights, the freedom of the press, and the abolition of censorship, the liberty of worship, the vote of contributions and laws by the Representatives of the Nation legally chosen, the national properties, however they may have originated, the independence and immovability of the tribunals, and the responsibility of Ministers, and of all the agents of power.
"The better to consecrate the rights and obligations of the people and of the monarch, the national institutions are to be revised by a great assembly of the representatives, already announced by the Emperor.
"Until the meeting of this great National Assembly, the Emperor ought to exercise, and cause to be exercised, conformably to the existing constitution and laws, the power they have delegated to him, which cannot have been taken from him, and which he could not abandon without the consent of the nation, and which the wishes and interest of the people oi France impose on him as a duty to resume.
Signed, LE COMTE DEFERMON, and the other members of State. His Majesty's Reply.
"Princes are first citizens of the Statetheir authority is more or less extensive according to the interest of the nation they govern. The Sovereignty itself is not hereditary, but because the interest of the people requires it to be so-besides these principles, 1 do not know any legitimate
"I have renounced the idea of the great einpire,
empire, the basis alone of which I had established in the space of 15 years. For the future, the happiness and consolidation of the French empire will be the object of all my thoughts."
Letter, in Bonaparte's own hand-writing, to the Sovereigns of Europe.
"SIRE MY BROTHER,-You will have learnt, during the last month, my return to the Court of France, my entrance into Paris, and the departure of the family of the Bourbons. The true nature of these events must now be made known. to your Majesty. They are the work of an irresistible power, the work of the unanimous will of a great nation, who knows her duties and her rights. The dynasty which force had given to the French people, was no longer made for them. The Bourbons would neither associate themselves to their sentiments nor their manners. France was to separate herself from them. Her voice called for a deliverer. The expectation which had determined me to make the greatest of sacrifices had been deceived. I am come, and from the point where I touch. ed the shore, the love of my people conveyed me to the bosom of my capital. The first wish of my heart is to repay so much affection by the maintenance of an honourable tranquillity. The restoration of the Imperial throne was necessary to the happiness of the French. My sweetest thought is to render it at the same time useful to the consolidation of the repose of Europe. Glory enough has rendered by turns the standards of the different nations illustrious. The vicissitudes of fate have made great successes be followed by great reverses. finer arena is now opened to Kings—and I am the first to descend into it. After having presented to the world the spectacle of great battles, it will be happier to know in future no other rivalship than that of the advantages of peace, no other contest than the sacred contest of the happiness of mankind. France pleases herself by formally proclaiming this noble end of all her wishes. Jealous of her independence, the grand principle of her policy shall be the most absolute respect for the independence of other nations.
"If such are, as I have the happy beJief, the general sentiments of your Majes ty, the general quiet is secured for a long season, and justice, seated on the confines of the different States, will be alone suffi. cient to guard their frontiers.
"I seize with eagerness, &c. &c.
Paris, April 4, 1815."
Declaration of the Allied Sovereigns. "The Powers who have signed the Trea. ty of Paris, assembled at the Congress at Vienna, being informed of the escape of Napoleon Bonaparte, and of his entrance into France with an armed force, owe it to their own dignity, and the interest of social order, to make a solemn declaration of the sentiments which this event has excited in them. By thus breaking the convention which has established him in the island of Elba, Bonaparte destroys the only legal title on which his existence depended-by appearing again in France, with projects of confusion and disorder, he has deprived himself of the protection of the law, and has manifested to the universe, that there can be neither peace nor truce with him.-The Powers consequently declare, that Napoleon Bonaparte has placed himself without the pale of civil and social relations; and that, as an enemy and disturber of the tranquillity of the world, he has rendered himself liable to public vengeance.-They declare at the same time, that firmly resolved to maintain entire the Treaty of Pa ris of 30th May 1814, and the dispositions sanctioned by that Treaty, and those which they have resolved on, or shall hereafter resolve on, to complete and to consolidate it, they will employ all their means, and will unite all their efforts; that the general peace, the object of the wishes of Europe, and the constant purpose of their labours, may not again be troubled; and to guaran tce, against every attempt which shall threa ten to replunge the world into the disorders and miseries of revolutions.-And although entirely persuaded that all France, rallying round its legitimate Sovereign, will imme diately annihilate this last attempt of a criminal and impotent delirium; all the Sovereigns of Europe, animated by the same sentiments, and guided by the same prin ciples, declare, that if, contrary to all cal culations, there should result from this event any real danger, they will be ready to give to the King of France, and to the French nation, or to any other Government that shall be attacked, as soon as they shall be called upon, all the assistance requisite to restore public tranquillity, and to make a common cause against all those who should undertake to compromise it. The present Declaration, inserted in the Register of the Congress assembled at Vienna, on the 13th March 1815, shall be made public.
"Done and attested by the Plenipoten tiaries of the High Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris, Vienna 13th March 1815, viz. Austria, France, Great Britain, Portugal, Russia, Prussia, Spain, and Sweden. SCOT
HIGH COURT OF JUSTICIARY.
MONDAY, the 13th of March, came on
the trial of John Keir, wright in South Queensferry, accused of assaulting, beating, and wounding Alexander M'Gibbon, townclerk of the burgh of Queensferry. The pannel pleaded guilty, with this qualifica tion, that he did not lie in wait, and had no bludgeon with him, but picked up a stick which was lying on the road when the dispute took place. He was sentenced to 12 months imprisonment in Bridewell, and find caution to keep the peace for three years, under the penalty of £.50.
On Tuesday the 14th of March came on the trial of Archibald Drummond, late porter to the Edinburgh mail coach-office, accused of stealing a parcel, containing £.200 in bank notes, addressed to Sir George Stew art M'Kenzie, Bart. on the 26th of December last. After the indictment was read, the pannel pleaded guilty. The usual interlocutor was then pronounced, finding the libel relevant, and a jury was chosen. The pannel having adhered to his plea of guilty, and signed the same before the Court, the Jury, without retiring, found him guilty, agreeable to his own confession. The Solicitor-General having restricted the libel to an arbitrary punishment, Mr Jeffrey, Coun sel for the pannel, addressed their Lordships, with his usual abilities, in mitigation of punishment. He stated that this was his first offence, that he was a very young man, and had previously behaved with the utmost honesty and propriety in all his actions.
Their Lordships then delivered their opinions, lamenting the young man's situation, and, as the mildest sentence they could inflict, awarded him to be transported for seven years beyond seas; which was accordingly pronounced by the Lord Justice Clerk, after a very impressive exhortation to the pannel.
Drummond is a good looking young man, under 20 years of age.
Immediately after, David Young and John Prenties were put to the bar, accused, 1st, of uttering a forged note of the Thistle Bank, Glasgow-2d, Of uttering and vending three bad shillings, Young having 39 more bad shillings in his possession, which he threw over a hedge, after being appre April 1815.
hended and 3d, Of breaking Linlithgow jail. The Solicitor-General passed from the first charge, and restricted the libel as to the other two. The pannels pleaded guilty to the two charges so restricted, to which they adhered, after a jury was chosen. They were accordingly found guilty, on their own confession. Mr Bruce, their Counsel, addressed the Court in mitigation of punishment, stating their previous good character, particularly as to Prenties, and that they had already suffered an imprisonment of seven months.
The Judges, in delivering their opinions, thought there was some difference with regard to the guilt of the pannels-that Young was the most criminal of the two, as Prenties was present only when the bad shillings were offered, and had none in his custody, although he knew Young had.Therefore taking into consideration their former confinement, they ordained that Young should be imprisoned in Edinburgh jail for nine months, and Prenties for four months, and that they should be kept in separate apartments.
On Wednesday, the 15th of March, came on the trial of James M'Kinlay and John M'Millan, accused of the murder of George Arthur, late supervisor of excise. On the night of the 31st October last, the deceased, along with Charles M'Arthur, officer of excise, attempted to stop a horse and a cart, a little to the north of the south bridge of Killocraw, on the road from Campbeltown to Bar, which he supposed to contain smuggled goods, and which was accompanied by the prisoners and two women. An affray ensued, during which Arthur was so severely wounded in the head, that he died in consequence next day. No person was near except M Millan; but it did not clearly appear from the evidence how his death was occasioned. The examination of the witnesses and the pleadings of counsel occupied the attention of the court to a late hour, and on Thursday morning the jury returned their verdict, finding James M'Kinlay not guilty, and by a great plurality of voices, the libel not proven against J. M⭑Millan.The prisoners, after an admonition from the Lord Justice-Clerk, were dismissed from the
Counsel for the crown, Lord-Advocate,