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2. The Shealoth and Teshuboth, or questions and answers, dialoguewise, of rabbi Sherira, surnamed Gaon, or the sublime. This is a chronological epitome, the author of which flourished from the year 967 downward 5.

3. The Sedar Holam Zutta, or lefser chronicle, another epitome of history, from the creation to the year of CHRIST 552; but whose unknown author lived, as the book itself fays, about the year 1123i

4. Sepher Gabbala Rabbi Abraham Levita Beň Dior ; this book pretends to give a continual and uninterrupted succession of all the patriarchs, prophets, elders, and wise men, through whose hands the oral tradition passed, from Adam to Moses, and so on to the compilers of the Tale mud, and from thence to the year of CHRIST 1141(C).

5. The Sepher Juchasin, or book of genealogies, from the creation to the year of CHRIST 1500. This is a much larger work than any of the former.

6. The Shalfheleth, or chain of the cabbala, of the same kind with the Fuchafin.

7. The Tzemach David, or sprout of David; treats on the same subject with the two last (D).

These, especially the first seven, are the books which the Jews urge against our chronology, and from which

h Vid. Wolf. & Prid. ubi fup. · Vid. Sepher Ju. chasin, Shallheleth, & Tzemach David, ap. Wolf. ubi fup. rabbinic fables; which certain- (D) These three are still ly appear to have been taken more modern, and less worth out of the Babylonish Talmud; our notice (4). Befides these, from which he concludes, that we find an apocryphal book, it was written after it (2). To intitled, Dibre hajamim, or this we may add what a learn- chronicle of Moses; but which ed Jew tells us (3), that he is universally rejected by the had seen a copy of it, in which Jews as well as Christians. As it was said, that the author for the Samaritan chronicle, lived 760 years after the de- published by Bernard (5) and struction of the temple. Basnage (6), it is so short, ob

(C) This author doth often scure, and incorrect, that it abridge the fictitious Josephus could yield us but little help Ben Gorion, and is supposed in this particular, were it to be the first, who brought of greater authority than it that spurious author and his is. book into credit among the Jows. (2) Prid. ubi fup. (3) R. Azar, meor benalm, pi. 3.

(4) Id. S Prid. ubi fup. (5) Ap. Calmet, fub voc. Croniq. (6) Histoire des Juifs, z. vi. lib, viii. c. 6.

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they pretend to demonstrate, that CHRIST appeared earlier in the world by about 240 years, than we say he did : but as their authority is altogether founded upon that of the Talmud, we shall spend no inore time in coufuting either n.

We pass by also the Jewish Targums, or Chaldee paraphrases, because we have none upon the book of the Judges or of the Kings. But upon the whole, whatever Imali differences there may be between those chronological works, they all agree in the series and succession of their kings and judges, in the fame order of time as we find them in those two facred books, and that of the Chronicles. It is true, that this last sometimes jars with those of Samuel and Kings in point of numbers, whether of years, or other things mentioned in both. But such differences are scarce worth the pains which some critics have taken to reconcile them °(E).

n Vid. Prid. conn, ubi fup. & pt. i. lib. v. o Vid. int. al. Whiston's chronology, and CaPzovius's learned anfwer to it.

(E) We shall have occasion, will be no hard matter to find in the sequel of their history, where the mistake lies, fince,

to hint at some of the latter according to the former au- Sort; and, as to the first, the thor, that monarch must have only instance we are going to been two years older than his give, will easily convince the father, who is affirmed to have reader, that, in these cases, died in the 40th year of his fome errors have manifestly age (9). It were ridiculous crept into the text, whether to follow the forced and unnathrough the likeness of the nu- tural solution of two or three merical Hebrew letters, or the authors, who have in vain ennegligence of copyists, what- deavoured to solve the difficulever the Jews may pretend to ty (10), againft the far greatthe contrary. The place we er majority, who have plainly mean is, where the book of owned, that it could not be reChronicles says, that Ahaziah moved by any other way, than was 42 years of age when he by owning the bigger numbegan to reigo (7), contrary to ber to be an error of the that of Kings, which makes transcriber (11). hiin but 22 years old (8). It

(7) 2 Chron, xxii. 2. (8) 2 Kings viii. 26. 13) 2 Cbr. xxi. ver. ult.

(10) Ufer in an. Broughton. Yun. in loc. (11) Jerom. Kimcb. Abarban. L. de Dieu, Pifcat. Cajet. Scalig. Grot. Capel. S al. mult. Vid. & Nort. Knarcbbul. animadv. in N. T. in A&, iv, Le Scor. elay on a new vers. p. ii. cb. vi. §. 8. & al. mult.

THE

The following is the list of the patriarchs, heads or chiefs, judges and kings of Judah and Israel. As für their chronology and synchronisms, we shall refer them, as we have done hitherto, to their history.

The Jewish patriarchs S Abraham,

Ifaac,
facob, and his 12 fons.

were

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7. Tolah.

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The Israelitis judges.
1. Othniel, son-in-law to 6. Abimelech His for.

Joshua (A).
2. Ehud.

8. Jair. 3. Shamgar.

9. Yephthab the Gileadite. 4. Deborah the prophet

10. Ibzan.
ess, and wife of Lapi-

II. Elor.
doth (B), with Barak 12. Eli the high-priest.
her general.

13. Samson.
5. Gideon, or ferubbaal. 14. Samuel the prophet.

(A) Josephus makes Kenaz, ployment she had about those the father of Othniel; to have that burned in the sacred place, been the first judge (1), and for either of which there is takes no notice of his son, not the least foundation. Deeither as his collegue or fuc- borah was not the only processor ; but the text is against phetess that had., a husband : him, which gives that dignity witness Huldah, the wife of to the latter and attributes that Shallum, mentioned in a forLagnal victory to him, for which mer note. The text doth not he was raised to it, and adds, tell us what gribe Deborah was that he held it forty years (2). of, neither doth the place of

(B) Some chuse to render her residence determine it, the the words nip nwx elbetb thamar or palm-tree, where he Lapidoth, a woman of Lapi- dwelt, being fituate on the doth, as if that was the place frontiers of Benjamin and Eof her abode ; and others, be- phraim (3', which were indifcause lapidoth signifies proper- ferently inhabited by either ly lamps, will have her called tribe. fo on account of some em

(1) Antiq, la 1. 6. 4. t. iv, 167, 5.

(:) See Judg. ïï. 8, & roza.

(3) Ilidi

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Jewish kings before Jeroboam's revolt, 1. Saul.

3. David. 2. Ishbosheth.

4. Solomon. Kings of Yudab and Ifrael, after the rupture of the two

kingdoms : Judah,

Ifrael. 1. Rehoboam,

1. Jeroboam, 1. Abijam

2. Nadab. 3. Alfa

3. Baasha.

4. Ela.
5. Zimri.
6. Omri.
7. Ahab,

8. Abaziah.

4. Jehofhaphat,
5. Yeboram.
6. Abaziah.
6. Athaliah, the ufurping

queen.
8. Jehoafh.
9. Amaziah.
10. Uzziah, or Azariah.

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11. Yotham.
12. Ahaz.
13. Hezekiah.
14. Manasseh.
15. Amon.
16. Fofiah.
17. Shallum or Jehoahaz.
18. Eliakim or Febeiakim.
19. Jechoniah or Coniah,

called allo Jehoiakim. 20. Mattania, called also

Zedekiah.

SECT

SECT. V.

The Jewish History, from Abraham to Moses.

WI

E have had occasion already to hint, that this cele

brated patriarch was the father and founder of the Jewish nation a ; though they were never, as we can find, called by his name; but either by that of Israelites or Jews, or by the more common one of Hebrews (A). But, as he was designed by the divine providence to fill up a more noble character, and to be, in a more eminent and exalted manner, the father of the faithful; and, as such, was to give so many signal tokens of his faith and intire resignation to the divine call, which brought him out of his native home into a strange land, where he was to continue only a sojourner; it was, doubtless, on that account chiefly, The design that the sacred historian hath thought fit to give us a more of the book

of Genesis * See vol. i. p. 253,.& feqq. ii. p. 380, & feqq.

(A) We have ventured here nifying in the original, the to call them Jews, in compli. other lide, whether of a river, ance with custom, tho'thatname sea, or any other thing: in was not given them till after which sense some people are the Babylonish captivity, when called transmarine, transalpine,

he tril of Judab became the and the like. What seems to most confiderable, if not almost confirm this etymology is, that the whole of what was left of we don't find, that he was Ifrael (1). The first name called by that name, till word that was given to Abraham was brought him of his neand his children, was that of phew Lot's misfortune (3); fo Hebrews, which fome derive that it is likely the messenger from Heber, the fifth in def- enquiring for Abraham, of the cent from Noah (2). But it is inhabitants, might describe hardly probable, that Abra- him by the word12y Hibri, ham would call himself by his or one that came from the name,ratherthan by that of any other side of the river. Howof his ten predecessors, and we ever, after Jacob had received rather think, that it was given the great name of Israel, they him by the Canaanites, be- preferred that of Israelites to cause he came thither from that of Hebrews, though the the other side of the Euphra- : neighbouring nations fill called tes; the word n3y Heber sige them by the latter.

(1) See vol. ii. P: 382, & notes. (3) Ger. xiv, 13.

(2) Gen. X. 24. D. Kinicbi..

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