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a pigeon and a turtle-dove, and offer them up. : Abraham immediately took them, killed the three beasts, clove them in the midst; and joining the pieces one to the other, laid the birds on the top of them, whilft himself stayed to drive away the fowls from the sacrifice. As foon as the fun began to fet, a deep sleep fell upon him, followed by a horror of great darkness ; during which, it was revealed to him from God, that his posterity should fojourn and be afflicted in a strange land four hundred years · (K): at the expiration of which, God would pu

nish

s Ibid. ver. 6. Rom. iv. 3, & alib.

(K) Expositors have given and ten years (38), and others into various opinions, in order to cwo hundred ; whereas we to make out these four hun- shall endeavour to prove, that dred years. Genebrard a learn- they remained there two huned. Romish chronolo;er has af- dred and fifteen years. St. firmed, that the Israelites Paul reckons from the first dwelt in Egypt the full num. promise made to Abraham, to ber of four hundred years (34), the promulgation of the law, whose error may be easily con- in the first year after the exod, futed by the lives of Kohath, four hundred and thirty years che son of Levi, who went (39). Of which two hundown with Jacob (35), and dred and fifteen were already died in Egypt in the hundredth expired, when Israel came inand thirty-third year of his to Egypt, which is thus proved, age (36): of his son Amram, 1. From the time of Abrathe father of Mofes, who lived ham's arrival in Canaan, to one hundred and thirty-seven Jacob's descent into Egypt, are years (37); and of Moses, who but two hundred and fifwas eighty years old when he teen years ; viz. twenty-five brought Israel out of Egypt ; from the time of the promise all which several numbers to the birth of his son make but three hundred and Ifaac ; 60 more to the birth fifty years, out of which we of Jacob, who is affirmed by must subltract those which Mofes to have been 1 30 years Kobath had attained when he old when he stood before Phawent down into Egypt, and raoh, all which make but likewise the time the fathers 215. 2. The last remaining lived with their children. This two hundred and fifteen may has made some reduce the num- be thus reckoned: Kohaib ber to less than two hundred came down with Jacob, and,

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(34) Id. ibid.
(37) Ibid. ver. 20.
(39Galai. ix. 15

(35) Gen, xivi. 11. (36) Exod. vi. 13. (38) Gbrysol, hamil. l. i. Nis, de 1.gr. in l.

according nish their oppreflors, and bring his children into the land which he had promised him, whilst himself should

be

according to Eusebius, begat pressed in Gerar, his wells Amram in his seventieth year, filled up by its inhabitants, and and Amram begat Moses much himself forced still farther about the fame age; to which from them * ; and Jacob if we add the eighty years of served, and was oppressed by Moses's age when he led them Laban near twenty years, yet out, the whole will make two neither of them laboured unhundred and twenty, from der a continual oppreffion. which may be subftracted five The Egyptian servitude did not years, the supposed age of Ko- commence till after Joseph and hath, when Faceb left Canaan, his brethren were dead (42) : and the remainder will be the before that, the Ifraelites lived time of their abode in Egypt, in peace and plenty. Allownamely, two hundred and fif- ing therefore, that Levi was teen years (40).

forty-four years of age at his Hence it is plain, that the

the first coming into Egypt, which four hundred years of Abra- is the most that can be sup. ham's feed fojourning in a posed, he must have lived strange land, must be reckon- ninety-three years in Egypt, ed, not from their coming in- because the text tells us, that to Egypt, but from the birth he died in the hundredth and of Isaac. For all the time of thirty-seventh year of his age their fojourning in the land of (43). And these ninety-three Canaan, Gerar, or any other, years being fubftracted from was still in a strange land, in two hundred and fifteen, the which they had not a foot of time of their abode there, ground, if we except the cave

there will remain but an hunof Macpelah.

As to what dred and twenty-two years of is added, that they shall like- thraldom, even fuppofing it wise serve and be ill treated, to have begun immediately it is commonly understood to after his death. The natural be fpoken circumftantially, sense therefore of this proand might be put in a paren- phecy to Abraham, can be thesis, thus; they shall sojourn only this, that his feed, from and be strangers (and likewife Ifaac on, should be strangers serve and be oppressed) during in a land that was not theirs, the space of four hundred during the space of foar hunyears, as St. Austin and others dred years, during some part have fully proved (41). Ac- of which they should be opcordingly, we find Ifaac op- pressed, afflicted, and at length

(40) Villet. cap. 159. 15. Le Clerc in loc. Mercer. Munster. De Lyra, Sal.

(41) Aug. quæli. in Exod. vi. 47. Merc. jun. Munf. Villet. ubi fup. Grot. Le Clerc, 6 al. * See Genes. xxvi. 13, & fe99: (42) Exod. i. 6, 5 lezze (43) Ibid, vi. 16. Vid. & Mercer. Jun. al. in loc.

brought

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be gathered to his fathers in a good old age. After this,
Abraham saw a smoking furnace, and a burning lamp,
pass between the victims, which in all probability con-
sumed them. Thus was this new and glorious covenant
ratified between God and Abraham, who, highly pleased
with all these promises, went to impart his joy to his
beloved wife

SARAH not dreaming that she was to be the happy Year of
mother of the promised child, and having moreover all flood 437.
the convincing proofs that a woman can have, of her Bef. Chr.
being paft all poffibility of having any of her own, re-1911.
solved to be at least a mother by proxy, according to the
custom of that age and country. To this end fhe per-
fuaded her husband to take her hand-maid Hagar to him,
that if he had a child by her, she might bring it forth
upon her knees. ' Abraham acquiesced, and Hagar no
fooner found herself pregnant, than she became haughty
and infolent towards her mistress. Sarah, impatient to
fee herself insulted by a flave, whom her kindness had
raised, could not forbear breaking out into bitter complaints
against them both ; and Abraham, willing to convince
his wife that he loved her as much as ever, left it to her,
to do herself justice in what way she should think fit;
which she accordingly did ; but with such severity, that
Hagar, not being able to bear it, stole away from her, Hagar is
and went and sat down by a fountain on the road to Sur, forced to
Jeading to Egypt. Here the angel of the LORD met her, fly from
and persuaded her to return, and submit herself to her her mil-
mistrefe ; afsuring her that she would be foon delivered of a tress.
fon, whom she thould call Ilhmael (L) ; that his posterity
would multiply exceedingly, and that both he and they
should prove fierce and warlike ; that their hand should
be against every man, and every man's against them (M);

and

Gen. xv. 9, & feqq.

brought under bondage, which diately subjoined by the angel,
term being expired, they namely, because the Lord had.
fhould find a happy delive- heard her complaint.
rance.

(M) This prediction has
(L) Ilomael is compounded been exactly verified in the se-
of the words ynw' and veral tribes of the Arabs, if-
jisomagh and El, the LORD mael's descendants, who are
hath, or will hear. The rea- generally cruel, warlike, and
son of which name is imme, given to sapine ; and whose

habitation

flood 437

and that they should dwell in the face of all their bre

thren u. Hagar hearing this comfortable news, was soon Ispersuad-persuaded to take the angel's advice; and, in memory of ed by an this surprising vision, she called the well Beer-labai-roi, angeltore- which fignifies the well of him that lives and fees me. This turn, and well was between Cades and Barneah w. Soon after her submit.

return she brought forth the promised son, and called him Year of Ishmael, according to the angel's word. Abraham was

now eighty-six years of age, and did not expect another Bef. Chr. son, but brought this up as the heir of all his substance, 1911.

and of all God's promises, and Hagar, whose interest in it was not to undeceive him, thought fit to conceal what

the angel had revealed to her ; fo that it was not till almost thirteen years after, that God plainly promised him

a fon by Sarah his wife. Abram's

By this time Abrabam had attained to the ninety-ninth

year of his age, when God was pleased to ratify his forchanged mer covenant with him, by changing his name from into Abra- Abram to Abraham(N); and by assuring him, that he would ham.

make him the father of many nations ; that kings should

come out of him, and that his posterity should surely Year of possess the land wherein he was a stranger. And, as a token, flood 451. or rather trial, of his faith and obedience, God commands Bef. Chr. him to circumcise all the males in his family, with a 1898.

further injunction, that for the future all the males that should be born of him, or in his family, whether bond or free, none excepted, should be circumcised on the eighth day after they were born; and that if any male remained uncircumcised, that soul should be cut off as a despiser of God's covenant, from having any share in the promised blessings designed for him and his posterity. Lastly, and to complete his happiness, God was pleased to assure him, that Sarah his wife should bear him a son, who should be heir to all these blessings ; and therefore, that

name

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habitation is in tents, within fer our reader to what hath the neighbourhood of Judea, been offered in a former you Idumea, &c.

lume f. As for the reason of (N) Concerning the etymon it, it is plainly hinted in the of this twofold name, and the text, viz. that he was to beuncertain conjectures of the come the father of many nalearned about it, we shall re- tions.

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1897

her name should be no longer Sarai, but Sarah (P). Here Abraham falling on his face, probably to conceal his laughing, which either the strangeness or improbability of what he heard, had forced from him, began to intercede for the life and preservation of Ilomael, beyond which he thought it unreasonable to ask or wish for any thing: but the Almighty foon assured him, that these great bleffings were not designed for Ishmael, but for a son to be born of the hitherto barren Sarah, whom he should therefore name Ifaac (Q); that, as to the son of Hagar, he would indeed bless him with a numerous posterity ; but that Ifaac alone, whom Sarah should bear within the year from that very day, was to be intitled to the covenant and promise, that in his feed all , nations of the earth should be blessed x.

God was no sooner departed, than Abraham took his Year of fon Ishmael, and all the males in his family, and circum- the flood cised them, as well as himself, without any regard either 451.

Bef. Chr. to his own age, which was almost one hundred years, or to the tenderness of his son, who was not above thirteen. All submitted alike to the operation, and to God's com

Abraham mand, on the same day (R); and it was not long before and his fa. * Gen. xvii.

cumcijed. (P) Sarai 70 in Hebrew and Sarah of the certainty of fignifies my princess, and 770 his promise to them, which Sarah, the name now given none but an all-sufficient power her, princess.

could fulfil (45). It is farther observable, that (Q) Isaac, or according to God, in the beginning of Ge- the Hebrew powy? Ifchakh, nefis xvii. (44), calls, him- signifies he has, or small laugh. felf the first time, 70 SX EL (R) Whether this ceremony Saddai, which our version of circumcision was first inrightly translates Almighty troduced into the world, by God. This compound word the Hebrews or Egyptians, hath however, is variously canvassed been much contefied by antient by etymologists ; but we think and modern historians, critics, the most genuine derivation is and others. Herodotus, who from w, used instead of , declares he had received all his for the pronoun qui, who, and knowlege of the affairs of '9 dai, sufficient, or self-Suffi- Egypt from their priests, gives cient, an expression very fit it indeed for the Egyptians (46); and proper to assure Abraham, but he seems in some meature

his mily cir

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