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therefore called the place Peniel, or the face of GOD;
and, when he came to march, he found that he halted upon
his thigh ; upon which account his posterity never eat of
that joint d. And Josephus tells us, that neither Jacob,
nor any of his pofterity ever since, did eat that part of
any creature e : and though the text mentions only the
sinew that Ihrank; yet so scrupulous have some of the
Jews been even to this day, that, for want of knowing
which joint it was, they abstain from the whole hind
quarter; though others, less nice, abstain only from the
thigh ; and some again will eat even that, and content
themselves with plucking the finew out of it'. Some
think, that Jacob's lameness was foon over ; others, that
he halted all his life. However, the new assurances
which the angel gave him inspired him with such freth
courage, that he marched on chearfully, till he had over-

taken his family, and was come in sight of his brother. Meets How tender and affectionate their meeting was, and with his how contrary to acob's expectation, we have already brother

shewn 8 (E) ; which was closed with a kind invitation to Efau.

his Year of the flood d Gen. xxxii.22–32.

e Ant. 1. i. c. 20. f Calm. 609. .

0. T. in loc. ☆ Vid. sup. vol. ii. p. 166.
Bef.Chrift
1739. above-quoted; whereas, when God face to face, &e. and

it is God or Christ, that ap- called the place Peniel (179).
pears like one, he is diftin- (E) It is very probable, that
guished by the angel of the co- Ifaac and Rebecca had taken
venant, or some other word much pains to convince him,
(177). But what follows in during his brother's absence,
the very next verse of the pro- that what Jacob and she had
phet above-quoted, plainly done, was by order of God
confutes that notion, he found himself, who had decreed the
him in Bethel, even the LORD inversion of the succession be-
God of hosts. That it was fore they were born ; that it
God who met him in Bethel, would therefore be not only
is plain, by his saying, I am in vain, but even an unpar.
the God of Bethel (178). The donable crime, for him to
general opinion therefore of oppose the decrees of pro-
antient and modern authors is, vidence ; and that, instead
that it was Christ who wre- of recovering his brother's
ftled with Jacob here, 1. Be. blessing, he would bring a ter-
cause he blessed him ; and, 2. rible curse on his own head :
Because Jacobsays, I have seen by which, and other such-like

(177) Pereir. in loc. & al. (178) Gen. xxxi. 13.

(179) Tertul, lib. i. comt. Marcion. Hilar, de Trin. 1. iv. Ambr. de fid. l. vi. "Cbrysoft. in cap. vii. ator. & al. Calv. Mers. Jun. & ale mult.

arguments,

his habitation on mount Seir ; but Jacob thought fit to Jacob ftop-
turn towards Succoth, where he built him an house, and ped some
afterwards removed to Salem, a city belonging to the Seo time at
chemites, where he bought some ground of the children Succoth.
of Hamor, and settled there 8 (F), and built an altar to Buys a
the Lord, which he called El Elohe Israel, or the mighty piece of
God of Israels. This was in all likelihood the fame ground
place where Abraham had heretofore built one, soon after near She-
his first coming into the land of Canaani. And here chem.
also was probably Jacob's well near mount Gerizim, where
CHRIST talked with the woman of Samaria ks for that
mountain stood in the country of the Shechemites!.

Here Jacob might have lived long in peace and tran- Year of quillity, being universally beloved and respected; had not the flood the treacherous and inhuman massacre of the inhabitants

616, by his two sons Simeon and Levi m obliged him to wịth- Bef. Chr. draw from the place nearer to Mamre, where his father 1732. still lived. Jacob reproved them for their barbarity ;

i Gen. xii

, 7:

& Gen. xxxiii: 18. Annal. Usser. fub ann. * John iv. 6, & feqq. ant. 1. i. e. 21.

h Ibid. 20.
CALM. hist. 0. T. Villet: & ali
| Judg. ix. 7.

Jos.

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arguments, they had wholly it, he says, to have been a
persuaded him to acquiesce in magnificent building, and
the divine will, and to set aside which, he thinks, is the fame
all animosity against Jacob. with Salem here spoken of

(F) We have here followed (187). But it is not likely, the English version, though that the former was so near the original, we think, might Shechom, any more than the be more properly rendered, he Sálim where John the Baptist arrived safe and sound, or did frequent (188), which was peaceably; at the city of She- near Jordan ; whereas Shechem chem; for the word Salem, or was at a distance from it. Be. rather Shalem, bears that fig- fides, Josephus tells us, that nification; whereas we find no the old Salem was the same as remains of any place near She- Jerusalem (189). And the chem, that is called by the Psalmis seems to intimate the name of Salem. Some have fame, when he says, At Salem thought it to be that Salem of was his tabernacle; and his which Melchizedek was king dwelling in Sion (190); but (186), the ruins of whose pa- the supposed Salem near Shelace were still to be seen in St.' chem must have been near Ferom's time i wbich thewed thirty miles from Jerusalem.

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iv. S.

(186). Gen. xiv. 18. (187) Hieron. quæft. Hebr. (188) Jobs

-(189) Ant. /... 6. 11. (190) Pfal. lxxvi. 2. VOL. III,

U

and

and the rest of the inhabitants of the country would, no doubt, have made them pay dear for it, had not GOD interposed, and sent a panic' fear amongst them, insomuch thar they even let them depart quietly, and carry off all the plunder they had got from the slaughtered She

chemites n. Jacob is God was soon pleased to diffipate all Jacob's fears once bid to go more by speaking to him in a dream, and bidding him go and dwell to Bethel, where he had formerly appeared to him when at Bethel. he fled from his brother, and to dwell there, and build an

altar unto him. Here Jacob, unwilling to profane that holy place by carrying with him any thing that might be displeasing to God, ordered his family to deliver to him all the idols they had taken from the Shechemites, or

brought from Padan-aram, not indeed to be destroyed, as Their idolsone might have expected, but to be buried in a deep hole, buried. which he caused to be made under an oak near to Shechem.

His commands were forth with obeyed, and they parted even with their very ear-rings, which they used to wear

as talismans or charms against fickness and other misforYear of tunes o

After which Jacob and his whole family set out flood with all they had, and arrived safe at Luz, afterwards

616. called Bethel : none of the neighbouring inhabitants daBef.Christ ring to pursue them. As soon as he came thither, he 1732. built an altar to God, and called it El Bethel, or the

God of Bethel : soon after which Deborah, his mother's Deborah nurse, died, and was buried under an oak at the foot of dies.

the hill of Bethel, and the place was called Allon Bachuth, or the oak of mourning. He made but a short stay at Bethel, being desirous to go to visit his father, whom, for ought we find, he had not seen since he went to Mefopotamia : but, as he was marching towards Ephrath, Rachel

fell in labour at a small distance from the place; and, perRachel ceiving that it would cost her her life, called the child dies, and is Benoni, or the son of

my

affliction ; but after the was buried at dead, Jacob changed that name, too apt to reEphrath. vive his grief for her lofs, into that of Benjamin, or the

son of my right-hand. Rachel was buried in the way to Ephrath, and a stone monument was reared over the grave, which was still to be seen in Moses's time. This was not the only misfortune that Jacob met with in this

place, for his son Reuben having taken a liking to Bilhah, Reuben's his father's concubine, and Rachel's maid, he did not incefi. fcruple to comply with his wicked inclination : which

B3 Gen. xxxiv. per tot.

See CALMET. comm. in Gen,

made so deep an impression in his father's heart, that he grieved at it to his dying day P. Soon after this Jacob Year of left that melancholy place, and came at length to Mamre, the flood to his old father Ifaac, with whom he continued almost 619. the space of thirteen years, some fay, nineteen, that is, Bef. Chr. till the good old man departed this life, which he did in 1729. a very advanced age, being an hundred and eighty years old, having been almost blind and decrepit a considerable Isaac dies, part of that time (H). His two sons buried him in the and is bucave of Machpelah with Abraham and Sarah; after

ried by his

two fons. which Efau returned home, and Jacob continued at Mamre 9.

HOWEVER, the happiness which Jacob had enjoyed Year of during his stay with his father, had not been without some the flood allay. Joseph, then about seventeen years of age, was 632. become bis darling, in regard of the excellencies both of Bef. Chr. ; bis body and mind. But his fondness for him raised no 1716. small jealousy in his brothers (K). What increased it still,

Joseph be

Loved by P Gen. xlix. 4.

his father. 9 Gen. xxxv. p. tot. See also vol. ï. pag. 167.

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(H) The Jews tell us, that the son of his old age; wherethe masters who taught Ifaac as he had two sons younger the law of God, were the pa- than he, viz. Zebulun and triarchs Shem and Heber, who Benjamin, and this last was were still living; and that, born above fifteen years after when Abraham took him with him. It seems, they have mifhim to mount Moriah to fa. taken the words 0132113 ben crifice him there, he told Sa- zekenim, the son of senators rah, that he was going with or elders, as he is called here, him to the school of Jhem (197). for 7371.3 ben ziknah, the They likewise attribute to him fon of old age. But the forthe composing of the noon- mer has a quite different meanprayers, which they constant- ing, it fignifying, according ly use: for they think Abra- to the Hebrew idiom, the son ham was the author of those or disciple of senators ; that is, of the morning, and Jacob, because he was endued with of those of the evening, and extraordinary wisdom and pru. Isaac of those of noon (198). dence.

dence. Accordingly the sa(K) Most versions, as well maritan, Perfic, and Arabic as ours, have made Jacob to versions have rendered it, belove Foseph, because he was cause he was a wife and pruu

(197) Sgambar. archiv. Vet. Tef. L. X. p. 197. crypb. Vei. Teft.

(198) Febric. ape..

Hated by more was, that Jofeph, having observed some vile actions his bre- in the fins of Bilbah and Zilpah, with whom his father shren. had sent him to feed the sheep, in hopes that they would

pay him a greater regard than his other brethren, came His tovo and acquainted him with it. But he himself helped to dreams. complete their envy, or rather to turn it into an irrecon

cileable hatred, by innocently telling them some dreams he had, which seemed to foreshew, that he should one day get the power and authority over them. One of them was, that he saw in a wheat-field his own fheaf standing upright, and theirs falling down before it, and paying homage to it. Another was, that he saw the sun, moon, and eleven stars, doing the like obeisance to him. This last he likewise told his father, who, though he could not perhaps but think it significative of some great fortune that would attend him; yet, observing with what envy his brethren heard it, thought fit to rebuke him severely before them, asking him, if he thought, that his father, mother, and brethren, were to bow themselves to the earth to him? But this rather helped to increase their hatred against him, and made them resolveon his death.

It was not long before an opportunity offered of executYear of: the food

ing their design. Jacob, being uneafy that he had not 619.

heard from them, lince they were gone to Shechem with Bef

. Chr. their flocks, fent Joseph to inquire after them; and these 1729.

no sooner saw him, but they all agreed to rid themselves of the dreamer, as they called him, and make their father believe, that some wild beast had devoured him. They had executed their bloody design, without any regard either to his tears, his age, or to the grief which the news of his death would cause to their aged father, had not Reuben diffuaded them from imbruing their hands in bis blood, and advised them to throw him alive into a pit, and let hunger and grief perform that cruel office. Whether the fear of the guilt of blood, or desire to make him die a

dent fon; though even this fold into Egypt by his brecomes short of the energy of thren, who envied the excelthe idiom, and might be more lency of his wit, and, having properly translated, because he got him, privately into their had the wisdom or prudence of hands, fold him to some mera senator (198).

chants, who carried him dowo Juftin in epitome of Trogus into that country (199). makes mention of his being

(198) Vid. Le Scen. elry.

(199) Juftin, le XXXVI, 6.2.

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