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and jubilees, were to be regulated by it r; for which rea-
proper sacrifices for this solemnity were one young bullock, one ram, and seven Jambs, offered up in a folemn burnt-offering, with the usual addition of flour and wine in the name of the whole nation, besides the kid for a fin-offering, and the daily and monthly sacrifices s.
day of every month, or moon, and to offer, besides mooris. the usual sacrifices, a burnt-offering of two young bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with the usual quantity of flour, wine, and oil. The moft folemn of all the twelve was that of the month Tifri, which we spoke of last, and which was kept holy upon a particular account. The rest had nothing to distinguish them from common days, except the sacrifices above-mentioned, which were accompanied with the found of the trumpets (H); making better chear, and, perhaps, using fome kind of devotion or assemblies peculiar to those days. We find nothing like it, indeed, injoined by Mofes ; but one may gather the former from David's excuse for absenting himself from Saul's table on the first day of the month u, and the latter from what the Shunammite's husband faid to diffuade her from going to the prophet Elisay that it was neither new-moon nor sabbat) w. s Idem ibid. §.5.
* Vide SCHINDLER, • Num. xxix. 2, & feqq.
1 Ibid. xxviii. 11, 12, &c: * i Sam. xx. 5, 18, 27.
w 2 Kings iv, 23. (H) The fixing the time of putations as they were then the new-moon,
for want of able to make; in which case astronomical tables, was done the president proclaimed the in this manner.
The first men new-moon by saying W715 that observed, or thought they Mekudash, It is consecrated ; observed the new-moon, were
which word was twice repeat. to repair with all speed to the ed aloud by the people; after grand council, and to give no- which it was ordered to be protice of it. An inquiry was claimed every-where by the then made, whether the per- found of the trumpet, or by Sons were credible witnesses; other ways, according to the and secondly, whether their times and places (30). report agreed with such com
(30) Vide Herringer, in Guodw. ubi fup. $. 7. fub act. So Vol. III.
fub yoč. 990.
HOWEVER, though, in all other respects, this day was like a
common day, they were very fcrupulous in observing it; and as the space of the moon's entering and coming out of the partile conjunction of the fun, belongs one half to the old, and the other to the new month, and they had no sure way of computing it with any exactness or certainty, they observed two days, namely, the last day of the old, and the first day of the new, for greater security. That this custom began very early, seems plainly intimated in the instance we have given of Saul; wherein it is said, that he excused David for his absence on the first day, but refented it on the second.
This irregularity of the moon' obliged them likewise to make fome transpositions of the days of the month, in order to fix the beginning of that of Tisri; and of the rest of the months according to that (I). But how early thefa transpositions began, is what cannot easily be conjectured. All that we know is, that Scaliger has taken an infinite deal of pains to find out, and rectify them; and that they have fince been of great use in many cases, as may be seen by the book itself, and by the authors quoted in the margins.
These are all the feaft-days that were appointed by the Mofaic law; the Jews added, in process of time, several others in memory of some great mercies ; such as that of Purim or Lots, in memory of their deliverance from Haman's cruelty y, the dedication of the temple, and
* De emendat. temp. Hospin. orig. fest. Buxt. Goodw, Mey. UssER. & Munster, & al. mult. y Esther, c. ult. ver. 20, & feq.
(1) The reason of this tranf- long above-ground. The mixed position was threefold, month- transposition is that which is ly, political, and mixt (34): the done upon an account that is monthly was, left they should partly menftrual, and partly po celebrate the new-moon before litical. These diftin&tions are, the old one was expired. The in many respects, very judicious political was, left two Sabbaths and necessary ; but they have or days of reft should follow branched them out at fuch a one another, because, as it was rate, and with sub-distinctions, forbid to dress victuals, bury & c. that we chuse to refer the their dead, &c. on such days, readers that are curious about they thought it a grievance to fuch things, to those authors live two days upon cold meat, mentioned above. and to keep the dead bodies so
(34) Scalig. ubi fup. lib. i.
many more, which we shall not mention here, because they are below our epocha. All that needs be added to the foregoing is, that there was a command, that if any part remained unconsumed of the facrifices offered on those folemnities, after the first and second day, or even before, if the flesh of them had contracted any filth, fly-blow, or ill smell, it was not to be eaten, but burned to afhes 2.
Laws concerning the fabbatic and jubilee years. THE
HÉ fabbatic or seventh year, and the jubilee, which Sabbatic
happened once in seven times seven years, are also to year, &c, be looked upon as solemn times. They were appointed by God, and designed for rest and rejoicing; and as they bore a kind of analogy, or rather were a kind of consé quence of the fabbath, or seventh day, they may upon that account be also reckoned among their solemn festivals.
The Mofaical law diftinguishes four forts of years : 1. The civil, according to which all political matters were regulated, consisting of twelve folar, and afterwards of luhar months (K), beginning at the month Tisri, or September, as we said above. 2. The facred, which began at the
? Levit. vi. 15, & feq. Præc. aff. 207, 208. (K) It is plain, by the cal- abode there. Scaliger (37), culation which Mofes gives us and others after him, have, inof the days of the flood (35), deed, supposed that they had and elsewhere, that the year
an intercalar month once in consisted of 365 days, and con- fixscore years ; but it is plain, sequently of 12 solar months, that the Scripture hints nothe last of which consisted of thing like such an intercalation; 35 days; and it is more than
13 months : thoit probable, that, having been is not easy to guess what they brought up in Egypt, he had did with the fix additional hour's learned that way of reckoning of the Egyptians to the 365 from them, because they are days, without some such suppogenerally allowed to be the first fition. However, Mofes, by inventors of it, as we have seen the express command of God in their history (36); besides (38), did afterwards compute that it must have been the most the year by moons ; for that is known and easy method to the the meaning of the word Israelites, who had been ac-" 1711, chodesh, from 11" 77, to customed to it during their long renew; though our Englijih
(35) Geni. vil. & viii. pal. (36) Vide vil. I. p. 496. emend. temp. l. iii.
(38) Exod. xii. 2.
month Nifan, or March, which was the seventh of the civil year, and regulated the order of all their religious ceremonies; so that the pafsover, which happened in the middle of this month, was, as it were, the mother of all the other festivals. 3. The fabbatic or seventh year; and, 4. The jubilee or fiftieth year, which was kept at the end of seven weeks of years. We have already said as much as
is necessary concerning the two first. Larus con
The sábbatic year was to be kept every féventh cirning the obfervation of it consisted chiefly in the five following the sea
articles. venth 1. In à total cessation from all manner of agriculture 2, ..years. 2. In leaving all the product of their ground to the
poor, the orphan, and the stranger b.
4 Thebet $ Sebar
verlion renders it month ; and about which the learned have these answered partly to one puzzled their brains more than of our months, and partly to the thing deserves, we think another.
it too uncertain to trouble The fame authors have ima- our readers with it ; and shalt gined, that the Ifraelites had no content ourselves with subjoinnames for their months before ing a list of the names themthe captivity (39), because they felves ; which is as follows: are often distinguished only by their numbers, as firft, fecond,
Days &c. yet it is certain we find i Tisri
September fome of them called by parti
2 Marcheshvan 29
30 з сьелей
November cular names long before : thus
December we have seen, that the first
30 month of the sacred year was
7 Nifax originally called 213x, abib.
g riar We find likewise that of 11,
30 May. zif ( 40), Duniy, et banin 10 Thammuz
29 June, (41), and 712, 6xl (42); from II Abb
30 July. which it is not improbable that
29 Auguft. the others might likewise have their names, though they are
To this laft they added, in not recorded, and are oftener procefs of time, the intercalar mentioned by their numbers. month, which they called As for the etymology of those 7731, veadar, that is, and, or names, as well as of those which the second, adar, as that was they used after the captivity, the fast of the sacred year. (39) Vide Horring. in Goodw. leäi. 6. 1. §. 13. note 3:,
(40) Kings (41) Ibid, co vüi. 2.
(42) Ibid. vi. 38.
January : February
Answers to our
3. In the release of all Hebrew Naves, unless they volun
tarily renounced their proffered liberty, and chose to abide by their old masters ; in which case they were to be brought before the judges, and to have their ears bored in their presence, in token that they freely embraced a perpetual servitude, or, at least, till the year
of jubilee 4.
In the remission of all debts from one Israelite to another : but this did not extend to strangers, who were
excluded that benefitd. 5. It was to begin and end on the month Tisri, or Sep
tember, that there might be sufficient time for gathering all the fruits of the earth of that year, and for sowing it against the next year, that so the land might not lie fallow two years together (L). Some other
• Exod. xxi. 2, & feq. & alib.
& Deut. xv. 1, & seq.
e Levit. XXV.9.
(L) This year is by Moses The reader may, if he pleases, called by several names, as
consult the authors quoted in nyawn 1730, panah hafhbig- the margin (44). But, if any bith, the seventh year now opinion appears to us more pro1787, Sabbath baaretz, the bable than another, it is that Sabbath, or rest of the earth; of the learned archbishop Uber, 115 onw, Jemitah lado- who fixes it on the seventh nai, the release of the LORD, year after the manna ceased, and the like. The time of at which time they began to year in which it was to begin, fow and till the ground (45). is no-where fixed by Mofes; but Cunaus speaks ftill more pas is easily gathered from that of ticularly to the same effect; bis the jubilee, which was to begin words run thus (46): There is on the 10th of the 7th month no necessity for beginning the (43), and from the reason epoch of the feven years at the given under that article, division of the land of Canaan, as well as from the gene- but rather at the death of Maa tality of Jewish authors. How les, which was the forty-first foon this fabbatic year was ob- after the exod; and tŘen the ferved after their entrance into first fabbatic year will be on Cenaan, is variously reckoned the 7th after the passage of both by Jews and Chriftians. Jordan; fa that, after having
(43) Lev. xv. 9.
(44) Gemar. Kiddush. Gemar. Hieris in loc. Sedar Holam.
Maimon. 'de Sbemitab & Pobel, pat Abarban. in Hoh. xiv 12, & alib. R. Dar. Gantz. in Zemacb, 6. al. Scaliger, annot. ira obrania Eufeb. & alib. Goodw. MOS. & Aar. l. iii.c.9. Munft. calend. Meyer de temp. lagom 17. Cun. Calm, & al. (45) Sub A. M. 25540
(452 Mula Befrag. rap. Hob. tom. 3. c. 8.