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out of their country'; whilft God would still fhew such regard to the latter, that they should enjoy their ufual calmness and tranquillity, not a dog daring to open his mouth against any of them. Moses had no sooner finished this last prediction, than he retired to his people into the land of Goshen, where the Israelites celebrated the paff-The pallover that very night m, according to God's command ; over celeand it was in this night also, that Mofes bid them bor-brated. row what jewels, fine raiment, and other precious things they could froin their Egyptian neighbours, afsuring them from God, that they should find them very ready to accommodate them with the best things they had " (H).

How

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1 Exod. xi. &, & feg. Vid. USHER andal. fub A. M. 2513.m Id. ibid. VILLET. & al,

u Exod. xi. & xii. p. totes

on

(H) Before we enter into came on the second plague of
the institution of the pasfover, the frogs, which was removed
which was attended with the the day following (24); and,
laft and most dreadful plague, about the twenty-seventh day,
the death of all the firit-born, came on the third plague of
it will not be amiss to inquire, lice (25).
how long a time Nioses took in About the 28th day Moses
bringing all the plagues upon threatened them with a fourth
Egypt, especially because some plague of Aies, and other ver-
chronologiits have spun it out min, which came on the twen-
to ten (20), and others co ty-ninth day, and were all
twelve months (21) ; whereas taken away

the 30th
it is molt likely, that they (26).
happened all within the space About the ift or ad day of
of one month ; which is the the next month, which was
term in which the great arch- afterwards made the first month
bishop User has included them of the year, Mofes brought the
all, from Moses's own account, murrain upon the cattle (27).
as follows (2:2).

About the 3d day the sixth
About the 18th day of the plague brake out upon man
fixth month, which, in the year and beast, and upon the ma-
following, and after, was rec- gicians (28).
koned the twelfth month, was About the 4th day Moles
sent the plague of the waters foretold them a seventh plague,
turned into blood, which which he brought upon them
ended seven days after (23). on the 5th ; which was of
About the twenty-fifth day thunder, rain, and grievous

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(20) Bocrk. op. Villers (21) Jude: fere comesos

Vid. Uher ax. faks. 11.2.513. Genebrard, & al. (22) *4n9aliinid. Vid. etiam Peroer. & Vinder. in loc, 23) Exod. vii. 24. (24) Ib, viii. 1o. (25) Ib. v. 17. (20) Ib. v. 24. $ 29, (27) Exol. ix. 3, 5,6. (28) Ib. w. 8, 6167:

Its forft in. However, it muft be observed, that this ceremony ftitution. of eating the passover, as well as the method of doing it,

had been prescribed by God to Mofes, and by him communicated to the Ifraelites, during these transactions that passed between him and the king of Egypt, though they are poftponed to the twelfth chapter, to prevent the breaking the series of those wonders which God had wrought by him. The account which he has given us of this inftitution, is prefaced with a command from God, that that month, which was then the sixth of the year, according to the common or civil computation, should from thenceforth be the first month in the year in the facred

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hail mixed with fire, with month.
which their flax and barley Upon the 10th day of this
were smitten (29), but their now first month, which was
wheat and rice were not hurt, the thirtieth of April, accord-
not being yet out of the ground. ing to the Julian calendar, upon
Whence Nic. Fuller, lib. iii. Thursday, was instituted the
mifcel. 1. rightly observes, p. feast of the passover, and fweet-
389, that this plague happened bread; to wit, the pascbal
in the month Abib.

lamb was chosen and killed on About the 7th day Mofes the fourteenth day (33). threatened them with an 8th Moses now brings upon them plague, and accordingly sent the ninth plague of three days it the day following, viz. that darkness (34); and, upon the of locufts to devour all; which 14th day, which was May the plague he removed about the fourth, upon Monday with us, 9th day (30).

which was the last time be The month Abib, which hi. spoke with Pharaoh, Moles therto was the seventh month, foretold him the tenth plague was from this time forward which should come upon him ; made the first month of the namely, the destruction of all ' whole year (31), for a memo- the first-born, which came to - sial of their departure out of pass the night following ; and - Egypt; from the beginning of then, turning himself away in which month the epocha of the great anger, departed from

Jewish calendar is from thence- him (35). At the evening of forward deduced (32), though this day was the passover cethe end of the former accountlebrated (36). > fell on the middle of the

(29) Toid: v. 18. ad 32. (30) Exod. x. 4. ad 19.

(31) Exod. 5xii. 2. xiii. 4. (32) Num. ix. 1, 2. Conf. cum Exod. xl. 17. (33) Exod. xii. 3. ad 21. (34) Ibid. X. 21,& seq.. (35) Ibid. ver. 29 ad 29. & c. XI, 1, 4, 8. (36) Ibid. xiíad ver.

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calendar ;

calendar. (K) ; and that all the other feaits of the year, which were. afterwards to be instituted, lhould be regulated by that of the passover, the celebration of which the The order reader may see in the place quoted in the margin. This and maninjunction was to be perpetual, but on this night they ner of it. were moreover to save the blood of the lamb in a balon, and sprinkle the two lide-posts and cross-post of their doors with it, that the destroying angel might leave their houses untouched, when he passed by to destroy the first-born of Egypt, and to execute the divine vengeance on their gods, whether it were their princes, who, in the language of Scripture, are often called gods, or those animals which that superstitious nation worshiped. In memory of which great deliverance, they were to keep this feast of unlea-Unleavene vened bread seven days, that is, from the fourteenth day ed bread. at even, until the twenty-first day at even ; during which, whosoever was found among them eating of leavened bread, whether he was an Ifraelite, or a stranger, was to be cut off from Ifrael. The first and last of these seven days were to be kept holy, and free from all manner of : work. Lastly, no stranger was to be admitted to eat of the passover, unless he consented to be circumcised. As for the Ifraelites, they were strictly to remember this great and glorious night, and to instruct their children in the meaning of this institution, that they might likewise perpetuate the memory of it to future ages.

The people, whom so many dire judgments on the The Ifrael. Egyptians had rendered more tractable, received Moses's ites obey, orders with the utmost respect, and went to put them- and kill selves in readiness to execute them (L).

The ver. · Exod. xii. 3, & feq.

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the palo

(K). This month, which is cred calendar was from thence-
called in the Hebrew-Abib, and forward deduced, though the
had been till then the seventh end of the former account fell
month, and continued fo to be on the middle of the month
in the secular year, became (38).
from that day forward the (L) These commands may
first month of the sacred year, - be properly reduced to three
in memory of this wonderful heads í viz. first, to gather
departure out of the land of themselves from all the corners
Egypt (37) and from the of the kingdom into the land
beginning of this month the'. of Goshen ; it being unreason-
epocha of the Jewill or Tam able to fuppose, that fuch a

(37) Exod. xii. 2. witb xiii. 4. (38) Numb. ix. 1, 2. with Exod.
xda 17. Vid. Up. ann. fub A.M, 1519.

The night, which was to prove fo joyful to them, and fo fatal to their enemies, being come, and God's commands being punctually obeyed, whilft both sides were in the greatest tranquillity, the Egyptians thinking now all the plagues paft, and Pharaoh flattering himself, that Mofes's threatening against the first-born had proved abor tive, because four days were elapsed fince it was denounced, whereas he used to give him but one day's warning in the former plagues; and, on the other hand, the Ifrael ites keeping themselves in the profoundeft filence, know

ing what horrid slaughter was to be made among the The firfi. Egyptians ; in the middle, we fay, of that very night, GOD born of the sent his destroying ministers, who suddenly dispersed themEgyptians felves all over the kingdom, and fmote all the first-born fein by the with immediate death, from the firft-born who fat on defiroying Pharaoh's throne, to the firft-born of the imprisoned capangel.

tive, and even to that of the meanest animal in the

land. The firft expedient this affrighted monarch could Mofes ard think of, was to send immediately for Mofes and Aaron; Aaron sent who, being settled at Rame fes, not far from his capital for,and or-city, were soon brought to him, who, instead of bis dered to usual threatening and upbraidings, was urgent and pressing depart. for their departure with their children, cattle, and all

they had. The Egyptians likewise were no less impatient to see their backs, fearing left every minute of their ftay should prove their last. The Ifraelites found them as ready to lend them the most valuable things they had, as

vaft multitude, amounting (as other than a religious one, that we shall shew in the sequel) was to last but a few days. to upwards of two millions Thirdly, to eat the passover and an half of souls,could be all at the time, and with all the contained in that little spot of ceremonies, that had been preground ; so that it required no scribed ; and this was to take small dispatch to communicate up some time, four days at the orders of their departure least. However, Providence to them all. Secondly, To so ordered it, that they were get all the rich things they all ready on that night. And could from the Egyptians; and the Psalmist tells us (1), thai, this required fecrecy, since it notwithstanding the great num. is not probable, that the E- ber of their old men, women Eyptians would have proved fo and children, there was not generous, if they had fufpect one feeble person among all ed, that this journey was any their tribes.

(1) Pj. cv. 37

themselves (1). User's Ann. sub A. M. 2513. (2) Vid. fupra, p. 253-255, (K). (3) Exod. xii. p. toto (4) Artiq. l. ii. c. 15. Vol.III.

857

ll themselves were to borrow them; and Mofes, who was

too well acquainted with Pharaoh's changeable temper to * ftay till he relaxed, made all the hafte he could to put it out of his power ; and, having settled the best order he

Year of could among that vaft multitude, and in the general con

the flood fusion that then reigned, he gave the signal for their de. aparture long before break of day. Leaving therefore the Bef

. Chr. Egyptians to mourn for, and bury their dead, and loaden

1491. with their spoils, they began their march under the con

duct of Providence, and of Mofes, being to the number The nums of fix hundred thousand men able to bear arms, besides ber of the

old men, women and children, servants, and an innume- Ifraelites rable multitude of strangers, who joined themselves to them; that went and followed them in their march (M.) As soon as they out of

were arrived at Succoth,Mofes made them encamp according Egypt. in to their tribes and families, which was likewise the order at in which they had been directed to march. It is to be A observed here, that the distance from Rameses to the ut

moft borders of Egypt on the side of the land of Canaan, was not much above threescore miles, so that Moses could, in a few days march, have brought them out of Pbaraoh's territories; yet God so ordered it, that they

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(M) They had continued in were forced to carry their Egypt from the time of Jacob's paste with them unleavened, first coming thither, to this with which they baked thema very day, which was the same selves cakes upon the coals ; day of the same month and and what other provision they week, viz. Monday (1), the could get, they took with space of two hundred and fif- them undressed, and marched teen years,

though Mofes, from Rameses, Moses's dwelcomputing it from the first ling-place, to their first encoming of Abraham into Ca- campment at Succoth (3). 70naan, reckons it four hundred sephus tells us (4), that their and thirty years, as has been dough, and other provision, already thewn (2). There was which they carried from Egypt, yet one main thing wanting, lasted them a whole month ; viz. the securing of a fufficient but it is not likely, that they quantity of provisions for all would load themselves with such that multitude ; and perhaps luggage, which in all probabithey expected to have had time licy they knew not how to 'énough to have got it before preserve so long, when they their march, but the Egyptians had so much better things to drove them away with such de- carry out of the {poils of the sperate eagerness, that the people Egyptians.

were

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