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in Hebrew 72p. Wherefore all the paraphrasts of the Hebrews also do expound that word Sheol by the word Gehenna; as Genebrard doth shew at large in his third book of the Trinity.” Where yet he might have learned some more moderation from Genebrard himself, unto' whom he referreth us: who thus layeth down his judgment of the matter in the place by him alleged. “ Ash they be in an error who contend that Sheol doth never design the grave: so have they a shameless forehead, who deny that it doth any where signify the region of the damned or Gehenna."
It is an error therefore in Stapleton, by his own author's confession, to maintain that Sheol is never taken for the grave; and in so doing, he doth but bewray his old wrangling disposition. But lest any other should take the shameless forehead from him, he faceth it down, that all the paraphrasts of the Hebrews do interpret Sheol by the word Gehenna. Whereas it is well known, that the two paraphrasts that are of greatest antiquity and credit with the Hebrews, Onkelos the interpreter of Moses, Jonathan ben Uzziel of the Prophets, never translate it so. Beside that of Onkelos, we have two other Chaldee paraphrases which expound the harder places of Moses; the one called the Targum of Jerusalem, the other attributed unto Jonathan: in neither of these can we find, that Sheol is expounded by Gehenna; but in the latter of them we see it twice' expounded by ' 0713p, the house of the grave. In the Arabic interpretations of Moses, where thek translator out of the Greek hath plesul al-giahimo, hell; there the translator out of the Hebrew putteth-9, 19 al-tharay,
b Quemadmodum in errore versantur, qui eam vocem nunquam sepulchrum designare contendunt : sic fronte sunt perfricta, qui uspiam Gehennæ regionem negant significare. Genebrard. de Trinitat. lib. 3. in symboli Athanasiani expositione.
i Gen. chap. 37. ver. 35. et chap. 14. ver. 29.
k Genebrard. in Genesi, quam cum commentario Arabico MS. penes me habeo : et Deuteronom. cap. 32. ver. 22.
Pentateuch. Arabic. ab Erpenio, edit. ann. 1622.
,קבורתא and יקבורא Job useth that word_thrice"; but
which signifyeth earth or clay. Jacobus Tawosiusm, in his Persian translation of the Pentateuch, for Sheol doth always put Gor", that is, the grave. The Chaldee paraphrase upon the Proverbs keepeth still the word by deflected a little from the Hebrew: the paraphrast upon
'; which signifieth the grave, instead thereof five several times. In Ecclesiastes the word cometh but once': and there the Chaldee paraphrast rendereth it annap n'a the house of the grave. R. Joseph Cæcus doth the like in his paraphrase upon Psalm 31. ver. 17. and 89. ver 48. In Psalm 141. ver. 7. he rendereth it by the simple nap, the grave: but in the 15th and 16th verses of the 49th Psalm, by ognia, or Gehenna. And only there, and in Cantic. 8. ver. 6. is Sheol in the Chaldee paraphrases expounded by Gehenna: whereby if we shall understand the place, not of dead bodies (as in that place of the Psalm the paraphrast maketh express mention of the bodies waxing old or consuming in Gehenna) but of tormenting souls, as the Rabbins more commonly do take it, yet do our Romanists get little advantage thereby, who would fain have the Sheol into which our Saviour went, be conceived to have been a place of rest, and not of torment; the bosom of Abraham, and not Gehenna, the seat of the damned.
As for the Greek word Hades, it is used by Hippo crates to express the first matter of things, from which they have their beginning, and into which afterwards being dissolved they make their ending. For having said, that in nature nothing properly may be held to be newly made, or to perish, he addeth this : “ But" men do think, that what doth grow from Hades into light, is newly made; and what is diminished from the light into Hades, is perished;" by Light understanding nothing else but the visible structure and existence of things: and by Hades, that invisible and insensible thing which other philosophers commonly call ύλην, Chalcidius" the Platonic translateth sylvam, the Aristotelians more fitly materiam primam; whence also it is supposed by Master Casaubon*, that those passages were borrowed, which we meet withall in the books that bear the name of Hermes Trismegistus. “ In' the dissolution of a material body, the body itself is brought to alteration, and the form which it had is made invisible :" "and so there is a privation of the sense made, not a destruction of the bodies. I say then that the world is changed, inasmuch as every day a part thereof is made invisible, but never utterly dissolved;" wherewith we may compare likewise that place of Plutarch in his book of Living privately. “Generation doth not make any of the things that be, but manifesteth them: neither is corruption a translation of a thing from being to not being, but rather a bringing of the thing that is dissolved unto that which is unseen. Whereupon men, according to the ancient traditions of their fathers, thinking the sun to be Apollo, called him Delius and Pythius: (namely from ma
m Pentateuch. quadrilingu, a Judæis Constantinopoli excus.
•037729 gobangurora Psal. 49. ver. 15. Chald. i Elias in Tischbi, verb. 03.792 * Νομίζεται δε παρά των ανθρώπων, το μέν έξ άδου εις φώς αυξηθέν
γενέσθαι το δε εκ του φάεος εις άδην μειωθέν, απολέσθαι. Hippocrat. de diæta, sive victus ratione. lib. 1.
* Chalcid. in Timeum Platonis.
Σ Πρώτον μεν εν τη αναλύσει του σώματος του υλικού, παραδίδωσιν αυτό το σώμα είς αλλοίωσιν, και το είδος και είχεν αφανές γίνεται. Ηerm. Permand. serm. 1.
1 Και ούτω στέρησις γίνεται της αισθήσεως, ουκ απώλεια των σωμάτων. Id. serm. 8.
2 Και τον κόσμον φημί μεταβάλλεσθαι, διά τό γίνεσθαι μέρος αυτού καθ' εκάστην ημέραν εν τώ αφανεί, μηδέποτε δε λύεσθαι. Ιd. serm. 11.
• Ου γαρ ποιεϊ τών γινομένων έκαστον, αλλά δείκνυσιν ώσπερ ουδέ ή φθορά του όντος, άρσις εις το μη όν έστιν, αλλά μάλλον εις το άδηλον απαγωγή του διαλυθέντος. όθεν δή τον μέν ήλιον Απόλλωνα κατά τους πατρίους και παλαιούς θεσμους νομίζοντες, Δήλιον και Πύθιον προσαγορεύουσι τον δε της εναντίας κύριον μοίρας, είτε θεός, είτε δαίμων εστίν, "Αδην ονομάζουσιν, ώς αν είς άειδές και αόρατον ημών, όταν διαλυθώμεν, βαδιζόντων. Plutarch. in illud, Λάθε βιώσαι.
nifesting of things): and the ruler of the contrary destiny, whether he be a God, or an angel, they named Hades; by reason that we, when we are dissolved, do go unto an unseen and invisible place." By the Latins this Hades is termed Dispiter or Diespiter: which name they gave unto this “ lower' air that is joined to the earth, where all things have their beginning and ending ; quorum quod finis ortus, Orcus dictus," saith Varro. " Alld this earthly power and nature,” saith Julius Firmicus," they named Ditem patrem, because this is the nature of the earth, that all things do both fall into it, and taking their original from thence, do again proceed out of it.” Whence the earth is brought in, using this speech unto God, in Hermes : “ le do receive the nature of all things. For I, according as thou has commanded, do both bear all things, and receive such as are deprived of life."
The use which we make of the testimony of Hippocrates, and those other authorities of the heathen, is to shew, that the Greek interpreters of the old Testament did most aptly assume the word Hades, to express that common state and place of corruption which was signified by the Hebrew Sheol, and therefore in the last verse of the seventeenth chapter of Job, where the Greek maketh mention of descending into Hades; Comitolus' the Jesuit noteth that St. Ambrose rendereth it, “in sepulchrum, into the grave;" which agreeth well with that which Olympiodorus writeth upon the same chapter : “ Iss it not a thing common unto all men, to die? is not hell (or Hades)
c Idem hic Diespiter dicitur, infimus aer, qui est conjunctus terræ, ubi omnia oriuntur, ubi aboriuntur : quorum quod finis ortus, Orcus dictus. Varro, de lingua Latin. lib. 4. cap. 10.
d Terrenam vim omnem atque naturam, Ditem patrem dicunt: quia hæc est natura terræ, ut et recidant in eam omnia, et rursus ex ea orta procedant. Jul. Firmic. Matern. de errore profan. relig. ex Ciceron. lib. 2. de natur. Deor.
€ Χωρώ δ' εγώ και φύσιν πάντων: αύτη γάρ, ώς συ προσέταξας, και φέρω πάντα, και τα φονευθέντα δέχομαι. Ηerm. Minerva Mundi, apud Jo. Stobæum in eclogis physicis, pag. 124.
Paul. Comitol. Caten. Græc. in Job. cap. 17. ult. 8 Ού κοινόν άπασιν ανθρώποις το αποθανείν ; Ούχ άδης άπασι ο οικος; Ούκ εκεί πάντες των ενθάδε καταλήγουσι των πόνων; Olympiod. Caten. Græc. in Job, cap. 17.
the house for all ? doe not all find there an end of their labours?" Yea, some do think, that Homer himself doth take aons either for the earth or the grave, in those verses of the eighth of his Iliads :
"Η μιν ελών, ρίψω ές τάρταρον ήερόεντα,
I'll cast him down as deep
For Tartarus being commonly acknowledged to be a part of Hades, and to be the very hell where the wicked spirits are tormented: they think the hell from whence Homer maketh it to be as far distant as the heaven is from the earth, can be referred to nothing so fitly as to the earth or the grave. It is taken also for a tomb in that place of Pindarus :
-"Ατερθει δε προ δω-
“ Other sacred kings have gotten a tomb apart by themselves before the houses," or before the gates of the city. And therefore we see that 'Aídac is by Suidas in his lexicon expressly interpreted ó tápos, and by Hesychius, túußos, tápos, a tomb, or a grave; and in the Greek dictionary set out by the Romanists themselves, for the better understanding of the Bible, it is noted, that Hadesi doth not only signify that which we commonly call hell, but the sepulchre or grave also. Of which, because
to Pindar. Pyth. Od. 5. ver. 129.
i "Aons, Orcus, Tartarus, sepulchrum. Lexic. Græco-Lat. in sacro apparatu biblior. regior. cdit. Antwerp. ann. 1572.