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them read and understand, let them behold and confess, that not by the law and doctrine sounding outwardly, but by an inward and hidden, by a wonderful and unspeakable power, God doth work in the hearts of men, not only true revelations, but good wills also.” And thereupon the African fathers in the council of Carthage, enacted this canon: Whosoever shall
of God by Jesus Christ our Lord, doth for this cause only help us not to sin, because by it the understanding of the commandments is revealed and opened unto us, that we may know what we ought to affect, what to shun, and that by it there is not wrought in us, that we may also love and be enabled to do that which we know should be done; let him be anathema.” Thirdly, under this grace he comprehended not only the external revelation by the word, but also the internald by the illumination of God's spirit. Whereupon he thus riseth up against his adversary: “ We confess that this grace is, not (as thou thinkest) in the law only, but in the help of God also. For God doth help us by his doctrine and revelation, whilst he openeth the eyes of our hearts ; whilst he sheweth us things to come, that we be not holden with things present; whilst he discovereth the snares of the devil, whilst he enlighteneth us with the manifold and unspeakable gift of his heavenly grace. He that saith these things, doth he seem unto thee to deny grace? or doth he confess, both the free will of man, and the grace of God too ?” And yet in all this, as St. Augustine rightly noteth, he' doth but “confess that grace whereby God doth shew and reveal what he ought to do; not that, whereby he doth grant and help that we may do." And therefore in other places of his writings he plainly affirmeth, " that our very prayers are to be used for nothing but this, that the doctrine may be opened unto us by divine revelation; not that the mind of man may be holpen, that he may also accomplish by love and action that which he hath learned should be done.” Fourtbly, to these he further added the grace of remission of sins. For the Pelagians said, “ that man's nature which was made with free will, might be sufficient to enable us, that we might not sin, and that we might fulfil righteousness: and that this is the grace of God, that we were so made that we might do this by our will, and that he hath given us the help of his law and commandments, and that he doth pardon the sins past to those that are converted unto him: that in these things only the grace of God was to be acknowledged, and not in the help given unto all our singular actions." And so " they said, that that grace of God which is given by the
trina insonante forinsecus, sed interna atque occulta, mirabili ac ineffabili potestate operari Deum in cordibus hominum, non solum veras revelationes, sed etiam bonas voluntates. Augustin. lib. 1. de gratia Christi contr. Pelag. cap. 24.
c Quisquis dixerit gratiam Dei per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum, propter hoc tantum nos adjuvare ad non peccandum, quia per ipsam nobis revelatur et aperitur intelligentia mandatorum, ut sciamus quid appetere, quid vitare debeamus ; non autem per illam nobis præstari, ut quod faciendum cognoverimus, etiam facere diligamus atque valeamus : anathema sit. African. Patr. in Synod. Carthagin. can. 4.
d Augustin. lib. 1. de grat. Christ. contr. Pelag. cap. 7. et 41:
e Quam (gratiam) nos non, ut tu putas, in lege tantummodo, sed et in Dei esse adjutorio confitemur. Adjuvat enim nos Deus per doctrinam et revelationem suam, dum cordis nostri oculos aperit; dum nobis, ne præsentibus occupemur, futura demonstrat ; dum Diaboli pandit insidias ; dum nos multiformi et ineffabali dono gratiæ cælestis illuminat. Qui hæc dicit, gratiam tibi videtur negare ? An et liberum hominis arbitrium, et Dei gratiam confitetur ? Pelag. Ibid. cap. 7.
f Hinc itaque apparet, hanc eum gratiam confiteri, qua demonstrat et revelat Deus quid agere debeamus, non qua donat atque adjuvat ut agamus : cum ad hoc potius valeat legis agnitio, si gratiæ desit opitulatio, ut fiat mandati prævaricatio. August. lib. 1. de grat. Christ. contr. Pelag. cap. 8.
& Ipsas quoque orationes (ut in scriptis suis apertissime affirmat) ad nihil aliud adhibendas opinatur, nisi ut nobis doctrina etiam divina revelatione aperiatur ; non ut adjuvetur mens hominis, ut id, quod faciendum esse didicerit, etiam dilectione et actione perficiat. Id. ibid. cap. 41.
Ut non peccemus, impleamusque justitiam, posse sufficere naturam humanam quæ condita est cum libero arbitrio : eamque esse Dei gratiam, quia sic conditi sumus, ut hoc voluntate possimus ; et quod adjutorium legis mandatorumque suorum dedit; et quod ad se conversis peccata præterita ignoscit : in his solis esse Dei gratiam deputandam, non in adjutorio nostrorum actuum singulorum. Id. de gestis contra Pelagium, cap. 35.
Dicunt gratiam dei quæ data est per fidem Jesu Christi, quæ neque lex est neque natura, ad hoc tantum valere, ut peccata præterita dimittantur, non ut futura vitentur, vel repugnantia superentur. Id. de gratia et libero arbitrio, cap. 13. Vid. ejusd. lib. 1. de grat. Christi contra Pelag. cap. 2.
faith of Jesus Christ, which is neither law nor nature, is effectual only to this, that sins past may be remitted, not that sins to come may be avoided, or when they make resistance may be vanquished.” Whereupon St. Augustine thus encountereth Julian the Pelagian heretic: “ Thouk, according to your custom, which descendeth from your error, dost not acknowledge grace, but in the remission of sins; that now from henceforth a man himself by his free will may make himself righteous. But so saith not the Church, which all crieth that which it hath learned from a good Master: Lead us not into temptation."
Lastly, this was the common doctrine of the Pelagians', and accounted to be one of the principal blasphemiesof that sect, that they held “ the grace of God to be given according to men's merits.” Which was "so" abhorring from the Catholic doctrine, and opposite to the grace of Christ,” that when it was objected to Pelagius in the Diospolitan synod, held in Palæstina by the bishops of the east, he durst not avow it, but was forced to accurse it, lest otherwise he should have been accursed himself. “But that he deceitfully cursed it, the books written by him afterwards do shew, wherein he defendeth nothing else, but that the grace of God is given according to our merits;" which Prosper treading in St. Augustine's steps, doth thus express :
k Tu vestro more, qui de vestro descendit errore, non agnoscis gratiam, nisi in dimissione peccatorum, ut jam de cætero per liberum arbitrium ipse homo seipsum fabricet justum. Sed non hoc dicit Ecclesia, quæ clamat tota, quod didicit a Magistro bono : Ne nos inferas in tentationem. August. op. imperf. contra Julian. lib. 2. cap. 227. op, tom. 10. pag. 1047.
Id. de dono perseverant. cap. 2. et 20. de gratia et lib. arbitr. cap. 5. de hæresib. cap. 88. &c.
m Ex his una est blasphemia, nequissimum et subtilissimum germen aliarum, qua dicunt, gratiam Dei secundum merita hominum dari. Prosper, in epist. de grat. et lib. arbitr. ad Ruffinum.
Quod sic alienum est a Catholica doctrina, et inimicum gratiæ Christi; ut nisi hoc objectum sibi anathematizasset, ipse inde anathematizatus exisset. Sed fallaciter eum anathematizasse posteriores ejus indicant libri ; in quibus omnino nihil aliud defendit, quam gratiam Dei secundum merita nostra dari. August. de grat. et lib. arbitr. cap. 5. op. tom. 10. pag. 723. VOL. III.
Objectumo est aliud; ipsum dixisse magistrum
And in this also did the Pelagians betake themselves unto their old coverts of the grace of nature, the grace of mercy in forgiving of sins, the grace of instruction and revelation, and such other shifts. For “ whenP it is demanded of them," saith St. Augustine, what lagius did think was given without any precedent merits, when he anathematized those who say that the grace of God is given according to our merits: they answer, that the grace which is without any precedent merits, is the human nature itself wherein we are created; forasmuch as before we were, we could not deserve any thing that we might be.” Then afterward perceiving what an idle thing it was to confound grace and nature thus together: they said “ that the only grace, which was not according to our merits, was that whereby a man had his sins forgiven him;" for they did not think, that a sinner could rightly be said to merit any thing save God's displeasure.
But that at which they all aimed in general was this, " that grace was only a kind of mistress to free will; and
• Prosp. de Ingratis, cap. 9.
p Cum ab istis quæritur, quam gratiam Pelagius cogitaret sine ullis præcedentibus meritis dari, quando. anathematizabat eos, qui dicunt gratiam Dei secundum merita nostra dari : respondent, sine ullis præcedentibus meritis gratiam, ipsam humanam esse naturam, in qua conditi sumus. Neque enim antequam essemus, mereri aliquid poteramus, ut essemus. Aug. epist. 194. ad Sixtum. op. tom. 2. pag. 717.
9 Dicunt Pelagiani, hanc esse solam non secundum merita nostra gratiam, qua homini peccata dimittuntur. Id. de grat. et lib. arbitr. cap. 6. op. tom. 10.
+ Intellectum est enim, saluberrimeque perspectum, hoc tantum eos de gratia confiteri, quod quædam libero arbitrio sit magistra; seque per cohortationes, per legem, per doctrinam, per creaturam, per contemplationem, per miracula, perque terrores extrinsecus judicio ejus ostendat: quo unusquisque secundum
that by exhortations, by the law, by doctrine, by the creatures, by contemplation, by miracles, and by terrors outwardly, it shewed itself to the judgment thereof: whereby every man according to the motion of his will, if he did seek, might find; if he did ask, might receive; if he did knock, might enter in.” And thus, saith Pelagius, doth God “ works in us to will that which is good, to will that which is holy; whilst finding us given to earthly lusts, and like brute beasts affecting only present things, he inflameth us with the greatness of the glory to come, and with promise of rewards; whilst by the revelation of his wisdom he raiseth up our stupified will to the desire of God, whilst he persuadeth us to all that good is." To this instructing and persuading grace doth Pelagius attribute the exciting of the will; but the converting of it unto God (which followeth afterward) he ascribeth wholly to the freedom of the will itself. 6. Het that runneth unto God," saith he, “and desireth to be ruled by God, hanging his will upon God's will; he who by adhering unto him continually is made, according to the apostle, one spirit with him, doth not this but out of the freedom of his will. Which freedom whoso useth aright, doth so commit himself wholly to God, and mortifieth all his own will, that he may say with the apostle, I live now, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me : and doth put his heart into God's hand, that God may incline it whither it shall please him.” Here have you the full platform laid down of Pe.
voluntatis suæ motum, si quæsierit, inveniat; si petierit, recipiat ; si pulsaverit introeat. Prosper, in epist. ad Ruffin. de grat. et lib. arbitr.
Operatur in nobis velle quod bonum est, velle quod sanctum est; dum nos terrenis cupiditatibus deditos, et mutorum more animalium tantummodo præsentia diligentes, futuræ 'gloriæ magnitudine et præmiorum pollicitatione succendit ; dum revelatione sapientiæ in desiderium Dei stupentem suscitat voluntatem ; dum nobis suadet omne, quod bonum est. Pelag. apud Augustin. lib. 1. de grat. Christi contra Pelag. cap. 10. op. tom. 10. pag. 235.
Qui currit ad Deum, et a Deo se regi cupit, id est, voluntatem suam ex ejus voluntate suspendit; qui ei adhærendo jugiter, unus, secundum apostolum, cum eo fit spiritus ; non hoc nisi de arbitrii efficit libertate. Qua qui bene utitur, ita se totum tradit Deo, omnemque suam mortificat voluntatem, ut cum apostolo possit dicere; Vivo autem jam non ego, vivit autem in me Christus : ponitque cor suum in manu Dei, ut illud quo voluerit Deus ipse declinet. Pelagius, apud Augustin. de gratia Christi, lib. 1. cap. 22, 23. ibid. pag. 240.