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at the hands of the Lord: he adjoineth, that this was not given to their merits, but because it so pleased God, whose free gift is whatsoever he bestoweth.” Haymo, writing upon those words, “ Foru thy servant David's sake refuse not the face of thine anointed,” saith that, “For thy servant David's sake," is as much to say

“ For the merit of Christ himself ” and from thence collecteth this doctrine: “that none ought to presume of his own merits, but expect all his salvation from the merits of Christ.” So in another place: “When we perform our repentance," saith he, “ let us know that we can give nothing that is worthy for the appeasing of God; but that only in the blood of that immaculate and singular Lamb we can be saved.” And again, “ Eternal life is rendered to none by debt, but given by free mercy.” “ Ity is of necessity that believers should be saved only by the faith of Christ:” saith Smaragdus the abbot. “By? grace, not by merits, are we saved of God :" saith the author of the commentaries upon St. Mark, falsely attributed to St. Hierome.

That this doctrine was by God's great mercy preserved in the church the next five hundred years also, as well as in those middle times, appeareth most evidently by those instructions and consolations, which were prescribed to be used unto such as were ready to depart out of this life. Thisa form of preparing men for their death, was com

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u Psalm 132. ver. 10.

Propter David servum tuum, id est, propter meritum ipsius Christi, et hic datur plane intelligi, nullum de meritis suis debere præsumere; sed omnem salvationem ex Christi meritis expectare. Haymo

Psal. 131. w Sed et nos agentes pænitentiam, sciamus nihil nos dignum dare posse ad placandum Deum; sed solummodo in sanguine immaculati et singularis Agni nos posse salvari. Id. in Micheæ, cap. 6.

* Vita æterna nulli per debitum redditur ; sed per gratuitam misericordiam datur. Id. homil. in Dominic. Septuagesimæ.

y Necesse est sola fide Christi salvari credentes. Smaragd. in Galat. cap. 3.

3 Gratia, non meritis, salvati sumus a Deo. Commentar. in Marc. cap. 14. inter ψευδεπίγραφα Hieronym. .

a Formula illa infirmos jam animam agentes interrogandi, in bibliothecis passim obvia; quæ et separatim Anselmo Cantuariensi inscribitur, et operi epistolarum inserta reperitur. Georg. Cassand. in appendic. ad opusc. Jo. Roffens. de fiducia et misericordia Dei.

monly to be had in all libraries, and particularly was found inserted among the epistles of Anselm archbishop of Canterbury; who was commonly accounted to be the author of it. The substance thereof may be seen (for the copies vary, some being shorter, and some larger than others) in a tractate written by a Cistercian monk, of the Art of dying well (which I have in written hand and have seen also printed in the year MCCCCLXXXVIII. and MDIV.) in the book called, Hortulus animæ, in Cassander's appendix to the book of John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, De fiducia et misericordia Dei?; Caspar Ulenbergius his Motivesa; in the Roman Sacerdotal", in the book entitled, Sacra institutio baptizandi juxta ritum sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ, ex decreto concilii Tridentini restituta, &c. printed at Paris, in the year MDLXXV. and in a like book entitled Ordo baptizandi, cum modo visitandi, printed at Venice the same year ; out of which the Spanish inquisitors, as well in their new, as in their old expurgatory index, the one set out by cardinal Quiroga in the year MDLXXXIV. the other by the cardinal of Sandoval and Roxas, in the year MDCXII. command these interrogatories to be blotted out. Dost thou believe to come to glory, not by thine own merits, but by the virtue and merit of the passion of our Lord Jesus Christ ?" and, “Dost thou believe that our Lord Jesus Christ did die for our salvation: and that none can be saved by his own merits, or by any other means, but by the merit of his passion ?" whereby we may observe how late it is since our Romanists, in this main and most substantial point, which is the very foundation of all our comfort, have most shamefully departed from the faith of their forefathers.

2 Edit. Colon. ann. 1556.
a Caus. 14. pag. 462, 463. edit. Colon. ann. 1589.
6 Part. 1. tract. 5. cap. 13. fol. 116. edit. Venet. ann. 1585.

c Sacerdos. Credis non propriis meritis, sed passionis Domini nostri Jesu Christi virtute et merito, ad gloriam pervenire ? Respondeat infirmus : Credo. SACERDOS. Credis, quod Dominus noster Jesus Christus pro nostra salute mortuus sit : et quod ex propriis meritis, vel alio modo nullus possit salvari, nisi in merito passionis ejus ? Respondeat infirmus : Credo. Ordo baptizandi, et visi

In other copies of this same instruction, which are followed by Cassander, Ulenbergius, and cardinal Hosius himself, the last question propounded to the sick man is this : “ Dost thou believe that thou canst not be saved, but by the death of Christ?" Whereunto when he hath made answer affirmatively, he is presently directed to make use thereof, in this manner: “ Go to, therefore, as long as thy soul remaineth in thee, place thy whole confidence in this death only; have confidence in no other thing : commit thyself wholly to this death, with this alone cover thyself wholly, intermingle thyself wholly in this death, fasten thyself wholly; wrap thy whole self in this death. And if the Lord God will judge thee, say: Lord, I oppose the death of our Lord Jesus Christ betwixt me and thy judgment: no otherwise do I contend with thee. And if he say unto thee, that thou art a sinner, say: Lord, I put the death of the Lord Jesus Christ betwixt thee and my sins. If he say unto thee, that thou hast deserved damnation, say: Lord, I set the death of our Lord Jesus Christ betwixt me and my bad merits; and I offer his merit instead of the merit which I ought to have, but yet have not. If he say, that he is angry with thee, say: Lord, I interpose the death of our Lord Jesus Christ betwixt me and thine anger.

tandi, edit. Venet. ann. 1575. fol. 34. et institut. baptizandi, edit. Paris. ann. 1575. fol. 35. a. et sacerdotal. Rom. edit. Venet. ann. 1585. fol. 116. b.

d Sed et Anselmus archiepiscopus Cantuariensis interrogationes quasdam præscripsisse dicitur infirmis in extremis constitutis: inter quas extrema est. Credis te non posse nisi per mortem Christi salvari ? Respondet infirmus : Etiam. Tum illi dicitur : Age ergo, dum superest in te anima, in hac sola morte fiduciam tuam constitue ; in nulla alia re fiduciam habe: huic morti te totum committe, hac sola te totum contege, totum immisce te in hac morte, totum confige ; in hac morte te totum involve. Et si Dominus Deus voluerit te judicare, dic: Domine, mortem Domini nostri Jesu Christi objicio inter me et tuum judicium : aliter tecum non contendo. Et si tibi dixerit, quia peccator es, dic: Domine, mortem Domini Jesu Christi pono inter te et peccata mea. Si dixerit tibi, quod meruisti damnationem, dic: Domine, mortem Domini nostri Jesu Christi obtendo inter me, et mala merita mea ; ipsiusque meritum offero pro merito, quod ego debuissem habere nec habeo. Si dixerit, quod tibi est iratus, dic : Domine, mortem Domini nostri Jesu Christi oppono inter me et iram tuam. Hosius in confessione Petricoviens. cap. 73.

Add hereunto the following sentences of the doctors of these later ages: “ We cannot suffer or bring in any thing worthy of the reward that shall be:” saith Oecumenius. So Petrus Blesensis, archdeacon of Bath: “No trouble can be endured in this vital death, which is able equally to answer the joys of heaven;" and Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, more fully before him: “ Ifa man should serve God a thousand years, and that most fervently ; he should not deserve of condignity to be half a day in the kingdom of heaven.” Radulphus Ardens, expounding those words of the parable, “Didsth not thou agree with me for a penny? Let' no man out of these words," saith he, “think that God is, as it were, tied by agreement to pay that which he hath promised. For as God is free to promise, so is he free to pay, especially seeing as well merits as rewards are his grace. For God doth crown nothing else in us but his own grace : who if he would deal strictly with us, no man living should be justified in his sight. Whereupon the apostle, who laboured more than all, saith: I reckon that the sufferings of this time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. Therefore this agreement is nothing else, but God's voluntary promise.” And “ dok not wonder,” saith he, in another

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Ουκ ισχύομεν άξιόντι της εκεί αντιδόσεως παθείν ή συνεισενέγκαι. Oecumen. in Roman. cap. 8. pag. 312.

Nihil moleste potest sustineri in hac morte vitali, quod cælestibus gaudiis ex æquo respondere sufficiat. Petr. Blesens. in Job, cap. ult.

8 Si homo mille annis serviret Deo, etiam ferventissime ; non meretur ex condigno, dimidiam diem esse in regno cælorum. Anselm. in lib. de mensuratione crucis. h Matth. chap. 20. ver. 13.

Nemo, fratres, ex his verbis putet Deum quasi ex conventione astrictum esse ad reddendum promissum. Sicut enim Deus est libet ad promittendum, ita est liber ad reddendum: præsertim cum tam merita quam præmia sint gratia sua. Nihil enim aliud quam gratiam suam coronat in nobis Deus : qui si vellet in nobis agere districte, non justificaretur in conspectu ejus omnis vivens. Unde apostolus qui plus omnibus laboravit, dicit: Existimo quod non sunt condignæ passiones hujus temporis ad futuram gloriamquæ revelabitur in nobis. Ergo hæc conventio nihil aliud est, quam voluntaria Dei promissio. Rad. Ardens, Dominic. in septuagesima, homil. 2.

k Ne miremini, fratres, si merita justorum gratias voco : teste enim apostolo,

sermon, “ if I call the merits of the just graces. For as the apostle witnesseth, we have nothing which we have not received from God, and that freely. But because by one grace we come unto another : they are called merits, but improperly. For as Augustine witnesseth: God crowneth only his own grace in us.” So Rupertus Tuitiensis : “ Thek greatness or the eternity of the heavenly glory, is not a matter of merit, but of grace.” The same doth Bernardus Morlanensis' express in these rhythmical verses of his :

Urbs Sion inclyta, patria condita littore tuto ;
Te peto, te colo, te flagro, te volo, canto, saluto.
Nec meritis peto, nam meritis meto morte perire :
Nec reticens tego, quod meritis ego filius iræ.
Vita quidem mea, vita nimis rea, mortua vita :
Quippe reatibus exitialibus obruta, trita.
Spe tamen ambulo, præmia postulo speque fideque,
Illa perennia postulo præmia nocte dieque.

But Bernard of Clarævalle above others delivereth this doctrine most sweetly: “It” is necessary,” saith he, “ that first of all thou shouldst believe, that thou canst not have remission of sins, but by the mercy of God: then, that thou canst not at all have any whit of a good work, unless he likewise give it thee: lastly, that by no works thou canst merit eternal life, unless that also be freely given unto thee. Otherwise', if we will properly name those which

nihil habemus quod non a Deo et gratis accepimus. Sed quoniam per unam gratiam pervenimus ad aliam, merita dicuntur et improprie. Teste enim Augustino, solam gratiam suam coronat in nobis Deus. Rad. Ardens, Dominic. 18. post Trinitat. homil. 1.

| Res est non meriti, sed gratiæ magnitudo vel æternitas cælestis gloriæ. Ru. pert. Tuit. in Johan. lib. 1. cap. 1.

m Bernard. Cluniacens. de contemptu mundi, lib. 1. n Al. turris et edita.

• Necesse est primo omnium credere, quod remissionem peccatorum habere non possis, nisi per indulgentiam Dei : deinde quod nihil prorsus habere queas operis boni, nisi et hoc dederit ipse : postremo quod æternam vitam nullis potes operibus promereri, nisi gratis detur et illa. Bernard. serm. 1. in annuntiat. B. Mariæ.

P Alioquin si proprie appellentur ea quæ dicimus nostra merita : spei quædam

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