Imatges de pÓgina
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regular government, which explains the law, and hears and determines all complaints. It is vested in several judges, who form a court.

What is the executive power ? The executive power sees that the laws are put in execution. It is vested either in a Governour, President, King, or Emperour.

What is the form of a government ? The form of a government is the particular manner in which it is exercised.

How many kinds of government are there? There are three kinds of government, which, under various modifications, constitute all others; monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy.

What is a monarchy ? A monarchy is where the sovereignty, or supreme power is vested in the hands of one individual, called a monarch, whether a king or an emperour.

What is a limited monarchy ? A limited monarchy is where the power of the sovereign is limited by law.

What is an arbitrary monarchy ? An arbitrary, or absolute monarchy, is where the sovereign is not limited by law; but he disposes of the lives and property of his subjects at his pleasure.

What is an absolute government ? In an absolute goverment there are no laws but the will of the sovereign. If he exercise his power with severity and abuse, he is called a despot, or tyrant.

What is an elective monarchy? An elective monarchy is where the sovereign is appointed by the suffrages or votes of the people.

What is a hereditary monarchy ? A hereditary nonarchy is where the supreme authority, honours, and titles, descend from one sovereign to another by right of inheritance, established by law, as from father to son.

What is an aristocracy? An aristocracy is where the supreme power is vested in a council of select members, sometimes called the nobility.

What is a democracy? A democracy is where the supreme power is exercised by the whole body of the people.

What is a republick ? A republick is where the supreme power is intrusted by the people to councils, composed of members, chosen for a limited time, and where there are several independent states united in one general government.

What is the governmentof the United States ? The government of the United States is a republick.

What is a mixed government? A mixed government par

takes of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy, as is exemplified in the British government.

DIFFERENT RELIGIONS.

What is religion ? Religion is a system of divine faith and worship

How many kinds of religion are there? There are four kinds of religion, the Pagan or Heathen, the Jewish, the Christian, and the Mahometan, or more properly Mohammedan.

What is Paganism? Paganism is the worship of false gods, such as idols or images, made by men's hands; or natural objects, as the sun, moon, and stars, rivers, and some mes ferocious beasts, or other objects.

What is Judaism? Judaism is the worship of the one true God, as revealed in the Old Testament; but it rejects the New Testament.

What is Christianity ? Christianity is the worship of the true God, as revealed in both the Old and New Testaments, and as taught by Jesus Christ, and his disciples and apostles.

What is Mahometanism ? Mahometanism, or Islamism, is a system of faith and worship composed of Paganism, Judaism, and Christianity.

Who was the author of this system ? Mahomet, or Mohammed, a celebrated impostor of Arabia, was the author of this system.

What are the followers of Mahomet called? His followers are called Mahometans, or ,Mussulmans.

What book contains their religion? The book containing their religion is called the Koran, or Alcoran.

How is the Christian religion divided? The Christian religion is divided into various sects or denominations.

What is the Roman Catholick religion? The Roman Catholick religion, or Popery, professes to be the Christian religion, and differs from other denominations principally in the belief of the infallibility and supremacy of the Pope, in Latin Papa, signifying father.

What is understood by the infallibility of the Pope ? By the infallibility of the Pope, is understood that the Pope cannot err in ecclesiastical matters.

What is meant by his supremacy ! By his supremacy, is

meant his power or authority over all the churches, the kings, and princes of the earth.

What was the consequence of the corruptions and abuses of Popery? In consequence of the corruptions and abuses of popery, a schism or rupture was, in the sixteenth century, made in the church of Rome, or popery.

Who are the Protestants ? The Protestants are those, who separated themselves, and protested against the authority and decrees of the Pope and his adherents.

What are those Christians called, who reject the Catholick religion? All denominations of Christians who reject the Catholick religion, are called protestants and reformed; but by the Roman Catholicks they are called hereticks.

What is the separation of the Protestants from the Roman Catholicks called? The separation itself is called the reformation.

How are the Protestants divided? The Protestants are gain divided into various sects.

Who are the Calvinists? The Calvinists are those who embrace the opinions of one of the most eminent reformers, Calvin.

Who are the Lutherans ? The Lutherans are those who embrace the opinions of another of the most eminent refor

mers, Luther.

What is Episcopacy ? Episcopacy is the government of the church by bishops. Episcopalians maintain, that there are three orders of officers or clergy in the regularly constituted church, viz. bishop, priest, or minister, and deacon. At the time of the Saviour's ministry, there were Christ, who is styled the Bishop of souls, the twelve apostles, or elders, and the seventy-two disciples. During the Jewish dispensation, there were three orders, the high priest

, the priests, and levites. What is the church form of government called ? This form of government is sometimes called prelacy, or hierarchy.

Who are the Presbyterians? The Presbyterians are generally Calvinists, and allow no superiority among the ministers of religion, who are called Presbyters. The church is governed by meetings, called presbyteries, or synods, consisting of ministers and lay members, called ruling elders.

When a religion is sanctioned by law, what is it called ? When a religion is sanctioned by law, and its teachers supported by the publick, it is called the established religion, or

church; as Episcopacy in England, and Presbyterianism in Scotland.

What are those called who differ from the established church? Those who differ from the established church, are called dissenters, nonconformists, dissidents, seceders, sectaries, puritans, fic. If these are allowed openly to profess, their religion, they are said to be tolerated.

Who are the Baptists? Baptists are those who deny the authority of infant baptism.

Who are the Independents ? Independents, or Congregationalists, are those who assert that there is no authority in scripture for a national or established religion.

[The above from Cumming's Geography.] The Methodists are said to be so called from the method or regularity of their lives. Whether this epithet was originally designed as a title of respect or derision, it is a badge which no member of that denomination should be ever ashamed to wear.

Geographical Questions and Definitions. What is the earth? The earth is a large globe, the diameter of which is about 8,000 miles, and its circumference is about 25,000 miles.

What is the first general division of the earth? The great natural division of the earth's surface, is into land and water.

How is the land divided? The land consists of continents, islands, peninsulas, isthmuses, capes, mountains, hills, dales, and coasts.

What is a continent ? A continent is a great extent of land, no where entirely separated by water.

How many continents are there? There are two continents, the eastern and the western.

How is the eastern continent divided? The eastern continent is divided into Europe, Asia, and Africa.

How is the western continent divided? The western continent is divided into North America and South America.

What is an island ? An island is a portion of land entirely surrounded by water; as Great Britain, Newfoundland, Cuba, Madagascar.

What is a peninsula ? A peninsula is a portion of land almost surrounded by water, as Spain, Florida.

What is an isthmus ? An isthmus is a narrow neck of land which joins a peninsula to the main land; as the isthmus of Darien, the isthmus of Suez.

What is a cape? A cape is a point of land projecting into the sea; as Cape Cod, Cape Horn.

What is a mountain ? A mountain is a portion of land elevated to a great height above the surrounding country.

What is a hill? When the land rises to a small height, it is called a hill.

What are the spaces called, situated between hills? The spaces between hills, are called dales or valleys.

What is a volcano ? A volcano is a burning mountain which emits smoke and flame.

What is a coast ?. A coast or shore is the margin of land bordering on the sea, or the bank of a river.

How is the water divided? The water is composed of oceans, lakes, seas, sounds, bays or gulfs, harbours, roads, straits, rivers, and friths.

What are oceans? The largest collections of water on the globe are called oceans. There are five oceans; the Indian ocean, lying between Africa and New Holland; the Atlantick, between America on one side, and Europe and Africa on the other; the Pacifick, between America on one side, and Asia and New Holland on the other; the Northern or Arctick, around the north pole; the Southern, around the south pole.

What is a lake? A lake is a collection of water, in the interiour of a country, as lake Superiour, and lake Erie.

What is a sea ? A sea is a large collection of water, communicating with an ocean, as the Mediterranean sea, the Baltick.

What is a sound? A sound is a small sea so shallow that it may be sounded; as Long Island sound.

What is a gulph? A gulph or bay is a part of an ocean, sea, or lake, extending up into the land.

What is a harbour ? A harbour or haven is a part of the sea, almost surrounded by land, where vessels may anchor with safety

What is a road! A road is a place at some distance from the shore where ships may safely ride at anchor.

What is a strait? A strait is a narrow channel connecting two large bodies of water; as the strait of Gibraltar.

What is a river ? A river is a large stream of inland water ; small streams are called brooks.

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