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path. The king of Bambarra had been at last so worked upon by Moorish counsellors, that, repenting even his for nier stinted kindness, he had sent messengers to apprehend Park, and to bring him a prisoner to Sego; from which fate he escaped only by the retrograde direction he had taken. Thenceforth every door was resolutely shut against him; at Sansanding his best friend Counti Mamadi privately paid him a visit, and advised him to leave the city early next morning, and to make no delay in the vicinity of the capital. Accordingly, at a village near that city, he obtained a con firmation of the above tidings, and was exhorted to lose no time if he wished to get safe out of Bambarra. He then quitted the road, and struck off through fields and swamps. He once intended to swim across the Niger, and push to wards the Gold Coast, but afterward resolved to pursue his course westward along the river, and thus ascertain its precise line. He had now nothing to subsist on except what charity bestowed, which was only an occasional handful of raw corn. There was also the greatest difficulty in finding a way through the swampy and inundated grounds. Once his horse and he sunk together to the neck in mud, and came out so completely besmeared, that they were com pared by the natives to two dirty elephants. At another time, when he had stripped, and was leading his horse through a river that took him up to the neck, a friendly African called out, that he would perish if he went on, and undertook to procure a canoe; but when he came out, and his white skin was distinctly seen, the stranger put his hand to his mouth, exclaiming, in a low tone of amazement, "God preserve me! what is this?" He continued his kindness, however, and at Taffaro, where our traveller was shut out from every house, and obliged to sleep under a tree, brought him some supper. One of his most disagreeable encounters was at Souha, where the dooty, after a surly refusal of every refreshment, called upon a slave, whom he ordered to dig a pit, uttering, at the same time, expressions of anger and vexation. The hole became always deeper and deeper, till it assumed the appearance of a grave; and Park, who saw no one but himself likely to be put into it, began to think it was high time to be moving off. At length the slave went away, and returned, holding by the leg and arm the naked corpse of a boy about nine years old,
which he threw in with an air of savage unconcern, the dooty exclaiming, "naphula attiniata! money lost, money lost!" Mr. Park withdrew in the deepest disgust at this display of brutal and selfish avarice. The only hearty meal he obtained for many days was from a Moslem convert, who, presenting a board, entreated him to write a saphie upon it, the return for which would be a good supper of rice and salt. This was too important an offer to be rejected from nice scruples. He therefore covered the board with the Lord's Prayer, which his host carefully washed off and drank, afterward licking the wood with his tongue. For this, in addition to his good rice supper, he received next morning a breakfast of meal and milk.
Our traveller now arrived at Bammakoo, where the level country on this side of the Niger terminates; but, on wishing to cross to the other bank, he was informed that the fiver would not be fordable for several months, and that no canoe could be procured large enough to transport himself and his horse. At length there was pointed out a path, rocky and difficult, but through which he might contrive to pick a way under the direction of a Jilli-kea, or singing man, who was going to Sibidooloo. The track, however, proved excessively rough and perilous; when his tuneful conductor, finding himself mistaken in the way, sprang up among the cliffs, and quickly disappeared. Mr. Park was obliged to return and search among a number of glens, till he found a track marked by the tread of horses, which led him to Kooma, a beautiful sequestered village in the heart of those barren mountains, where, on the produce of a small fertile valley, the inhabitants lived in peaceful abundance. They showed that kind hospitality which had been be stowed only scantily and occasionally in the still more fruitful regions below. Mr. Park set out next day for Si bidooloo; but on this route his last and greatest disaster awaited him. In passing a rivulet he found a shepherd, who had been wounded by a party of banditti, and soon after saw a man sitting on the stump of a tree, while from among the grass appeared the heads of six or seven others, with muskets in their hands. Seeing it impossible to escape, he resolved to put the best face he could on his situa tion. Pretending to take them for elephant-hunters, he went up and asked if their chase had been successful.
Instead of answering, one of them ordered him to dismount; but then, as if recollecting himself, waved with his hand to proceed. The traveller had not gone far when he heard voices behind, and, looking round, saw them all in full pursuit, calling to him that they were sent to carry himself and his horse before the king of the Foulahs at Fooladoo. He did not attempt a vain resistance, but accompanied them till they came to a dark spot in the depth of the wood, when one of them said, "This place will do." The same man snatched off Mr. Park's hat; another instantly detached the last remaining button from his waistcoat; the rest searched his pockets, and investigated, with the most scrupulous accuracy, every portion of his apparel; at last they determined to make sure work by stripping him to the skin. As he pointed to his pocket-compass with earnest entreaty, one of them cocked a pistol, threatening, if he should touch it, to shoot him through the head. As they were carrying off every thing, they were seized with a feeling of remorse, and threw to him his worst shirt, a pair of trowsers, and his hat, in the crown of which he kept his memorandums.
After this blow Mr. Park felt a deeper depression than he had experienced under any former disaster. Naked and alone, in a vast wilderness, 500 miles from any settlement, surrounded by savage beasts and by men still more savage, he saw no prospect before him but to lie down and perish. From this depth of despondency his mind was suddenly revived by a mingled impression of nature and of religion. A small moss, in a state of fructification, struck his eye, the delicate conformation of whose roots, leaves, and capsule, could not be contemplated without admiration. He then bethought himself,-"Can that Being who planted, wa tered, and brought to perfection, in this obscure corner of the world, a thing which appears of so small importance, look with unconcern upon the situation and sufferings of creatures formed after his own image?" Inspired by these just and pious reflections, he started up and went on, despite of fatigue; and he soon found deliverance to be nearer than he had any reason to anticipate.
Having arrived at Sibidooloo, he waited on the mansa, or chief ruler of the town, and related his misfortune; when the latter, taking his pipe from his mouth, and tossing up
his sleeve, said, with an indignant air, "Sit down, you shall have every thing restored to you; I have sworn it." He then ordered several of his people to go by daybreak next morning over the hills, and obtain the assistance of the dooty of Bammakoo in pursuing the robbers. Thus relieved, Mr. Park remained two days in this hospitable village, but found it pressed by so severe a famine that he could not think of tasking their kindness any longer, and went on to a town called Wonda. Here the mansa, who was at once chief magistrate and schoolmaster, received him with kindness; but the famine was felt there with equal severity. Remarking five or six women who came daily to receive an allowance of corn from the dooty, he took leave to ask an explanation. "Look at that boy," said the magistrate; "his mother has sold him to me for fifty days' subsistence for herself and family." Our traveller, having during his stay become very unwell, heard the hospitable landlord and his wife lamenting to themselves the necessity of supporting him till he should either recover or die.
At the end of nine days messengers arrived from Sibidooloo with Mr. Park's horse, harness, clothes, and even the pocket compass, though broken; all of which had been recovered by the exertions of the mansa. The horse, being reduced to a skeleton, and quite unfit for a journey over the flinty roads, was presented to his landlord; the saddle and bridle were sent to his generous friend at Sibidooloo. Then, sick as he was, our traveller took leave, and went through several towns in the mountain territory of Manding, where he was, on the whole, hospitably treated. His arrival at Kamalia formed a most important era. There he met Karfa Taura, a negro, who was collecting a coffle of slaves for the Gambia. Karfa told him it was impossible at this season to traverse the Jallonka wilderness, in which there were eight rapid rivers to be crossed; but he offered to support him in the interval, and conduct him at the proper season to the Gambia, asking only a reasonable compensation, which was fixed at the value of a prime slave. Mr. Park was thus seasonably delivered from all his trou bles, and obtained a more certain prospect of reaching home in safety.
He no longer encountered those difficulties and vicissi
tudes which had rendered the former part of his journey so full of interest and adventure. In traversing the high countries of Manding, Konkodoo, and Dindikoo, the chief object which attracted his attention was the mode of extracting gold. This precious metal did not occur in the form of ore, or in large masses, but its grains were mingled with a species of dust or sand. This golden earth appears to be chiefly washed down by torrents from the summit of the neighbouring chain of mountains; but it is collected with most advantage after the ground is dry and the harvest removed. Being indicated by its reddish tinge, it is put intc large baskets, called calabashes, and agitated with a rotatory motion, so that at every turn a portion of light sand mixed with water flies over the brim. The weightier parts then remaining are mixed with pure water, stirred, and carefully examined; and it is considered satisfactory if three or four grains are found in the whole basket. The dust is preserved in quills, which are often stuck in the hair as orna
The most formidable part of the journey homeward was through the Jallonka wilderness, a vast and very dense forest, in which the caravan travelled during five days without seeing a human habitation. They marched in close and regular order, to protect the party against the attack of wild beasts, whose roarings were heard continually around them, and to which every one who straggled was sure to fall a victim. Such, too probably, was the lot of Nealee, a female slave, who, either from obstinacy or from excessive fatigue, refused to proceed any farther; and after vain attempts to compel her by the whip, she was abandoned to her fate. On emerging from this forest, they had no difficulty in passing through the fine open country of Dentila, and the smaller wilderness of Tenda. Mr. Park was again on the Gambia; and on the 10th June, 1797, reached Pisania, where he was received as one risen from the dead; for all the traders from the interior had believed and reported, that, like Major Houghton, he was murdered by the Moors of Ludamar. Karfa, his benefactor, received double the stipuated price, and was overpowered with gratitude; but when he saw the commodious furniture, the skilful manufactures, the superiority in all the arts of life, displayed by the Europeans, when compared with the attainments of his coun