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in the same way, and beaten until effects of chewing are of a similar they are soft, and then twisted into a kind. Those of snuffing are only less thick string, they form the pigtail or in degree; and the influence which totwist of the chewer. Cigars are bacco exercises in the mouth, in proformed of the dried leaves, deprived moting the flow of saliva, &c., maniof their midribs, and rolled up into a fests itself when used as snuff in short spindle. When cut straight, or producing sneezing, and in increasing truncated at each end, as is the cus- the discharge of mucus from the nose. tom at Manilla, they are distinguished The excessive use of snuff, however, as cheroots.
blunts the sense of smell, alters the For the snuff-taker, the dried leaves tone of voice, and occasionally proare sprinkled with water, laid in duces dyspepsia and loss of appetite. heaps, and allowed to ferment. They In rarer cases it ultimately induces are then dried again, reduced to pow. apoplexy and delirium. der, and baked or roasted. The dry But it is the soothing and tranquilsnuffs, like the Scotch and Irish, are lising effect it has on the mind for usually prepared from the midribs, which tobacco is chiefly indulged in. the rappees, or moist snuffs, from the And amid the teasing paltry cares, as soft part of the leaves. The latter well as the more poignant griefs of are also variously scented, to suit the life, what a blessing that a mere mataste of the customer.
terial soother and tranquilliser can be Extensively as it is used, it is sur- found, accessible alike to all-to the prising how very few can state dis- desolate and the outcast, equally with tinctly the effects which tobacco pro- him who is rich in a happy home and duces --can explain the kind of plea- the felicity of sympathising friends! sure the use of it gives them- why Is there any one so sunk in happiness they began, and for what reason they himself, as to wonder that millions of continue the indulgence. In truth, the world-chafed should flee to it for few have thought of these points solace? Yet the question still rehave cared to analyse their sensations mains which is to bring out the pecuwhen under the narcotic influence of liar characteristic of tobacco. We tobacco--or, if they have analysed may take for granted that it acts in them, would care to tell truly what some way upon the nervous system; kind of relief it is which they seek in but what is the special effect of tothe use of it. "In habitual smokers," bacco on the brain and nerves, to says Dr Pereira, “the practice, when which the pleasing reverie it produces employed moderately, provokes thirst, is to be ascribed ? “ The pleasure of increases the secretion of saliva, and the reverie consequent on the indulproduces a remarkably soothing and gence of the pipe consists,” according tranquillising effect on the mind, to Dr Madden, “in a temporary anwhich has made it so much admired nihilation of thought. People really and adopted by all classes of society, cease to think when they have been and by all nations, civilised and bar- long smoking. I have asked Turks barous." Taken in excess in any repeatedly what they have been thinkform, and especially by persons unac- ing of during their long smoking revecustomed to it, it produces nausea, ries, and they replied, 'Of nothing.' vomiting, in some cases purging, uni- I could not remind them of a single versal trembling, staggering, convul- idea having occupied their minds ; sive movements, paralysis, torpor, and in the consideration of the Turkand death. Cases are on record of ish character there is no more curious persons killing themselves by smok- circumstance connected with their ing seventeen or eighteen pipes at a moral condition. The opinion of sitting. With some constitutions it Locke, that the soul of a waking man never agrees; but both our author is never without thought, because it and Dr Christison of Edinburgh agree the condition of being awake, is, in
no well-ascertained ill effects my mind, contradicted by the waking have been shown to result from the somnambulism, if I may so express habitual practice of smoking.” The myself, of a Moslem.”*
* Madden, Travels in Turkey, vol. i. p. 16.
We concede that Dr Madden might number. The first is a volatile oil, find in England, in Germany, and in of which about two grains can be obt, Holland, many good smokers, who tained from a pound of leaves, by diswould make excellent Moslems in his tilling them with water. This oil or sense, and who at the close of long fat" is solid, has the odour of tobacco, tobacco reveries are utterly uncon- and a bitter taste. It excites in the scious and innocentof a single thonght. tongue and throat a sensation similar Yet we restrict our faith in his opin- to that of tobacco smoke; and, when ion to the simple belief, that tobacco, swallowed, gives rise to giddiness, with a haze such as its smoke creates, nausea, and an inclination to vomit." tends to soften down and assuage the Small as the quantity is, therefore, intensity of all inner thoughts or ex- which is present in the leaf, this subternal impressions which affect the stance must be regarded as one of the feelings, and thus to create a still and ingredients upon which the effects of peaceful repose-such a quiet rest as tobacco depend.
— one fancies might be found in the The second is a volatile alkali, as it hazy distance of Turner's landscapes. is called by chemists, which is also We deny that, in Europeans in gene- obtained by a form of distillation. ral, smoking puts an end to intellec- The substance is liquid, has the odour tual exertion. In moderation, our of tobacco, an acrid burning taste, own experience is, that it sharpens and is possessed of narcotic and highly and strengthens it; and we doubt poisonous qualities. In this latter very much if those learned Teutonic quality it is scarcely inferior to PrusProfessors, who smoke all day, whose sic acid. The proportion of this substudies are perpetually obscured by stance contained in the leaf varies the fumes of the weed, and who are from 3 to 8 per cent, so that he who even said to smoke during sleep, smokes a hundred grains of tobacco would willingly, or with good temper, may draw into his mouth from three concede that the heavy tomes which to eight grains of one of the most in yearly thousands appear at the subtle of all known poisons. It will Leipsic book fair, have all been written not be doubted, therefore, that some after their authors had “ really ceased of the effects of tobacco are to be asto think.” Still it is probably true, cribed to this peculiar substance. and may be received as the character- The third is an oil-an empyreuistic of tobacco among narcotics, that matic oil, it is called—which does not its major and first effect is to assuage, exist ready formed in the natural leaf, and allay, and soothe the system in but is produced along with other subgeneral ; its minor, and second, or stances during the burning. This is after effect, to excite and invigorate, supposed to be “the juice of cursed and, at the same time, give steadiness hebenon," described by Shakspeare as and fixity to the powers of thought. a distilment.* It is acrid, disagreeable
The active substances, or chemical to the taste, narcotic, and so poisoningredients of tobacco or tobacco ous that a single drop on the tongue smoke, by which these effects upon of a cat causes immediate convulsions, the system are produced, are three in and in two minutes death.
* The effects, real or imaginary, of this “juice" are thus described :
“Sleeping within mine orchard,
Of these three active ingredients part, the unlike estimation in which contained in tobacco smoke, the Turk, Virginian, Cuban, Brazilian, Peruvian, ish and Indian pipes, in which the East Indian, Persian, and Turkish smoke is made to pass slowly through tobaccos are held in the market. water, arrest a large proportion, and The chemist explains all the known therefore convey the air to the mouth and well-marked diversities of quality in a milder form. The reservoir of the and flavour in the unadulterated leaf, German meerschaums retains the by showing that each recognised vagrosser portions of the oils, &c., pro- riety of tobacco contains the active duced by burning; and the long stem ingredients of the leaf in a peculiar of the Russian pipe has a similar ef- form or proportion; and it is interfect. The Dutch and English pipes esting to find science in his hands first retain less; while the cigar, especially rendering satisfactory reasons for the when smoked to the end, discharges decisions of taste. Thus, he has shown everything into the mouth of the that the natural volatile oil does not smoker, and, when he retains the sa- exist in the green leaf, but is formed liva, gives him the benefit of the united during the drying, and hence the reaaction of all the three narcotic sub- son why the mode of curing affects the stances together. It is not surprising, strength and quality of the dried leaf. therefore, that those who have been He has also shown that the proporaccustomed to smoke cigars, especially tion of the poisonous alkali (nicotin) such as are made of strong tobacco, is smallest (2 per cent) in the best should find any other pipe both tame Havannah, and largest (7 per cent) and tasteless, except the short black in the Virginian tobacco, and hence a cutly, which has lately come into fa- natural and sound reason for the prevour again among inveterate smokers. ference given to the former by the
The chewer of tobacco, it will be smokers of cigars. understood from the above description As to the lesser niceties of flavour, of its active ingredients, is not exposed this probably depends upon other to the effects of the oil which is pro- odoriferous ingredients not so active duced during the burning. The in their nature, or so essential to the natural oil and the volatile alkali are leaf as those already mentioned. The the substances which act upon him leaves of plants, in this respect, are The taker of snuff is in the same con- easily affected by a variety of circumdition. But his drug is still milder stances, and especially by the nature than that of the chewer, inasmuch as of the soil they grow in, and of the the artificial drying or roasting to manure applied to them. Even to the which the tobacco is subjected in the grosser senses of us Europeans, it is preparation of snuff, drives off a por- known, for example, that pigs' dung tion of the natural' volatile oil, and a carries its gout into the tobacco raised large part of the volatile alkali, and by its means. But the more refined thus renders it considerably less active organs of the Druses and Maronites than the natural leaf.
of Mount Lebanon readily recognise, In all the properties by which to- by the flavour of their tobacco, the bacco is characterised, the produce of kind of manure employed in its culdifferent countries and districts is tivation, and esteem, above all others, found to exhibit very sensible differ- that which has been aided in its ences. At least eight or ten species, growth by the droppings of the goat. and numerous varieties, of the plant But in countries where high duties are cultivated; and the leaf of each upon tobacco hold out a temptation of these, even where they are all grown to fraud, artificial flavours are given in the same locality, is found to ex- by various forms of adulteration. hibit sensible peculiarities. To these " Saccharine matter (molasses, sugar, climate and soil add each its special honey, &c.), which is the principal effects; while the period of growth at adulterating ingredient, is said to be which the leaves are gathered, and the used both for the purpose of adding way in which they are dried or cured, to the weight of the tobacco, and of exercise a well-known influence on the rendering it more agreeable. Vege, quality of the crop. To these causes table leaves (as those of rhubarb and of diversity is owing, for the most the beech), mosses, bran, the sproutings of malt, beet-root dregs, liquorice, It is one of the triumphs of the terra japonica, rosin, yellow ochre, chemistry of this century, that it has fullers' earth, sand, saltpetre, com- ascertained what the land loses by mon salt, sal-ammoniac"*-such is a such imprudent treatment-wbat is list of the substances which have been the cause, therefore, of the barrenness detected in adulterated tobacco. How that befalls it, and by what new many more may be in daily use for management its ancient fertility may the purpose, who can tell ? Is it sur- be again restored. prising, therefore, that we should Second, It is melancholy to think meet with manufactured tobacco pos- that the gratification of this narcotic sessing a thousand different flavours instinct of man should in some coonfor which the chemistry of the natural tries—and especially in North Ameleaf can in no way account?
rica, Cuba, and Brazil-have become There are two other circumstances a source of human misery in its most in connection with the history of to- aggravated forms. It was long ago bacco, which, because of their econo- remarked of the tobacco culture by mical and social bearings, are pos- President Jefferson, in his Notes on sessed of much interest.
Virginia, that “it is a culture producFirst, Every smoker must have ob- tive of infinite wretchedness. Those served the quantity of ash he has oc- employed in it are in a continued state casion to empty out of his pipe, or the of exertion beyond the powers of large nozzle he knocks off from time nature to support. Little food of any to time from the burning end of his kind is raised by them, so that the cigar. This incombustible part is men and animals on these farms are equal to one-fourth or one-fifth of the badly fed, and the earth is rapidly imwhole weight of the dried leaf, and poverished.” | Bụt_these words do consists of earthy or mineral matter not convey to the English reader a which the tobacco plant has drawn complete idea of the misery they alfrom the soil on which it has grown. lude to. The men employed in the culEvery ton, when dried, of the tobacco ture, who suffer the infinite wretchleaf which is gathered, carries off, edness," are the slaves on the plantatherefore, from four to five hundred- tions. And it is melancholy, as we weight of this mineral matter from the have said, to think that the gratificasoil. And as the substances of which tion of the passion for tobacco should the mineral matter consists are among not only have been an early stimulas. those which are at once most necessary to the extension of slavery in the to vegetation, and least abundant even United States, but should continue in fertile soils, it will readily be under still to be one of the props by which stood that the frequent growth and it is sustained. The exports of tobacco removal of tobacco from the same field from the United States in the year must gradually affect its fertility, and ending June 1850, were valued at ten sooner or later exhaust it.
millions of dollars. This sum EuroIt has been, and still is, to a great pean smokers pay for the maintenance extent, the misfortune of many to- of slavery in these states, besides what bacco-growing regions, that this simple they contribute for the same purpose deduction was unknown and un- to Cuba and Brazil. The practice of heeded. The culture has been con- smoking is in itself, we believe, neither tinued year after year upon virgin a moral nor a social evil; it is merely soils, till the best and richest were the gratification of a natural and uniat last wearied and worn out, and versal, as it is an innocent instinct. patches of deserted wilderness are at Pity that such evils should be perlength seen where tobacco planta- mitted to flow from what is in itself tions formerly extended and flour- so harmless! ished. Upon the Atlantic borders of the United States of America, the
II. The Hop, which may now best known modern instances of such be called the English narcotic, was exhausting culture are to be found. brought from the Low Countries, and
* Pereira, p. 1427. + English edition, p. 278, quoted in M‘Culloch's Commercial Dictionary, p. 1314.
is not known to have been used in manure—will find himself outdone by malt liquor in this country till after the hop-growers of Kent and Surrey. the year 1524, in the reign of Henry An average of ten pounds an acre for VIII. In 1850 the quantity of hops manure over a hundred acres of hops, grown in England was 21,668 tons, makes this branch of farming the most paying a duty of £270,000. This is liberal, the most remarkable, and the supposed to be a larger quantity than most expensive of any in England. is grown in all the world besides. This mode of managing the hop, Only 98 tons were exported in that and the peculiar value and rarity of year ; while, on the other hand, 320 hop land, were known very early. tons were imported, so that the home They form parts of its history which consumption amounted to 21,886 were probably imported with the plant tons, or 49 millions of pounds; being itself. Tusser, who lived in Henry two-thirds more than the weight of VIII.'s time, and in the reigns of his the tobacco which we yearly consume. three children, in his Points of HusIt is the narcotic substance, therefore, bandry thus speaks of the hop:of which England not only grows
“ Choose soil for the hop of the rottenest more and consumes more than all the
mould, world besides, but of which English- Well-doonged and wrought as a garden-plot men consume more than they do of should : any other substance of the same
Not far from the water (but not overfloune), class.
This lesson well noted, is meet to be knowne. And who that has visited the hop The sun in the south, or else southlie and grounds of Kent and Surrey in the
west, flowering season, will ever forget the
Is joy to the hop as welcommed ghest ;
But wind in the north, or else northerly east, beauty and grace of this charming To hop is as ill as fray in a feast. plant Climbing the tall poles, and
Meet plot for a hop-yard, once found as is told, circling them with its clasping tendrils,
Make thereof account, as of jewel of gold ; it hides the formality and stiffness of Now dig it and leave it, the sun for to burne, the tree that supports it among the And afterwards fense it, to serve for that exuberant profusion of its clustering
turne. flowers. Waving and drooping in The hop for his profit, I thus do exalt:
It strengtheneth drink, and favoureth malt; easy motion with every tiny breath
Aud being well brewed, long kep it will last, that stirs them, and hanging in curved And drawing abide, if ye draw not too fast."** wreaths from pole to pole, the hopbines dance and glitter beneath the The hops of commerce consist of the bright English sun—the picture of a female flowers and seeds of the humutrue English vineyard, which neither lus lupulus, or common hop plant. the Rhine nor the Rhone can equal, Their principal consumption is in the and only Italy, where her vines climb manufacture of beer, to which they the freest, can surpass.
give a pleasant, bitter, aromatic flaThe hop “joyeth in a fat and fruit- vour, and tonic properties. Part of the fal ground,” as old Gerard hath it soporific quality of beer also is ascribed (1596). “It prospereth the better by to the hops, and they are supposed by manuring.” And few spots surpass, their chemical properties to check the either in natural fertility or in artifi- tendency to become sour. The active cial richness, the hop lands of Surrey, principles in the hop consist of a volawhich lie along the out-crop of the tile oil, and a peculiar bitter principle green sand measures in the neighbour- to which the name of lupulin is given. hood of Farnham. Naturally rich to When the hop flowers are distilled an extraordinary degree in the mine- with water, they yield as much as ral food of plants, the soils in this lo- eight per cent of their weight of a cality have been famed for centuries volatile oil, which has a brownish for the growth of hops; and with a yellow colour, a strong smell of hops, view to this culture alone, at the pre- and a slightly bitter taste. In this sent day, the best portions sell as high “ oil of hops” it has hitherto been as £500 an acre. And the highest supposed that a portion of the narcotic Scotch farmer-the most liberal of influence of the flowers resided, but
Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry. London edition of 1812, p. 167.