Imatges de pàgina

over, seven hundred and thirty-six odd caprices of fate frequent in poħtiFrench officers, for the most part ve- cal catastrophes, the Sieur de l'Estang, terans, accustomed to victory under a French refugee, and lieutenant in Turenne and Condé, were dispersed William's guards, was selected by the through the battalions of the prince's conqueror to enjoin the King of France's army. A great number of these had ambassador to quit London within found themselves compelled, in 1685, four-and-twenty hours; and another to become nominally, Catholics, in refugee, Saint Leger, a gentleman of order to avoid the shame of being Poitou, received orders to accompany declared unworthy to serve under him to Dover, and to protect him, if the flag of France, in whose shadow necessary, against the animosity of they had so long fought. Reconciled the English.” This last precaution with the Protestant religion in the seems to have been hardly necessary, French churches in Holland, they for Barrillon wrote to Louis XIV. burned for revenge upon their perse

that he had received all manner of cutors. William of Orange had no civility and good treatment wherever partisans more resolute and devoted. he passed. He had placed fifty-four in his regi- During the early period of Schomment of horse-guards, and thirty-four berg's emigration, passed at Berlin, in his body-guard. . .. Marshal the Elector had done everything in his Schomberg was second in command; power to attach him to his service. and such was the confidence inspired He had named him governor-generalof by that skilful commander, that the Prussia, minister of state, member of Princess of Orange gave him secret the privy council in which the princes instructions to assert her rights, and of the blood sat, and generalissimo of continue the enterprise, should her the Brandenburg troops. Schomberg husband fall. Two other refugee of- preferred the great interests of Proficers were bearers of similar instruc- testantism to these honours and adtions to direct the expedition, in case vantages, and accompanied William of the death of both the prince and of Orange to England, to find a glothe marshal."

rious death by the waters of Boyne. As a great captain, Schomberg In Ireland, he proved at once his destood, in the public opinion of that votion to the cause he had embraced century, immediately after Condé and and his own disinterestedness. When Turenne. He was as wise a counsel- the army was in arrear, and no money lor as he was a valiant and skilful forthcoming, “ Je n'oserais me vanter leader. “When William would have de rien,' he wrote to the king; but if sailed straight up the Thames to Lon- I had in my hands the hundred thoudon, in hopes that his presence would sand pounds sterling your majesty has suffice at once to cast down the banner done me the grace to bestow upon me, of the Stuarts, and rouse the country I would deliver them, by the person to revolution, Schomberg made him you might appoint, for the payment understand that the liberator of Eng- of your army.' This sum, which land ought not to present himself as a parliament had voted to him, but conqueror, and enter the capital of his which he delicately attributed to royal future kingdom at the head of an army munificence, was actually employed of Dutch and French ; that it was to pay the troops, and he contented better to temporise a little, show his himself with a pension. What wonder partisans the forces that were ready that French refugees flocked from all to second them, and so inspire them parts of Europe to fight under his with courage to take a resolution.” glorious banner?” In Ireland, the It was in pursuance of this sensible marshal found himself in much the advice that William steered for Tor- same position in which Wellington bay. Schomberg's anticipation was was placed in the Peninsula-comfulfilled. The sight of his valiant men- pelled to manouvre, with inferior at-arms gave confidence to the coun- forces, in front of a formidable enemy, try; the troops sent against him double his own strength ; to avoid a joined him ; James fled. The Dutch battle, which would have been certain prince triumphed, almost without destruction, and patiently to prepare drawing a sword. “By one of those the way for future triumph-a mark,


the while, for the attacks of fireside neral of Prussia, and generalissimo of civilians in England. William's cour. its armies ; in England a duke and tiers accused him of weakness and peer, and knight of the garter. He indecision. He energetically defended everywhere justified the confidence he himself. “I confess," he wrote to inspired by the most irreproachable William, “that, but for my profound loyalty, by the rare constancy of his submission to your majesty's orders, opinions, by his courage and military I should prefer the honour of being skill, and by all those chivalrous quatolerated near your person, to the lities which our modern civilisation command of an army in Ireland such daily effaces and has not yet replaced. as that I had under my orders in the " In this same battle La Caillelast campaign. Had I risked a battle, motte Ruvigny, younger brother of I should perhaps have lost all you the Marquis of Ruvigny, was morpossess in this kingdom, to say nothing tally wounded. • To glory, my chilof the consequences in Scotland, and dren, to glory!' he shouted to his even in England." The numerous countrymen, as he was carried, corefugees in his army seconded him vered with blood, past the French with the greatest vigour. On the Protestant regiments, then marching banks of the Boyne, at sight of the against the enemy." foe, their ardour was unrestrainable. The Marquis de Ruvigny rendered The following sketch of their exploits brilliant services, both as a military in that celebrated fight is as spirited man and a diplomatist, and William and stirring as if the writer had bim- conferred upon him the rank of lieuteself worn basnet and brandished sabre nant-general and the title of Earl of before he donned the professor's gown Galloway. Whilst his brother found and ascended the rostrum at the Lycée a glorious death at the Boyne, he Bonaparte.

fought and triumphed at Aghrim. “ Count Ménard de Schomberg, “At the battle of Nerwinde, he and son of the Marshal, passed the Boyne, his regiment kept at bay, almost accompanied by his father and by the unsupported, the entire force of the élite of his companions in exile, and, French cavalry. He was made prirudely driving before him the eight soner for a moment, but the French Irish and French squadrons placed to officers let him go, their chiefs affect. defend the passage, routed them and ing not to perceive it, and he contiformed in order of battle. William, nued to cover the retreat of the Engwitnessing this brilliant action, took lish, fighting like a hero. . . In bis army across the river, and the 1705, at the siege of Badajoz, he lost combat became general. Allons, mes his right arm, which a cannon-ball amis,'cried Schomberg, addressing the carried off as he raised it to show Gerefugees, ' bear in mind your courage neral Fagel the spot he intended to and your resentment; yonder are your attack. On the 26th June 1706 he persecutors!' Animated by these entered Madrid at the head of the words, they impetuously charged and English and Portuguese troops, and broke the French regiments under the proclaimed Charles III., whilst Philip command of the Duke of Lauzun. V. fed before his victorious army. But, in the heat of pursuit, Schom- Medals struck at Madrid called the berg, fighting at the head of his men, Austrian pretender Catholic King by was suddenly surrounded by Tyr- favour of the heretics.” St Simon reconnel's guards, and received two proaches Ruvigny with fighting sabre-cuts and a carbine wound. against his country, and Louis XIV., The venerable hero fell, mortally after repeatedly notifying his displeastruck, but, with his dying eyes, he sure, which the Marquis utterly disrelooked upon the flight of James II.'s garded, confiscated his property. soldiers. He was eighty-two years of In his first book, entitled “The age when he thus fell in the flush of Protestants in France,” Mr Weiss revictory. Few men have attained, cords, to the honour of his nation and during their lives, to greater honours of humanity, the disinterested and and more flattering distinctions. He noble conduct of French Catholics, was Marshal of France, Duke and who, after aiding the escape of their Grandee in Portugal; Governor-Ge- persecuted countrymen, becaine depo


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sitaries of their fortune, and faith- cruelties of Montrevel, and claiming fully transmitted it to them in their the performance of Marshal Villars's exile. In London, in Amsterdam, in promises. The king himself condeBerlin, many refugees, when telling scended to exhort him to conversion, the tale of their disasters, spoke with but in vain. Chamillard, the minisdeep emotion of those of their fellow- ter, was indignant at his obstinacy. citizens whose probity and charity How could he refuse the honour of had thus been proof against the pre- being the proselyte of so great a sovevalent fanaticism. From such probity reign ? Let him but abjure, and there there were occasional painful and was a pension for his father, the rank glaring deviations. “Old Ruvigny" of major-general for himself. “Do (the father of the two we have spoken you suppose, added the minister, of), says St Simon, in a passage cited " that the king's religion can be false ? by Mr Weiss, " was a friend of Har- Would God bless him as he does ?" lay, then attorney-general and after- - "Monseigneur," replied Cavalier, wards first president, and, confident "Mahometanism has possessed a great in bis fidelity, he left a deposit in his part of the earth. I do not judge the hands. Harlay kept it as long as designs of God.”—“I see that you he could not abuse the trust; but are an obstinate Huguenot!" said the when he saw the éclat" (the confisca- minister, and dismissed him. He was tion of young de Ruvigny's property), sent to the fortress of Brissach, in " he found himself modestly embar- Alsatia. Fearing that it was intended rassed between his friend's son and to confine him there, he resolved to his master, to whom he humbly re- quit France, and, on arriving in a vealed his trouble: he pretended that wooded country, about three leagues the king already knew of it, and that from the frontiers, he escaped with a it was Barbezieux who had found it number of companions, and reached out and told his Majesty. I will not Switzerland, where he was joined by investigate this secret, but the fact is his principal lieutenants, and by a that he told it himself, and that, as a great many of his former followers. recompense, the king gave him the de- He stopped at Lausanne, and busied posit as confiscated property; and that himself with the organisation of a this hypocrite of justice, and virtue, regiment of volunteers, with which and disinterestedness, did not blush he intended to enter the service of to take it, and to shut his eyes and the Duke of Savoy, to penetrate into ears to the noise his perfidy made." Languedoc, and cover the landing of

Mr Weiss's book teems with facts a body of troops from a Dutch fleet. that are little known, with character. The French ambassador to the Swiss istic details, and with anecdotes that Diet remonstrated, and gave in a dicannot fail to interest and attract all plomatic note-very different in style classes of readers. Before laying aside from the former imperious mandates of the chapter relating to England, to the French king to foreign powers. take such brief glance as we can per- Marlborough's victories had singularly mit ourselves at the fate of the refugees abated the prestige of the Fourteenth in other countries, we must say a few Louis. The Diet, without deciding words of a remarkable man, the pea- anything, handed the note to the counsant leader of a Protestant insurrec- cil of Berne, which pretended to extion, which some of the best generals pel the chiefs of the refugees, most of in France were long unable to quell. wbom, however, remained hidden in We speak of Jean Cavalier, the hero the Canton of Vaud. Cavalier and of the Cevennes. When Marshal Vil. his best officers went to Holland, and lars, summoned from Flanders for the took service in the Anglo-Dutch army, parpose, at last brought him to terms, He received the rank of colonel, and the guerilla chief went to Paris, where his former soldiers, the famous Camithe eagerness of the mob to behold sards, flocked to form his regiment. bim impeded his horse's progress An unforeseen difficulty then arose. through the streets and scandalised The Anglo-Dutch commissioners reSt Simon. Admitted to the king's quired that all the companies should presence, the peasant's son dared to be commanded by gentlemen, whilst justify the insurrection, alleging the Cavalier insisted on selecting bis own



officers. The commissioners were fain ceived the bold idea of forming a vast to come to terms with the shepherd Protestant colony in America, which of the Gardon, who at last consented should serve as a refuge for the perthat one-half of the officers should be secated members of the reformed men of noble birth. Thus the cap- church. In 1555, a knight of Malta, tain and lieutenant of each company Durand de Villegagnon, sailed from were taken alternately from amongst Havre, by Coligny's directions, in the gentlemen and the Camisards. command of two vessels full of emiUpon his staff Cavalier admitted grants. They reached the coast of none but his mountain warriors, of Brazil, ascended to the Rio Janeiro whose obedience and enthusiasm he and built a fort. But disunion grew was sure, and who had already won up amongst them; they had gone him so many triumphs.

out insufliciently provided; they dis“ After serving for some time in persed; some perished, others returnItaly, Cavalier was sent to Spain. At ed to France. A second attempt, also the memorable battle of Almanza- under Coligny's auspices, to found a where Berwick, born English, and Protestant colony—this time in Flobecome French by a revolution, was rida-had no better result. A fort opposed to the Marquis of Ruvigny, was built, called Fort Charles, in born a Frenchman, and converted into honour of the king of France, and an Englishman by persecution-Ca- garrisoned by a Captain Albert and valier's regiment, composed entirely twenty-five soldiers. It was the first of Protestant refugees, found itself citadel in North America over which opposed to a Catholic regiment, which the flag of a civilised nation had floathad perhaps shared in the pitiless war ed, and it was the scene of a mutiny, of the Cevennes. As soon as the two provoked by Captain Albert's despoFrench corps recognised each other, tism. That officer was killed, and the they charged with the bayonet, dis- colony was broken up and abandoned. daining to fire, and slew each other " These two checks did not diswith such fury, that, according to courage Coliguy. Taking advantage Berwick's testimony, not more than of the re-establishment of peace in three hundred men survived. Cava- France, and of a temporary return of lier's regiment was but seven hundred royal favour, he again solicited Charles strong; and if, as is probable, the IX., and obtained from him three Catholic regiment was complete, its ships, whose command he gave to almost total destruction was a bloody René Laudonnière, a man of rare inglorification of Cévenol valour. Mar- telligence, but whose qualities were shal Berwick, who had witnessed so those of a sailor rather than of a solmany fierce encounters, never spoke dier. Instead of reconstructing the of this tragical event without visible fort built by his predecessor, and emotion.

which could not but bave revived “Notwithstanding the loss of the painful associations in the breasts of battle of Almanza, Cavalier received the new colonists, he built another promotion in the English army. He near the mouth of the river St John, reached the rank of general, was sub- and called it Fort Caroline. But, in sequently appointed governor of the the following year, the Spaniards island of Jersey, and died at Chelsea seized this Protestant colony, which in 1740. The valley of Dublin still gave them umbrage ; and their chief, contains a cemetery formerly devoted Pedro Melendez, having made prisonto the refugees. It was there that ers of most of the French, hung them were interred his remains, which, by to trees, with this inscription : Hung a strange fatality, repose near one of as heretics, and not as Frenchmen.' those military colonies founded by This tragical event, wbich was the William III. upon the soil of Catholic first act of hostility between two Ireland,"

European nations in the New World, About the middle of the sixteenth excited the liveliest indignation in century, Admiral Coligny, in presence France. Dominic de Gourgues, a of the disfavour shown to the Hugue- gentleman of Mont-de-Marsan, was nots, and with a presentiment, per- so incensed at it that he vowed sighaps, of coming catastrophes, con- nal vengeance.

He had once been

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taken prisoner by the Spaniards, Brunet, was condemned to produce, wben fighting against them in Italy, within one year, either thirty-six and had been condemned to the gal- young men, whose escape he was leys, as a panishment for the obstinate accused of favouring, or a valid certivalour with which he had refused to ficate of their death, under penalty of surrender. He was on his way to one thousand livres' fine, and of exemSpain, wben the vessel that bore him plary punishment." The amounts of was captured by an Algerine corsair. these fines were characteristically apBut a ship, manned by knights of plied to the support of Catholi Malta, bore down upon the pirate, churches and convents. The refugees and the captives, who were about to whose escape was the cause of their be reduced to slavery, were restored being levied, settled in Massachusetts. to liberty. Since that day, the out. Soon various states received similar raged gentleman had turned sea- accessions to their population. rover, and had largely compensated sixteen miles from New York, on bimself, at the cost of the Spaniards, East River, some refugees founded an for bis losses and injuries. On his entirely French town, which they return to his native country, he called New La Rochelle. Too poor, learned the crime perpetrated by at first, to build a church, they used Melendez. He instantly sold his to set out, on Saturday eveningpatrimony, and, assisted by two of after passing the whole week in the his friends, he equipped three vessels rudest toil — for New York, which in the port of Bordeaux, enlisted two they reached, on foot, in the course hundred men, and sailed for America of the night. The next day they in 1567. Upon his arrival at his went twice to church, started again destination, he won, by costly pre. in the evening, walked a part of the sents, the good-will of the Indians, night, and reached their humble and prevailed on them to join him dwellings in time to go to work on against the Spaniards, whom he at: Monday morning. Happy and proud tacked by surprise, making a great that they had conquered their relislaughter of them. Then, using cruel gious liberty, their letters to France reprisals, he hung his prisoners, affix- informed their persecuted brethren of ing to them the inscription : "Hung the favour God had shown them, and as assassins, and not as Spaniards.' urged them to go out and join them.” This revenge taken, he returned to South Carolina was the favourite proFrance, where a price had just been vince of the French emigrants, espeset upon his head by his Catholic cially of the Languedocians, whom Majesty, with the courteous permis- the warm climate well suited. After sion of the most Christian king; and the Revocation, very large numbers the noble gentleman who had sacri- of refugees settled there, and the proficed his fortune and exposed his life vince received the name of the to revenge the insult offered to his Huguenots' Home. The sufferings of country, was long compelled to con- many of these poor people, before cealment to avoid the scaffold.” they got settled, were terrible. Mr

Although the French Protestants Weiss quotes, from Bancroft, the touchfailed in establishing a refuge in Ame- ing narrative of Judith Manigault, rica, they largely availed themselves, whose family, after quitting their a century later, of that presented to dwelling in the night-time, leaving them by the twelve flourishing colonies the soldiers in bed, and abandonwhich the English had then founded ing all their house contained, sucin the New World. Some years be- ceeded, after remaining some time fore the revocation of the Edict of concealed in France and after a Nantes, numerous fugitives, chiefly long circuit through Germany, Holfrom the western provinces of France, land, and England, in reaching sought an asylum in English America. Carolina. Deeply sensible though the In 1662, some La Rochelle ship- emigrants were of the blessings of that owners were fined for affording pas- freedom of conscience for which they sage to emigrants, and conveying had sacrificed everything, many of them to a country belonging to Great them long regretted their native land. Britain. “One of them, named From Gayare's History of Louisi

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