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Holland) of the division of labour. faith only through the gate of invesThe thriving manufactories of cloth tigation. Thence their superior enat Rheims, Abbeville, Elbæuf, Lou- lightenment, which necessarily exviers, Rouen, Sedan, and numerous tended itself to all their actions, and other places, owed their establishment rendered their minds more capable of and progress to Protestant families. seizing every idea whose application The Protestants of the Gévaudan, a could contribute to their welfare." district of Languedoc, andually sent Most of the Protestants, when young, to foreign parts a value of from two visited Protestant countries, French to three millions of livres of serge and Switzerland, Holland, and England, other light fabrics. Every peasant and thence brought back valuable had his loom, and worked at it in the knowledge and enlarged ideas. One intervals of agricultural occupation. more circumstance is to be noted: the The manufactures of silk stuffs and Protestants' working year contained stockings, of hardware, gold and silver 310 days, only the Sundays and solemn lace, and notably of paper, were festivals being given to rest ; the chiefly in Protestant hands. In Brit- Catholics, on the other hand, gave tany they made sail-cloth, of which, barely 260 days to labour—the rest previonsly to the emigration, the were holidays. Hence a clear gain of English and Dutch annually purchas- one-sixth to Protestant industry. ed very large quantities. In Touraine When, upon the death of Mazathey were tanners, and their leather rin, Louis XIV. grasped the reins of was celebrated throughout France. power, the Protestant religion was They had four hundred tanneries in not only tolerated, but authorised that province. The silk and velvet and permitted throughout the kingmanufactures of Tours and Lyons, so dom of France. The Huguenot porenowned in the middle of the seven- litical faction was destroyed ; the teenth century, owed their success French nobility, a few years before and prosperity mainly to the Protes- so warlike and turbulent, had abantants. We abstain from enumerating doned their provincial strongholds to a number of other important articles bask in court favour; the plebeians of consumption produced, almost ex- were contented and happy because clusively, by that industrious people, peace and public order were mainwhose reputation stood as high for tained; the triumph of the crown was commercial probity as for activity complete. For a while the king's and intelligence. The reasons for policy was to maintain the Prote3their general superiority over their tants in the privileges granted them Catholic fellow-citizens are concisely by bis predecessors, but to show them and forcibly given by Mr Weiss. A no further favour, and to exclude mere handful amongst jealous and them from all benefits and advantages suspicious millions, austere morality in his own individual gift. He hoped and integrity were their sole safe- that they would gradually go over to guard against calumny, and against Rome, in order to share the good the severity of the laws levelled es- things bestowed upon Catholics — a pecially at them. Their very enemies motive which had already induced were compelled to admit that they most of the Protestant nobles to abjure were frugal, laborious, lovers of truth their religion. The king, however, and of their religion, conscientious in did not long adhere to a system their conduct, constant in their fear and which, although neither just nor imreverence of God. Placed at disadvan- partial, was at least prudent and tage by the State on account of their moderate. His first notable act of creed, their stimulus to exertion was aggression against his patient, peacestrong, since it was only by superior able, and valuable Protestant subindustry and intelligence that they jects, was the demolition, in the discould place themselves on a level with trict of Gex, of twenty-two of their their more favoured Catholic fellow. churches, under the pretence that the subjects. “They were further aided Edict of Nantes did not apply to that by the principles of their religion, un- bailiwick, which had been annexed ceasingly tending to instruct and en- to the kingdom since its promulgation. lighten them, by conducting them to Another decree granted to the Catholics of Gex a term of three years for into their corporation more than two payment of their debts. This was an persons of the reformed religion. immoral lure held out to the Protes- Slackened a little during the war with tants, who, by changing their religion, Holland, these odious persecutions would partake of the advantage. Then resumed their vigour after the peace came an order in council, forbidding of Nimeguen. On the most absurd Protestants to bury their dead save pretexts, the temples, in a number of at daybreak or nightfall. In 1663, those large towns where the populanewly-converted Protestants were dis. tion was chiefly Protestant, were pensed from payment of their debts pulled down. And by an edict of to their former co-religionists. The the 17th June 1681, children of seven effects of this iniquitous dispensation years of age were authorised to ab. upon the various trades in which the jure their parents' faith and embrace Protestants were so largely engaged, the Catholic religion! It was openneed hardly be indicated." Old and ing a fine field to the unscrupulous barbarous laws against converts who proselytising emissaries of Rome. “It relapsed into the reformed religion, now sufficed that an envious person, were revived and put in force. The an enemy, a debtor, declared before a bodies of persons who had abjured tribunal that a child wished to beProtestantism, and who, upon their come a Catholic, bad manifested an deathbeds, refused the sacraments intention of entering a church, bad of Rome, were drawn upon hurdles joined in a prayer, or made the sign amidst the outrages of the popu- of the cross, or kissed an image of the lace. This law was applied to per- Virgin, for the child in question to be sons of quality ; amongst others to taken from his parents, who were a demoiselle de Montalembert, whose compelled to make him an allowance corpse was dragged naked_through proportioned to their supposed ability. the streets of Angoulême. In 1665, But such estimates were necessarily priests were authorised to present arbitrary, and it often happened that themselves, in company with the the loss of his child entailed upon the magistrate of the place, at the bed- unfortunate father that of all his proside of dying Protestants, to exhort perty." We have not room to multhem to conversion; and if they ap- tiply instances of the abominable peared disposed to it, the work was system then adopted. Whilst Col. to be proceeded with in spite of the bert lived, his voice was ever uplifted family. It may be imagined what in the king's council against the gentle and conscientious use Catholic maltreatment and oppression of men priests would make of this scandalous whom he held to be peaceable, induspermission. A dying man, agonised trious, and useful citizens. After his and speechless, made, or was said to death, Louvois, anxious to please the have made, a sign with his head, king, went far beyond anything that hand, or eyes, indicating adherence had yet been done. He instituted to the Church of Rome. Thereupon what were called the dragonnades. his body was interred in the Catholic Troops, principally dragoons, were cemetery, and his children were hur- sent into the provinces and quartered ried to mass-Catholics by virtue of in Protestant houses, where they were their father's pretended abjuration. encouraged to every kind of excess

Such was the beginning of the per- short of rape and murder. “In many secution. Thenceforward no month villages (of Poitou) the priests folpassed without some fresh act of lowed them in the streets, crying out: rigour. Temples were shut up or 'Courage, gentlemen; it is the king's demolished; the number of Protes- intention that these dogs of Huguenots tant schools was limited; the educa- should be pillaged and sacked.' The tion of Protestant children was re- soldiers entered the houses sword in stricted to reading, writing, and hand, crying ‘Kill! kill !' to frighten ciphering. French Protestants were women and children. . They forbidden to leave the country; and employed threats, outrages, and even those already in foreign parts were tortures, to compel them to conversion; ordered to return. The physicians burning the feet and hands of some of Rouen were forbidden to admit at a slow fire, breaking the ribs and

limbs of others with blows of sticks. intelligence of thousands of converMany had their lips burned with hot sions. In September and October irons, and others were thrown into 1685, he was informed that six large damp dungeons, with threats that and important towns, noted strongthey should be left there to rot.” holds of the reformed religion, had These atrocities brought about, as definitively abjured their errors. The may be imagined, a vast number of court then believed that Protestantism conversions. Suspended for a while, was annihilated in France, and the in consequence of the moral effect of king, sharing in the general illusion, a bill passed by the English parlia- no longer hesitated to strike the last ment, granting extraordinary privi- blow. On the 22d October he signed, leges to French refugees, the dragon at Fontainebleau, the revocation of the nades recommenced in 1684,--this Edict of Nantes. Its merciful provitime in Béarn, where the soldiery, sions may be summed up in few incited by the fanatic intendant Fou- words : * The Protestant temples cault, committed even greater excesses were all to be demolished, and the than in Poitou. Amongst other tor- worship forbidden in private houses, tures inflicted upon the unhappy under pain of confiscation. Ministers Huguenots, were those called the who refused to be converted were to Veillées. The soldiers mounted regular quit the kingdom within a fortnight, guards, relieving each other as if on or to be sent to the galleys. Protessentry, for the sole purpose of depriv. tant schools were to be closed ; chiling their victims of repose. They dren were to be baptised by priests, forced them to stand upright, and to and brought up in the religion of keep their eyes open. Benoît, à Rome. Four months were granted to writer of that day, details the revolting refugees to return to France and abinsults and cruel sufferings to which jure; that term expired, their proboth men and women were subjected. perty would be confiscated. Under Human nature could not endure such pain of galleys and confiscation, Protorments, and Foucault was able to testants were forbidden to quit the report the conversion of the whole of kingdom and carry their fortunes Béarn. “I certainly believe," wrote abroad. They were to remain, until Madame de Maintenon, “that those it should please God to enlighten them." conversions are not all sincere. But We have seen the gentle means by God employs all manner of means to which the divine spirit was aided in bring heretics back to him ; the chile such cases. Upon the same day that dren at least will be Catholics, though this insane edict was registered, the their fathers be hypocrites." The demolition of the great temple at “manner of means” referred to by Charenton, built by the celebrated this saintly prude and ex-Calvinist, architect, Jacques Debrosse, and capare thus described by Benoît, as ap- able of containing fourteen thousand plied to persons of her own sex. persons, was commenced.

In five i The soldiers offered to the women days no trace of the structure reindignities which decency will not mained. The church at Quevilly, saffer me to describe. The officers near Rouen, was levelled by a fanatic were no better than the soldiers. mob, headed by the intendant of the They spat in the women's faces; they province, and several other high offimade then, lie down in their presence cials, axe and hammer in hand. On upon hot embers; they forced them its site was raised a cross, twenty feet to put their heads into ovens, whose high, adorned with the royal arms. vapour was hot enough to suffocate In every respect the edict of revocathem. All their study was to devise tion, and some severe supplementary

torments which should be painful ordinances that were soon after pub· without being mortal.” Such was the lished, were enforced with the utmost pastime of the chivalrous warriors of rigour, and even with bad faith. the most Christian and magnanimous Thus were clergymen refused passof French kings.

ports (indispensable to their departure Similar scenes were enacted in every from France), in order that the fortprovince where Protestants dwelt. night granted them might elapse, and Louis XIV. daily received the joyful that they might be cast into prison. Some of the more influential amongst suffer. Persons brought up in every them, held especially dangerous, were luxury, pregnant women, old men, ordered to quit the kingdom within invalids and children, vied with each two days. Upon the other hand, the other in constancy and fortitude, to utmost pains were taken to prevent escape from their persecutors." Forthe emigration of laymen. Marshal tunately for the refugees, the guards, Schomberg and the Marquis de Ru- both at the sea and land frontiers, vigny were the only persons permitted were often accessible to bribes or to to leave the country. The king sent compassion, and helped the escape of for Admiral Duquesne, one of the many. It is impossible to ascertain creators of the French navy, and the exact number of Protestants who urged him to change his religion. succeeded in quitting France; but The old hero, then eighty years of Mr Weiss believes himself near the age, pointed to his white hair. “For truth when he estimates that from a sixty years, sire,” he said, “have I quarter of a million to three hundred rendered unto Cæsar that which I owe thousand-between a fourth and threeto Cæsar; suffer me still to render tenths of the entire Protestant popuunto God that which I owe to God." lation--left the country in the last He was suffered to end his days in fifteen years of the seventeenth cenFrance, unmolested for his religion. tury. He takes pains to exhibit the

The enactments against emigration grounds upon which he has established were all in vain to prevent it. In this calculation, and quotes various vain were the coasts guarded, the reports and official documents; but high-roads patrolled, and the peasants we may here content ourselves with armed and made to watch day and mentioning the result, readily acceptnight for fugitives. Hundreds were ing it, on the strength of his habitual captured, and sent, chained in gangs, impartiality and conscientious reto the galleys; but thousands escaped. search, as approximatively correct. " They set out disguised as pilgrims, The reports of provincial governors couriers, sportsmen with their guns afford him exact data with respect to upon their shoulders, peasants driving the damage done to the manufactures cattle, porters bearing packages, in and prosperity of France by this great footmen's liveries and in soldiers' uni- Protestant exodus. The following forms. The richest had guides, who, figures are worth the reader's attenfor sums varying from 1000 to 6000 tion: “Of the 400 tanneries which livres, helped them to cross the fron- a short time previously enriched Toutier. The poor set out alone, choosing raine, there remained but 54 in the the least practicable roads, travelling year 1698. That province's 8000 by night, and passing the day in looms, for the manufacture of silken forests and caverns, sometimes in stuffs, were reduced to 1200; its 700 barns, or hidden ander hay. The silk-mills to 70; its 40,000 workmen, women resorted to similar artifices. formerly employed in the preparation They dressed themselves as servants, and fabrication of silks, to 4000. Of peasants, nurses ; they wheeled bar- its 3000 ribbon-looms, not 60 rerows; they carried hods and burthens, mained. Instead of 2400 bales of The younger ones smeared or dyed silk, it consumed but 700 or 800." their faces, to avoid attracting notice: This in one province. In others the others put on the dress of lackeys, and decline was proportionate. Floquet, followed, on foot, through the mire, the historian of Normandy, estimates a guide on horseback who passed for at 184,000 the Norman Protestants their master. The Protestants of the who took advantage of the vicinity of seaboard got away in French, English, the sea, and of their connection with and Dutch merchant vessels, whose England and Holland, to quit France. masters hid them under bales of goods For several years the Norman manuand heaps of coal, and in empty casks, factures were completely ruined. where they had only the bunghole to

" It would be erroneous to suppose breathe through. There they remained, that Louis XIV. did not foresee these crowded one upon another, until the fatal consequences; but, doubtless, he ship sailed. Fear of discovery and of guessed not their extent, and thought the galleys gave them courage to to give to France durable repose and

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prosperity at the cost of a fleeting evil. immigration of a large body of cultiA great part of the nation partook of vated Frenchmen, including military the delusion; and it may be said that, officers of rank and experience, men with the exception of Vauban, St of learning, manufacturers, artisans, Simon, and a small number of superior and trades of every kind, was an inminds (amongst which must be reck- estimable benefit. The Elector, Freoned Cbristina of Sweden), the nation derick William, who had been brought was the accomplice, either by its acts up at the French court of the Prince or by its silence, of the great king's of Orange, felt this, and spared no fault."

pains to attract the refugees to his Madame de Sévigné wrote to her dominions. He was a Protestant; his daughter how fine a thing was the wife was a granddaughter of Coligny; edict of revocation, compared to which French was the language spoken at Do king had ever done, or ever would his court, where all the elevated posts do aught as memorable. The chancel- were filled by men who had lived in lor, Le Tellier, after affixing the seal of Paris, and who habitually spoke and state to the document, declared that he wrote in French. When he came would never seal any other, and pro- to the throne in 1640, he found his nounced those words of the canticle of country depopulated by war, agricul. Simeon wbich, in the mouth of the ture neglected, trade and manufacaged Hebrew, referred to the coming tures destroyed. His long reign was of the Lord. Bossuet, Massillon, Flé- passed in healing the wounds inflicted chier, the great preachers of that day, on Brandenburg by the Thirty Years' exulted in their pulpits, and lauded War. He encouraged foreigners to Louis to the skies. Rome was in settle in the country, where he grantraptures. A Te Deum was sung, and ed them lands or aided them to estaInnocent XI. sent a brief of thanks blish themselves. On the 29th Ocand praise to the French monarch. tober 1685, exactly one week after Medals were struck, statues raised ;* the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and at Versailles may still be seen a he published the Edict of Potsdam, masterpiece of Lesueur's, in which by which he offered shelter and prohideous forms fly at sight of the cha- tection to the persecuted Protestants. lice. The allegory represents the de- His agents at Amsterdam and Hamfeat of Protestantism by Popery. burg, and in the various German

West, east, and north, fled the scat- states through which they might pass tered Protestants—the bigoted south on their flight from France, were offered them no refuge. To Germany directed to care for their safety and they went, to England and America, supply them with means to travel. to Switzerland and Holland, even to They acquired, by the mere act of Scandinavia. Their proceedings in settling in his dominions, all the civic each one of these countries, the suc- rights of those born there, besides cours they found, and the services various privileges and immunities conthey rendered, their influence upon fined to themselves. He offered land arts and manufactures, their ultimate to the agriculturist, facilities to the fate, the blending (in most instances) manufacturer, honours, rank, and miliof their descendants with the natives, tary employment to nobles and men are recorded by Mr Weiss in separate of the sword. His tempting proclabooks. The first of these is devoted mation was quickly disseminated in to Brandenburg (Prussia), a country France ; and although the intendants to which, owing to its then backward of the provinces used the most rigorstate of civilisation as compared with ous measures to suppress it, and France, England, and Holland, the affirmed it to be a forgery, the Pro

The provost and sheriffs of Paris erected, at the Hotel de Ville, a brazen statue in honour of the king who had rooted out heresy. The bas-reliefs showed a frightful bat, whose large wings enveloped the works of Calvin and of Huss. On the statue was this inscription : Ludovico Magno, viclori perpetuo, ecclesiæ ac regum dignitatis assertori. This statue, which replaced that of the young king trampling the Fronde under foot, was melted in 1792 and cast into cannon, which thundered at Valmy.-Weiss, i. 121, 122.

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