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found that with a moderate charge it will remain uniform for twenty minutes; opening the stop-cock, or the use of the sy. ringe, will immediately raise it to its first strength.

These blow-pipes are very portable, not liable to injury, and answer, I believe, the expectations of all who have tried them, and I have made many of them for different persons. The whole instrument, with a lamp adapted to it, packs up in a small box not more than six inches in length and four inches in width and height, and there is enough space left for other small articles. I have fitted up boxes rather larger in size with a selection of tests and other useful articles in addition to the blow-pipe, and in this state they form complete mineralogical travelling cabinets.

I am, Sir,
Your obedient humble servant,

JOHN NEWMAN.
Philosophical Instrument Maker,

No.7, Lisle-street, Leicester-square.

Specimen of a new Nomenclature for Meteorological Science;

by Thos. FORSTER, F. L. S. Hill. Soc. Nat. Sci. Phil. &c.

[From the Gentleman's Magazine, for February, 1816.)

The habit of the English writers of borrowing from other tongues the greatest part of their technical words, especially those which are used for the sciences, is one of the causes why natural history is not so much known to the generality of the people here, as it seems to be in many of the northern coun. tries. This fact was brought into view to me, when I asked se. veral artists, who were about to travel over Wales and other mountainous lands, to watch for and to sketch the changes of the different forms of the clouds which took place in such places, in order to compare them with those which are common in flat countries. They told me that they could never remember the technical terms, which were made up of Latin or Greek words, which they did not understand; and wished that VOL. VI.

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No. 23.

names could be given to meteorological phenomena, which are formed out of our own tongue. Struck by this remark, I made the following name-list, which I shall go on with hereafter for other appearances. Meanwhile, those who will do me the favour to make remarks, or to take sketches of the clouds, &c. can make use of the following terms:

CURL CLOUD. The old name in Latin by Mr. Howard, is Cirrus, a curl; Cirrulus and curl being the diminutive. STACKES-CLOUD, or Cumulus, from the verb to stack, to heap up.

FALL-CLOUD, or Stratus; being the falling, or subsidence of watery particles in the evening.

SONDER-CLOUD, or Cirrocumulus, is a sundered cloud, made up of separated orbs. The characteristic of this cloud being the gathering together into a bed, of little clouds, yet so far asunder as not to touch.

WANE-CLOUD, or Cirrostratus; from the waning or subsiding state of this cloud in all its forms.

TWAIN-CLOUD, or Cumulostratus; made often by the twining or uniting of two clouds together.

RAIN-CLO D,Or Nimbus, speaks for itself. So we can have Storm-cloud, Thunder-cloud, &c.

MOON-RING, Or Halo; a ring including an area around the

Moon.

SUN-RING, the same about the Sun, Solar Halo.

MOON-BURR, a fleecy or confused burr about the Moon. The old name is Corona. So we have Sun-burr, Double Moonring, Threefold Moon-ring, coloured Sun-ring, &c.

MOCK-SUN, or Parhelion.

MOCK-MOON, or Paraselene.

MOON-CROWN: this may answer to the Halo Discoides of my Nomenclature.

RAINBOW, retains its old name instead of Iris.
RAIN-RAY, the Rabdi divergenses of my Name-list.
CONE-RAY, the Rabdus pyramidalis of the same.

SHOOT. FLAME, or shooting, or falling star, instead of meteor.
Thus we can have White-tailed, Shoot-flame, &c. instead of
Caudate Meteor.

WISP-FLAME, or Ignis fatuus.

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POLE-STREAMER, or Northern-light. The Aurora being Australis, as well as Borealis.

BLOOMEN-FLAME, the electric flame seen about flowers, particularly the evening primrose, described in my Res. Atm. Phen. &c.

As I intend to publish a more complete Nomenclature for Meteorological Science in the course of a short time, I have merely made this specimen, intended to be inserted in some of the periodical journals.

For explanation of the phenomena for those who are unacquainted with them, I refer to my " Researches about Atmo

I spheric Phenomena;" in which I have given plates explanatory of the clouds, in many of their various forms. Any information on meteorological subjects with which my friends will honour me, will be thankfully received, as I am collecting materials for future publication.

T. FORSTER.

On Contractions after Burns or Extensive Ulcerations. By HENRY EARLE, Esq. Surgeon to the Foundling Hospital.

[From the London Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, Vol. V.] The occurrence of contractions after large ulcerations where the subcutaneous tissue has been extensively destroyed, is so frequent a subject of regret among surgeons, and so constant a source of blame among the parents and friends of the unfor. tunate sufferers, that I trust no apology is necessary in offering the following observations and case.

I should have hesitated in giving publicity to an insulated fact, and should have waited until subsequent experience had confirmed the plan of treatment which I shall recommend to be adopted in these cases, but that I conceive the principle on which it is grounded to be perfectly established, though the present application of it may be in some respects new; and farther I am unwilling to withhold any suggestions which may at all interest the cause of humanity.

I have said that these contractions are a source of blame to Burgeons; in some instances, perhaps, such reproaches are merited, as much may be done to prevent them by proper and strict attention to position during the progress of the healing process: and many limbs are suffered to continue in a bent

: position, by which the sides of the wound are proximated, and a smaller surface left for cicatrization, even when such wounds are in the immediate vicinity of a joint. By such practice the permanent benefit is often sacrificed to remove a temporary evil. The wounds are certainly sooner healed over, but ihe limb may for ever after remain contracted and useless. Frequently, however, such contractions do not depend on any inattention on the part of the surgeon, but are the result of a natural process which follows cicatrization, and which has often baffled all the efforts of art to control. This process consists in an absorption of the granulations on which the new skin has been formed; by which the cicatrix is made to occupy a much smaller extent than the originally ulcerated surface. Perhaps it would be speaking more correctly to say, that the granulations, which are at first florid and extremely vascular, after having deposited the new skin, receive a smaller proportion of blood, become paler and diminished in bulk, and consequently occupy much less surface for the new skin. In many cases, such as amputation, where sufficient integuments have not been saved to cover the bones, this process is very salutary, as it is essential to have the smallest possible extent of new skin on a surface which is to be subject to much pressure. But when it occurs in the neighbourhood of the neck or any of the joints, it often causes the most distressing contractions and deformities. The force with which this gradual process acts is truly astonishing. I have known it draw down the chin upon the sternum, and approximate the shoulders so much as to cause a partial absorption of the clavicles, and completely alter the dimensions of the thorax.

To superficial observers, unacquainted with the nature and extent of the mischief, it would appear that the whole evil depended on the contracted integuments, by a simple division of which the limb would be instantly set at liberty.

So deceptive is this appearance that I have more than once known men indulge this vain hope of affording relief, until a painful and ineffectual operation has convinced them of their error. In recent cases, occurring in any of the extremities, the contraction may be confined to the integuments, by dividing which, the deformity may be for a time removed; but the same cause continuing to operate will produce the same effect, and the limb will again contract after the wound is suffered to heal up. Where the contraction has been of longer duration, the muscles acquire a new sphere of action, and afford an additional and powerful opposition to the free exercise of the limb. Lastly, where it occurs about the trunk, even the bony fabric becomes moulded and adapted to particular forms by the powerful constriction exerted on it by this gradual but certain process. In such cases it is hardly necessary to add, that the most severe operations cannot afford a prospect of even temporary alleviation.

From having several times witnessed such operations, which are wholly inefficient to the end in view, I was induced to adopt a different mode of proceeding in the case which I shall now beg to relate.

William Rule, aged six years, was brought up from the nursery in November, 1813, to be admitted into the Foundling. I was requested to examine him on account of a contraction in his left arm. On inquiry, I found, that, about a twelve-month before, he had been very severely burnt, in consequence of his clothes taking fire; his neck and back had been extensively injured, but were then perfectly healed; his left arm and fore arm had suffered most; particularly on the inner and fore part, and there were then several small ulcerations which had been repeatedly healed, and again broke out from the very tense state of the integuments. From the fore part of the upper arm, to within about two inches of the wrist, a firm tense cicatrix of an almost horny consistence, extended, which kept the elbow immoveably bent to a right angle. Being fully aware of the inefficacy of a mere transverse incision, on mature consideration of the case, I proposed to remove the whole cicatrix, and to endeavour to approximate the integuments from the two sides of the arm, which was to be kept extended on a splint, not only during the healing of the wound, but for a consider

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