Imatges de pÓgina

the revolution, “ strong water," (for so distilled spirits were then called) was but little used; but our fathers were as active, vigorous and laborious, as the people now are, if not more so. This proves that ardent spirits are not necessary for those who labor.* Efforts should be made to promote a complete change in the fashionable vice of giving ardent spirits to friends and visitors at social entertainments. This practice is a fatal complaisance, and is denounced by an inspired pen : “Wo unto him that giveth his neighbor drink, that puttest the bottle to him, and makest him drunken also.” The use of wine should also be abandoned, as well as that of ardent spirit. So long as the higher classes in society drink the former, the laboring classes will drink the latter. The practice of presenting spirituous liquors to be drunken at funerals should be discountenanced. How highly improper it is, when paying our last offices of duty and respect to the remains of a deceased fellow mortal, to be thinking and conversing about death, judgment and eternity, over the rum bottle, or when our spirits are raised not to heaven by the Spirit of God, but by deadly poison. The habit of surnishing exhilirating spirits at vendues, should be abandoned at once, for it is nothing less than bribery. It is done to lead—and it sometimes does lead, a person to give more for an article, than he would, when free from liquor, and in his sober moments. “ Those who rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink, and continue until wine inflame them,” should be faithfully warned of their danger. The plan of taking a glass of bitters, as it is called, or a dram in the morning, is very pernicious. It prepares those addicted to this practice to follow strong drink all the day. Such should be exhorted,

* Appendix I e.

(for it may be, that they are not callous to shame, or deaf to entreaty) to forsake the way which leads down to the chambers of death, and to wage an: eternal warfare with the enemy to their property, morals, happiness, health, body and soul, and to prefer the pure water of life to the bowl of intoxication, and the never-ending felicities of heaven to brutal and short-lived pleasures.*

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Whatever may be the sins, which, at any time, are predominant in the community, the Christian Philanthropist will ever be disposed, not only to acknowledge their prevalence, but to point out, according to his ability and opportunity, their evil nature, tendency and consequences, and also to show the importance of reformation. Of all the sins that have ever obtained among civilized and Christian nations, no one is of a deeper dye, or more awful and abhorent to the feelings of humanity, than that of slavery, or the subjection of one part of the community to the other, without the contract or consent of the party subjected. To all who feel a sympathy for the degraded, oppressed, and wretched African, ihis subject, which, for the last thirty years, has produced so much interest in the different nations of Europe, and, within a few years past, excited so much attention in this country ;-—which is so absolutely and intimately connected with the present and • future happiness or misery of millions of our race, must be highly interesting. We may not lrave been personally concerned in so bloody and horrid a work; yet it is proper, notwithstanding, that we should be enlightened on the subject. Some remarks will now be made upon African slavery, it is hoped with truly patriotic and Christian feelings. In the discussion of this subject an attempt will be made to show,

1. That all men are by nature equal and free.

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II. That African slavery is unjust, sịnful, and infamous.

III. That it is impolitic in a civil point of view; And,

IV. That all lawful and practicable measures should be adopted to put an end to this most detestable of crimes.

I. It will now be attempted to show, that all men are by nature equal and free. The apostle tells us that “God hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth.” They have then the same Creator; God is their Maker. They have the same nature;

66 made of one blood." They have the same parentage; all descended from the first human pair.' This is agreeable both to tradition and revelation. Consequently all men are by nature equal and free. This, it would seem, ought to be viewed as an axiom in the science of

political government; for nothing can be more evident than that all men have by the very law of their nature an equal right to their lives, liberty and property. These are the birth-right of all mankind.

Upon these principles are founded the constitutions of government in our American Republic. In a declaration of the rights of the inhabitants of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, it is asserted, "All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential and unalienable rights ; among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property ; in fine that of. seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness.” In a declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled in 1776 it is declared, “ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that ainong these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” “These rights” (natural rights)

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says Blackstone,“ may be reduced to three primary articles, the right of personal security, the right of personal liberty, and the right of private property." The preceding remarks respecting the native equality, freedom and rights of mankind, apply with full force to the Africans, as well as to the Asiatics, Europeans, and Americans. Let it not be said that the blacks on account of their color are not descended from the same original stock as the whites. It is agreeable to Scripture and general acknowledgment, that Africa was at first peopled by Ham, (the son of Noah) and his descendants. From these, the present inhabitants, generally speaking, derive their origin. question here arises : If the first inhabitants of the earth were white, how came any of their posterity to be of a different complexion ? The reason of this most evidently is, climate and habits of living. These natural causes are amply sufficient to account for this effect. We need not therefore have recourse to any miraculous interposition of God to bring about this event. This is the opinion of ivir. Claritson, Abba Raynal, Dr. Mitchell, Dr. Beatte, the late Dr. Smith, President of Princeton College, N. J. and many others of high distinction. The color of the Africans was attributed by Aristotle, Strabo, and most of the ancient philosophers merely to the heat of the sun. This view of the subject is strikingly confirmed in the Jews. They have one acknowledged descent, are scattered over the face of the whole earth, and yet remain completely a distinct people from all the rest of the world. And yet nothing is more certain than that the English Jew is white, the Portuguese swarthy, the Armenian olive, and the Arabian copper-colored. In short there appears to be as many species of Jews as there are countries in which they reside. It is a known fact, that "the nations from Germany to Guinea have complexions of ev

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