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For eating meat on Lent day,

0 5 5 For murdering a father, mother, wife or sister,

0 5 0 For marrying on those days when the church of Rome forbids matrimony,

2 00 For the absolution of all crimes,

2 16 O"

(E.)
Jews Societies.

The London Jews Society was formed in 1808-9, and has been an efficient and useful Society. According to its Report for 1831, it has, besides three missionaries in India under the inspection of the Madras Committee, thirteen missionaries, in the ten following places and countries, namely, two in England, two in France, one in Hamburg, one in the country adjacent to the Lower Rhine, one in Bavaria, une, in Frankfort-on-the-Maine, one in Dresden, one in Dublin, two at Malta, and one at Smyrna. The Society has printed an edition of of the Hebrew Bible, and an edition also of the German, corresponding to it. It has also, translated the Bible into Judeo-Polish. The receipts of the Society for 1831, are reported to have been £14,144 75. 2d.

The Philo-Judean Society was formed in 1827. It is an English Society, and has for its object the circulation of the Holy Scriptures and Tracts among the Jews, and diffusing religious information among Hebrew children and adults.

The American Society for meliorating the condition of the Jews was formed at New-York in 1820. Considerable was expected from it for a time by some, but it seems on the whole not to have accomplished much. It had funds at one time to the amount of $30,000, but these had become reduced in 1827 to $15,900 60. The Society purchased a farm of five hundred acres, for $6,000, at New Paltz, on the west side of the Hudson, opposite Hyde Park, but whether it still possesses it, and what its operations are, is not known. T'he Rev. Dr. Rowan was employed as an Agent of the Society for some time.

The Female Jews Society of Boston and its Vicinity, was formed June 5, 1816, and for several years paid over

its funds to the London Jews Society. Of late, it has employed its funds differently ;. and at present it supports one missionary, the Rev. William Schauffler, under the direction of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Its income is understood to be about $500 annually. It has a permanent fund of rising $2,000. It has had auxiliaries in different parts of New England.

(a.) Almost all the modern Jews are Pharisees, and are as much attached to tradition as their ancestors were, and assert that whoever rejects the oral law deserves death. Hence they entertain implacable hatred to the Caraites, who adhere to the text of Moses, rejecting the Rabinical interpretation."-Buck's Theo. Dict.

(b.) “There are still some of the Sadduces in Africa and in several other places ; but they are few in number, at least there are but very few who declare openly for these opinions.”—Buck's Theo. Dict.

(c.) “The Essenes are a very ancient sect that was spread through Syria, Egypt, and the neighboring countries. They maintained that religion consisted wholly in contemplation and silence. They looked upon the law of Moses as an allegorical system of spiritual and mysterious truths; and renounced in its explication all regard to the outward letter."'Buck's Theo. Dict.

(F.) Home Missionary Societies. The Connecticut Missionary Society is one of the oldest Home Missionary Societies. It originated in the following manner. The General Association of Connecticut petitioned the Legislature in 1792, for a contribution to be taken throughout the State, for Missionary purposes. The petition was granted for three years successively. The General Association sent Missionaries to New York, Vermont, and Pennsylvania. On June 21, 1798, the General Association formed themselves into a Missionary Society. The name of the Society was the Missionary Society of Connecticut. The General Association was that Society. Its object as announced was “to Christianize the heathen, or Indians in North America, and to support the Gospel in New Settlements." The Hon. John Treadwell, LL.D.,

was appointed chairman, and Rev. Abel Flint, Secretary of the Board of Trustees. The General Assembly in October, 1798, upon application, made a grant of a contribution in the several Ecclesiastical Societies. The contribution for the first year was £382 9s. i{d. This was considered a very great contribution for the whole State. One of the principal fields of labor by the Society, has been from the first that part of Ohio called New Connecticut, or the Western Reserve. It has been the means of establishing about 400 churches.

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The Massachusetts Missionary Society was established in 1799. It is stated in the preamble to the Constitution, that the object of the Society is “to diffuse the knowledge of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, among the heathen and others in destitute places.” In 1816, the Domestic Missionary Society of Massachusetts was formed. The former, being an incorporated Society the latter was united with it in July 1827. The united Society is now a State Society, auxiliary to the American Home Missionary Society. Its efforts, have been principally within Massachusetts, though they have been more or less extended to other States, particularly Maine. The churches that have been assisted are from 60 to 70 annually, and the number of Missionaries employed rising of 50. The Society has an annual sermon connexion with the meeting of the General Association of Massachusetts, when a collection is taken up in aid of the Society. The funds raised by the Society the last year amounted to between eight and nine thousand dollars.

The present officers of the Society are Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., President, Rev. Richard S. Storrs, Secretary, John Punchard, Esq., Treasurer, and Mr. Benjamin Perkins, Assistant Treasurer. Besides these officers there are a number of Vice Presidents, a Board of Trustees, and an Executive Committee, of which the Rev. John Codman, D. D. is Chairman.

Besides those already mentioned, there are efficient Home Missionary Societies in Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, and some other States. For want of documents a more particular account of these cannot be given.

The General Assembly appointed a Standing Committee of Missions in 1802 to manage all their Missionary operations.

The Board of Missions of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church was formed in 1818. It has turned its attention partly to Foreign Missions. It is, however, still principally Domestic. In 1832 the number of its Missionaries was 226, who had performed in all 154 years of labor. The number of Sabbath schools in the congregations, assisted by the Board is from 12,000. to 15,000. This is the more interesting, as these congregations are principally in the southern and western parts of our country. Hopeful conversions during the year, were 2000. The amount of funds employed by the Board was $20,132, 21.

The American Home Missionary Society, is a national Institution, and was formed at New. York May 10, 1826. Though of later origin than some of the limited local societies having in view the same object, it was formed with their concurrence, and now sustains the general characies of a parent institution to them all. The particular Society to whose place it succeeded, was the United Domestic Missionary Society of New York. It now has auxiliaries in most of the States, and is in general well supported. The number of congregations assisted the first year of the Society's operations, was 169; of which 120 were in New York; 1 in Vermont, 1 in New Jersey, 7 in Pennsylvania, 16 in Ohio, 4 in Michigan, 3 in Indiana, 2 in Tennessee, I in Virginia, 4 in Kentucky, 1 in North Carolina, 2 in Itlinois, 3 in Missouri, 1 in Louisiana, 2 in East Florida, 1 in Lower Canada. The whole amount of ministerial labor, performed during the year, was 110 years. Receipts of the year, $ 18,130, 76. Expenditure $13,984, 17. Officers, Hon. Stephen Van Rensselaer, LL.D., President, and the Rev. Absalom Peters, Corresponding Secretary. Peter Ilawes, Esq., Treasurer. For the year ending May, 1932, the whole number of Missionaries and Agents employed by the Society was 509, and the number of congregations aided, 745. They have preached the Gospel to 700,000 persons, and their service amounts to 361 years. The number instructed in Sabbath schools is 30,000, and in Bible classes, 7000. There have been enrolled on the list of Temperance Societies, 60,000, and 10,000 have been hopefully converted. The receipts for the same year were $49,422, 12 ;-and the expenditures $52,808, 39.

The Baptist Home Missionary Society is but just commencing its operations, having been formed at the last tri.

ennial meeting of the Baptist Convention, beld in New York, April, 1832. The officers of the Society are the Hon. Heman Lincoln, President, the Rev. Jonathan Going, D. D. Corresponding Secretary, and William Colgate, Treasurer.. The Society owes its origin principally to the enterprize and zeal of the Corresponding Secretary, who in 1830–1, made the tour of the southern and western country, and on his return awakened his brethren more effectually to the necessity of engaging in Home Mis- • sions.

The English Home Missionary Society was formed in 1819, and in 1823 it had 52 agents preaching to the ignorant, and 32.Missionaries, besides 20 stated ministers who extended their instruction to the destitute around them. The labors of the missionaries were distributed among 260 villages, and more than 140,000 persons attended divine worship in consequence, who otherwise would have been entirely destitute. More than 3000 children were receiving instruction, and more than a million of Tracts had been distributed. Income of the Society, £4378.

(G.) Education Societies.

- The American Education Society which is the first of this class, owes its origin to the pressure which was felt in consequence of the necessity of a greater and more rapid supply of “ pious and learned ministers." The first meeting in relation to it was held in Boston, July, 1815, and consisted, besides the “ few individuals” who called it, of the clergymen of the neighboring towns. It was principally for consultation, and resulted only in the conclusion, that it was best to have a society, and in the appointment of a committee of 6 clergymen and 4 lay men to draft a constitution and report at an adjourned meeting. The adjourned meeting was to be held in Boston the August following. Accordingly, August 29, 1815 the ineeting assembled composed of about 50. At this time the American Education Society was formed. Limited local associations

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