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his sleeve, said, with an indignant air, "Sit down, you shall have every thing restored to you; I have sworn it." He then ordered several of his people to go by daybreak next morning over the hills, and obtain the assistance of the dooty of Bammakoo in pursuing the robbers. Thus relieved, Mr. Park remained two days in this hospitable village, but found it pressed by so severe a famine that he could not think of tasking their kindness any longer, and went on to a town called Wonda. Here the mansa, who was at once chief magistrate and schoolmaster, received him with kindness; but the famine was felt there with equal severity. Remarking five or six women who came daily to receive an allowance of corn from the dooty, he took leave to ask an explanation. "Look at that boy," said the magistrate; "his mother has sold him to me for fifty days' subsistence for herself and family." Our traveller, having during his stay become very unwell, heard the hospitable landlord and his wife lamenting to themselves the necessity of supporting him till he should either recover or die.

At the end of nine days messengers arrived from Sibidooloo with Mr. Park's horse, harness, clothes, and even the pocket compass, though broken; all of which had been recovered by the exertions of the mansa. The horse, being reduced to a skeleton, and quite unfit for a journey over the flinty roads, was presented to his landlord; the saddle and bridle were sent to his generous friend at Sibidooloo. Then, sick as he was, our traveller took leave, and went through several towns in the mountain territory of Manding, where he was, on the whole, hospitably treated. His arrival at Kamalia formed a most important éra. There he met Karfa Taura, a negro, who was collecting a coffle of slaves for the Gambia. Karfa told him it was impossible at this season to traverse the Jallonka wilderness, in which there were eight rapid rivers to be crossed; but he offered to support him in the interval, and conduct him at the proper season to the Gambia, asking only a reasonable compensation, which was fixed at the value of a prime slave. Mr. Park was thus seasonably delivered from all his troubles, and obtained a more certain prospect of reaching home in safety.

He no longer encountered those difficulties and vicissi

tudes which had rendered the former part of his journey so full of interest and adventure. In traversing the high countries of Manding, Konkodoo, and Dindikoo, the chief object which attracted his attention was the mode of extracting gold. This precious metal did not occur in the form of ore, or in large masses, but its grains were mingled with a species of dust or sand. This golden earth appears to be chiefly washed down by torrents from the summit of the neighbouring chain of mountains; but it is collected with most advantage after the ground is dry and the harvest removed. Being indicated by its reddish tinge, it is put intc large baskets, called calabashes, and agitated with a rotatory motion, so that at every turn a portion of light sand mixed with water flies over the brim. The weightier parts then remaining are mixed with pure water, stirred, and carefully examined; and it is considered satisfactory if three or four grains are found in the whole basket. The dust is preserved in quills, which are often stuck in the hair as orna

ments.

The most formidable part of the journey homeward was through the Jallonka wilderness, a vast and very dense forest, in which the caravan travelled during five days without seeing a human habitation. They marched in close and regular order, to protect the party against the attack of wild beasts, whose roarings were heard continually around them, and to which every one who straggled was sure to fall a victim. Such, too probably, was the lot of Nealee, a female slave, who, either from obstinacy or from excessive fatigue, refused to proceed any farther; and after vain attempts to compel her by the whip, she was abandoned to her fate. On emerging from this forest, they had no difficulty in passing through the fine open country of Dentila, and the smaller wilderness of Tenda. Mr. Park was again on the Gambia; and on the 10th June, 1797, reached Pisania, where he was received as one risen from the dead; for all the traders from the interior had believed and reported, that, like Major Houghton, he was murdered by the Moors of Ludamar. Karfa, his benefactor, received double the stipulated price, and was overpowered with gratitude; but when he saw the commodious furniture, the skilful manufactures, the superiority in all the arts of life, displayed by the Europeans, when compared with the attainments of his coun

trymen, he was deeply mortified, and exclaimed, "Black men are nothing!" expressing his surprise that Park could find any motive for coming to so miserable a land as Africa,

Mr. Park had some difficulty in reaching home. He was obliged to embark, on the 15th June, in a vessel bound to America, and was afterward driven by stress of weather into the island of Antigua, whence he sailed on the 24th November, and on the 22d December arrived at Falmouth. He reached London before dawn on the morning of Christmas-day, and, in the garden of the British Museum, accidentally met his brother-in-law, Mr. Dickson. The interval of two years having elapsed since any tidings of him reached England, had caused him to be given up for lost, so that his friends and the public were equally astonished and delighted by his reappearance. The report of his unexpected return, after making such splendid discoveries, kindled throughout the nation a higher enthusiasm than had perhaps been excited by the result of any former mission of the same nature. To satisfy the public impatience, an outline was drawn up by Mr. Bryan Edwards, accompanied with learned and able geographical illustrations by Major Rennel. The entire narrative was published early in 1799, and besides the interest inseparable from the remarkable events which it describes, the merit of being written in a pleasing and animated style has rendered it one of the most popular books in the English language.

CHAPTER IX.

Park's Second Journey.

THE discoveries of Park, in his first journey, though the most splendid made by any modern traveller, rather excited than satisfied the national curiosity. The Niger had been seen flowing eastward into the interior of Africa; and hence a still deeper interest and mystery were suspended over the future course and termination of this great central stream. Kingdoms had been discovered, more flourishing and

more populous than any formerly known in that continent; but other kingdoms, still greater and more wealthy, were reported to exist in regions which he had vainly attempted to reach. The lustre of his achievements had diffused among the public in general an ardour for discovery, which was formerly confined to a few enlightened individuals. It was evident, however, that the efforts of no private association could penetrate the depths of this vast continent, and overcome the obstacles presented by its distance, its deserts, and its barbarism. Thus it became necessary for George III., the patron and employer of Cook, to come forward as the promoter of discovery in this new sphere. In October, 1801, accordingly, Mr. Park was invited by government to undertake an expedition on a larger scale into the interior of Africa. Having in the mean time married the daughter of Mr. Anderson, with whom he had served his apprenticeship as a surgeon, and having entered with some success on the practice of his profession in the neighbouring town of Peebles, it was supposed that, content with laurels so dearly earned, he had renounced a life of peril and adventure. But none of these ties could detain him, when the invitation was given to renew and complete his splendid career. His mind had been brooding on the subject with enthusiastic ardour. He had held much intercourse with Mr. Maxwell, a gentleman who had long commanded a vessel in the African trade, by whom he was persuaded that the Zaire, or Congo, which, since its discovery by the Portuguese, had been almost lost sight of by Europeans, would prove to be the channel by which the Niger, after watering all the regions of Interior Africa, enters the Atlantic. The scientific world were very much disposed to adopt Park's views on this subject; and accordingly the whole plan of the expedition was adjusted with an avowed reference to them. The agitation of the public mind, by the change of ministry and the war with France, delayed farther proceedings till 1804, when he was desired by Lord Camden, the colonial secretary, to form his arrangements, with an assurance of being supplied with every means necessary for their accomplishment. The course which he now suggested was, that he should no longer travel as a single and unprotected wanderer; his experience decided him against such a mode of proceeding. He proposed to take with him a small party,

who, being well armed and disciplined, might face almost any force which the natives could oppose to them; with these to proceed direct to Sego; to build there two boats 40 feet long, and from thence to sail downwards to the estuary of the Congo. Instructions were sent out to Goree that he should be furnished liberally with men, and with every thing else of which he might stand in need.

Mr. Park sailed from Portsmouth in the Crescent transport on the 30th January, 1805. About the 8th March he arrived at the Cape Verd Islands; and on the 28th reached Goree. There he provided himself with an officer and thirty-five soldiers, and with a large stock of asses from the islands, where the breed of these animals is excellent, and which appeared well fitted for traversing the rugged hills of the high country whence issue the sources of the Senegal and Niger. He took with him also two sailors and four artificers, who had been sent from England. But before all these measures could be completed à month had elapsed, and it was then evident that the rainy season could not be far distant, a period in which travelling is very difficult, and extremely trying to European constitutions. It is clear, therefore, that it would have been prudent to remain at Goree or Pisania till that season had passed; but, in Mr. Park's elevated and enthusiastic state of mind, it would have been extremely painful to have lingered so long on the eve of his grand and favourite undertaking. He hoped, and it seemed possible, that before the middle of June, when the rains usually begin, he might reach the Niger, which could then be navigated without any very serious toil or exposure. He departed, therefore, with his little band from Pisania, on the 4th May, and proceeded through Medina, along the banks of the Gambia. With so strong a party, he was no longer dependent on the protection of the petty kings and mansas; but the Africans, seeing him so well provided, thought he had no longer any claim on their hospitality; on the contrary, they eagerly seized every opportunity to obtain some portion of the valuable articles which they saw in his possession. Thefts were common; the kings drove a hard bargain for presents: at one place the women, with immense labour, had emptied all the wells, that they might derive an advantage from selling the water. Submitting quietly to these little annoyances, Mr. Park proceeded

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