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THE object of this volume is to exhibit, within a moderate compass, whatever is most interesting in the adventures and observations of those travellers who, from the earliest ages, and in various directions, have sought to explore Africa; and also to give a general view of the physical and social condition of that extensive continent at the present day. This quarter of the globe has afforded more ample scope than any other to the exertions of that class of men whose enterprising spirit impels them, regardless of toil and peril, to penetrate into unknown countries. Down to a comparatively recent period, the greater part of its immense surface was the subject only of vague report and conjecture. The progress of those discoverers, by whom a very large extent of its interior regions has at length been disclosed, having been accompanied with arduous labours, and achieved in the face of the most formidable obstacles, presents a continued succession of striking incidents, as well as of new and remarkable objects: and our interest cannot fail to be heightened by the consideration, that Britain, by the intrepid spirit of her travellers, her associations of distinguished individuals, and her national patronage, has secured almost the exclusive glory of the many important discoveries which have been made within the last forty years.
The work now submitted to the public, and the recent one on the Polar Regions, embrace two of the most interesting fields of modern discovery. The adventurers who traversed these opposite parts of the world frequently found their efforts checked, and their career arrested, by the operation of causes which, although equally powerful, were yet extremely dif
ferent in their nature. In the Northern Seas, they suffered from that dreadful extremity of cold to which high latitudes are exposed; in Africa, from the scorching heat and pestilential vapours peculiar to a tropical climate: there, they encountered the fury of oceans and tempests; here, the privations and fatigues which oppress the traveller in parched and boundless deserts. In the former they had less to endure from that almost total absence of human life which renders the Arctic zone so dreary, than they had to experience in the latter from the fierce, contemptuous, and persecuting character of the people who occupy the interior parts of the Libyan continent. In a word, while exploring these remote regions, they braved almost every species of danger, and passed through every variety of suffering, by which the strength and fortitude of man can be tried.
The Narrative of these successive Travels and Expeditions has been contributed by Mr. Hugh Murray. The Geological Illustrations have been fur nished by the justly celebrated Professor Jameson; and for the interesting and very ample account of its Natural History the reader is indebted to Mr. James Wilson, author of "Illustrations of Zoology," and the principal contributor in that branch of science to the new edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The present volume, having for its main object the History of Discovery and Adventure, does not include the countries on the Mediterranean coast, which from the earliest ages have been well known to the nations of Europe.-Egypt, again, from its high antiquity, its stupendous monuments, and the memorable revolutions through which it has passed, presented matter at once too interesting and ample to be comprehended within such narrow limits. The history of that kingdom, therefore, has been reserved for a separate volume, which will contain also an account of Nubia and Abyssinia.
EDINBURGH, 20th November, 1830.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE NATURAL FEATURES OF AFRICA
Introductory Observations-Its Situation on the Globe-Extensive De-
serts-Mountains and Rivers-Vegetable Life-Animal Life-Social
Aspect-Striking Contrasts which it presents
KNOWLEDGE OF AFRICA AMONG THE ANCIENTS.
Northern Africa well known--Obstacles opposed by the Desert-De-
scription given by Herodotus-by Diodorus-by Strabo-Ancient Ac
counts of the Nile-of Ethiopia-of Abyssinia-Expedition sent by
Necho-Journey of the Nasamones-Voyage of Sataspes-of Hanno
Voyages of Eudoxus-Periplus of the Erythrean Sea
Their Influence on this Continent-Migration into Central Africa-
Ghana-Tocrur-Kuku-Wangara-Ulil-Eastern Africa-Travels of
Ibn Batuta-Description by Leo Africanus.
Rise of the Spirit of Discovery-Voyages along the Western Coast-The
Senegal-Prince Bemoy-Discovery of the Congo-Numerous Mis-
Decline of Portuguese maritime Power-Company formed in England to
explore the Gambia-Richard Thompson-His Death-Jobson's Voy-
age up the Gambia-Manners of the Native Africans-Vermuyden-
French Settlement on the Senegal-Jannequin's Voyage-Voyages of
Brue up the Senegal-Bambouk; Gold Mines-Saugnier-Gum-
EARLY PROCEEDINGS OF THE AFRICAN ASSOCIATON.
Ledyard-Lucas-Information respecting the Interior-Houghton-His
Park undertakes to explore Africa-Departure-Ill Treatment at Bon-
dou and Joag-Kooniakary-Captivity among the Moors-Escape
-The Niger-Sego-Sansanding-Silla-Obliged to return-Various
Misfortunes-Distressed State-Finds Relief at Kamalia-Arrival in
Views under which he was sent out-Departure-Overtaken by the
Rainy Season-Great Sickness and Distress-Embarks on the Niger-
Negotiations with the King of Bambarra-Obtains Permission to build
a Vessel-Sansanding-Sets sail-Accounts of his Death........
Great Expedition planned under Tuckey and Peddie-Captain Tuckey
reaches the Congo-Difficulties encountered-Great Sickness-Disas
trous Issue-Major Peddie arrives at Kakundy-His Death-Captain
Campbell advances into the Foulah Territory-Obliged to return-His
Death-Gray-Laing-Ritchie and Lyon-Death of Ritchie...... 121
Arrangements with the Court of Tripoli- The Travellers arrive there-
Journey to Mourzouk-Difficulties-Agreement with Boo Khalloom-
Departure-The Desert--Tibboos and Tuaricks-Arrive at the Lake
Tchad The Yeou-Kouka-Visit to the Sheik-The Sultan-Descrip-
tion of Bornou-Denham's Excursion to Mandara-Great Range of
Mountains-Disastrous Expedition-War against the Mungas-Ex-
cursion to Loggun-Expedition against the La Salas-Biddoomahs-
Clapperton's Journey into Houssa- Appearance of that Country-
Kano-Sackatoo-Sultan Bello-Return of the Travellers........ 126
CLAPPERTON'S SECOND JOURNEY, &c.
Objects of this Journey-Departure from Badagry-Death of Pearce and
of Morrison-Kingdom of Yarriba-Eyeo-Kiama-Wawa-Boussa-
Particulars respecting Park-Nyffee-Koolfu-Zaria-Kano-Siege of
Clapperton at Sackatoo-His Servant Lander returns, partly by a
new Route-Laing's Expedition-He reaches Timbuctoo-Assassi-
Aroan-The Desert-Arrival at Tangier..
General View of this Coast-Dahomey; Norris and M'Leod-Foota
Jallo; Watt and Winterbottom-Ashantee; Embassies of Bowdich
and Dupuis; War-Adams' Account of Benin and Waree....... 197
The Cape-Settlement of the Dutch-Kolben-Hope, Sparrman, Le Vail-
lant-Barrow; Caffres; Bosjesmans-Trutter and Sommerville-Dr.
Cowan and his Party-Their Assassination-Lichtenstein-Campbell's
(the Missionary) First and Second Journeys-Burchell-Thompson-
Invasion of the Mantatees-Zoolas....
Distinction between Native and Foreign Tribes-Natives-Agriculture
Character-Superstitions-War and Slavery-Some amiable Fea-
tures-Forms of Government-Foreign Races-Mohammedan Con-
verts-European Colonization-Cape of Good Hope-Albany District
Form and Situation of Africa-Its great Natural Regions or Divisions.-
1. Geology of the Atlas or Northern Region-Age of the Atlas Moun-
tains.-2. Geology of the Sahara Region-Subterranean Villages near
Tripoli in Spain and France-Tertiary Rocks of Benioleed-Soudan
or Black Mountains-Petrified Wood in the Desert-Horrid Conse-
quences of the Slave-trade-Human Skeletons in the Desert-Natron
and Salt Lakes-Desert of Bilma-Sultan of Fezzan and a Slave-On
what Formation does the Sand of the Desert rest?-Description of a
Trona or Natron Lake-Fulgurite and native Meteoric Iron in the
Desert-Observations on the Sand of the Desert-Moving Pillars of
Sand-Sand-wind-How the prevailing Winds affect the Sand of the
Desert-What is the Geognostical Age of the Sahara?-3. Geology
of the Region to the South of the Sahara, and to the North of the
Great Table-land-African Gold.-4. Geology of the Great Table-land
of Africa-Geology of the Coast from Sierra Leone to Cape Negro-
Cape of Good Hope District-Distribution of its Chains of Mountains,
Plains and Valleys, or Kloofs-Description of the Karroo Plains-