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C has two sounds
B makes no change in its sound, it is silent in some words, as in thumb ,debtor, in others, it lengthens the syllable, as in climb, comb, tomb, it has the sound of t in subtle.
one hard like k, before a, 0, 4, r, I, t, he:
r and when it ends a syllable.
C hard, as in victim, it has the sound of s before e, i, and y, as in centre, civil, cymbal, it has the sound of sh in ocean, social ; C is mute in czar, czarina victuals, ch bas the sound
of tch, as in church, chaff in words from the Greek like k ele
as in chymist, scheme, chorus; in words from the French like sh,as machine, like k before a vowel as in archangel, it is silent in schedule, schism, and in yatch,
D has always the same sound in all parts of a word, as hid, did. F has an unvaried sound in the beginning, middle and end of words, except in of, in which it has the flat
sound of v, but not in composition, as whereof. que
G has two sounds, one hard as in gun, the other soft as
in giant; it is hard at the end of a word, as in nag; it is B hard before a, o, u, 1, r; it is soft before e, i, and y; gh
in the beginning of a word, has the sound of hard s', as
H in the beginning of words is sometimes silent, as in
J has the soft sound of g.
K has the sound of hard c before e and i; it is not sound.
L has a soft sound as in the word love.
N has two sounds, one simple as in men, a tinkling sound,
P has always the same sound; ic has the sound of 6. in cupboard ; ii is mute sometimes, as psalm, ptolemy, and
between in and t, as in templ; ph is generally pronounced 015
as f, as in Phillip.
R has sometimes a harsh sound, as in rage, sometimes smooth, as in rega d.
S has two sounds, the one soft like Z, as in dismal, the other hard as in Cyprus; it has the sound of z, before ion if a vowel goes before, as in infusion, but a sharp sound if : consonant goes before, as in the word incursion; Sis silent. in the words viscount demense, isle, island.
T has generally its own sound, as in time, title, ti has the prias suund of 'sh, before a vowel, except s goes before, as ques, tion, also in derivatives ending in ty as in flity; th has two sounds, the one soft as thus, the other hard as think ; th is pronounced like t only in the words Thomas, Thyme, Thanies and asthma.
V has one uniform sound, as love, vain, dove.
W when a consonant has nearly the sound of oo, as in water, but sometimes quicker; it differs from the sound of 00, in not taking the article an before it, which 00 will : it is not sounded in the words wholesome, sword or answers it is mute before r, as wrinkle, wrist, when w is a vowel, it is sounded like u, as outlaw, vowel.
X has three sounds, viz: it is sounded like z, at the beginning of proper names of Greek original, as in Xanthus; it has a sharp sound like ks, ending a syllable with the accent upon it, as exit, or when the acceni is on the next syllable ; if it begins with a consonant, as excuse ; it has generally a flat sound like gz when the accent is not on it, as eg zert, eg zample. When Y is a consotiant, it has nearly the sound of ee,
but when a vowel, it has the sound of i, as parly, fancy.
Z has the soft close sound of s in zealous, zest.
Here it may be remembered, that the sound of the letters in genera!, very much depends upon their position and colla nection with other letters.
is the or
certain be remo
couns, the e cries
A syllable is a sound simple or compound, pronounced by an im pulse of the human voice, forming a word or part of a word, as muzo Spelling is the right division of words into syllabics, and the ex pressing of words by their proper heerse.
. In this I shall follow the most approved authorities, without real giarding either the inodern and arbitrary rules of some, or the fala
cious music of others which equally lead the young learner into a TO
wrong pronunciation, d
So far for the sound of the letters, the study of which is worthy us of his closest attention and application, who wishes to make a pro
ficiency in English pronunciation. Having treated of the sounds of ha letters, as far as will answer all the ends and
of this work: s!
I come now to speak of Orthography, or the forming and composing of words by their proper letters and syllables.
Of Words in General, and the Rules for Spelling them Words are articulate sounds, formed by the human voice, and und made by common consent to communicate our ideas to each other,
this is the origin and source of all languages. A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable ; a word of two syllables, a dissyllable; a word of three syllables a tríssyllable, and a word of four or more -syllables, a polysyllable. The Orthography of the English language
is uncertain and perplexed, but a great part of this inconvenience he
may be removed by the knowledge of the received laws of forma.
Monosyllables ending with f, 1, or s, preceded by a single vowels double the f, 1 and s, as stuff, fill, kiss. * Exceptions to this rule, are gf, if, as, is, has, was, yes, this, and thus.
Monosyllables ending with any consonant but these before mentioned, and preceded by a single vowel, double not the find consonant , except ebb, egg, odd, inn, bunn, purr, butt, buzzz
Worås ending with y preceded by a consonant, form the plurals of nouns, the persons of verbs and adjectives by changinç y sin as cry cries ; but if y is preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed as boy, boys.
Words ending with y and taking an additional syllable, which bez gins with a consonant, generally change y into i, but if it is preceded by a vowel the y is not changed, as joy, joyless,
aire Words accented upon the last syllable and monosyllables, erqinglesema with a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, double that cons sonant, when they take another syllable beginning with a vowel, begin, beginning ; but if a diphthong so before, or the accent on the preceding syllable, the consonant is not doubled, as tail, tai ing, differ differing.
Compound words are commonly spelled, as the simple words to distin from which they are derived, as, dwelling-house, ball-room, here are in by, thercfore.
When the termination ish or ing, is added to words ending in silent e, the e is generally omitted, as face, facing, trace, tracing, ape, apish.
The terminations able and ible, when added to words ending with 1-3 si a silent e, generally leave out e, as cure, curable, fence, fenci- fits for a ble. If cor g soft, come before e in the primitive word, the e in that softu
8 case is retained, in words compounded with able, as change, changes til have sible
If words er ding in silent e, should take after them in compositions these terminations ful, ly, less, ness, they retain the e, as rue, rueful, the sense, senseless, tame, tamely,
Words which end with any double letter except I, and take ful, ly
, Tess, or ness, after them, retain the double letter, as success, success ful, stiff, stifily, careless, carelessness.
We have the authority of some of the best writers, to spell several words differently, such as these words following : control, controul, inquire, enquire, allege and alledge, negociate and negotiate, prise and surprize, complete and compleat, expence and expense, Foror and honour, and some others. The few rules I have here laid down, and the few remarks I have made upon Orthography or
shre art of spelling and forming compound from simple, and derirative from primitive words, will I expect be suficient for my presént purpose.
The nature of accent consists in laying a more forcible stress of voice upon one letier ors: liable in a word, th an upon the other letters or syllables which compose the same worl, in order to distinguish it from them in pronunciation. Every word of
n more than one syllable in the English language, has one or more of them accented. Accent may be called principal or secondary accent. The principal accent is that force of voice, by which we distinguish one letter or syllable in a word from the rest. The secon lary accent is that stress of voice we may place upon some other letter or syllable in the word, besides that which has the principal accent; this sometiines happens, in order to pronounce every part of the word, more forcibly and distinctly. Thus the word com-mu-ni-cate has the principal accent on the second syllable, and the secondary upon the fourth; the saune may be observed of many other words. Indeed accent seems to be regulated in a great measure by the derivation of the words. Evers word of two syllables, has one, and only one of them accented. Sometimes for the sake of emphasis; words of two syllables have an equal stress of voice laid upon each of them. Words of two syllables compo:mücd, which syllables taken seperately will have a meaning of their own, but when compounded, are considered as one word; and the part of that compounded word, wiuch qualifies the other, will have the accent, as coach nan, iirce place, horse-mill
, &c. have the accent on the forner, because it qualifis the latter; while the words foresee, forek 19:v, have this accent on the latter syilable, thougie it is the less ciis idguishing part of the compounded word.
What I hve here said concerning the principles of pronunciation, with the several sounds of the letters, both vowels and consonants, Jiphthongs and tribunongs; upon orthography, or th. forming words by their proper letters and stabics; won the lavos pie alompok titive and derás ative words ; up. on the rules for retaining to dia) e in compound woris, os ut cutting it off ; up the cernasiition able wrd 2k2, add to words ending with e find, showing when the final c is to be retained or retrenched, with the principe exceptions to these general rules : upon the nature and importance of accent, in es mich as is net cessary for the scope and purpo3e of this concive work; 21 I