Imatges de pÓgina

You will no doubt, contemplate with ynspeakable delight, the glorious emancipation of the United States, your native soil, under the ever to be remembered Washington and the heroes of the Revolution, whose patriotism and valour should never be forgotten, by those who still enjoy their liberty, and live within the hearing of tyrants, whose ears are never offended but with the voice of liberty and virtue.

Geography with a considerable knowledge of the terrestrial globe, will take you by the hand and conduct you in a few weeks into all the parts of the earth, where you will discover the extremities of heat and cold, the several degrees of both, without any inconvenience from either. It will show you how to pass, as quick as thought, from one extremity of the earth to the other, by which you can behold upon it's surface, the four seasons of the

year, taking alternate place of each other, and see one pole of the earth deprived of the sun's light for six months, and the other enjoying perpetual day for that time, by the earth's annu, al revolution round the sun, and by it's diurnal revolution rouud it's own axis, you behold at the same instant, one half of it's inhabitants lying in the arms of sleep, and the other half busily employed in open day. It will shew you the variegated inhabitants of each clime. It will inform you of the wisdom and policy of their government and laws, of their manners and customs, of the various productions of their sun and soil, in a word, it will waft you in a few minutes, over that circuitous voyage round the globe, which cost Admiral Anson three years and a half to perform. It will prove to you to demonstration, the rotundity of the earth, of which the wisest and most learned of the ancients, had but very slender notions, and all this without the fatigues, dangers and expenses of travelling.

Ulysses the wisest of the Greeks will bear testimony to this assertion, who in order to inforın himself of the wisdom and policy of other nations, spent many years in visiting a few ports almost contiguous to his own country, and in these researches, he lost by far the greatest part of his vessels and troops, which returned with him from the coast of Troy, and had he not been himselt endowed with superior wisdom and forecast, he should have fallen a victim, either to the power and infatuating allurements of the sorceress Circe and Goddess Calipso, or perished by the melodious, but cruel harmony of the Sirens. In Sicily, indeed, his destruction seemed inevitable, when he strayed into the cave of giant Polyphemus, who supped that night upon two of his companions, and Ulysses himself with some others were destined for the monster's breakfast. «You will see hereafter, in Lucian, an account of his wonderful escape from that monster, that would


devour men with all that avidity and voracity, with which ang. ther monster of Europe, is said by the French players, to load his enormous paunch with beef and pudding. But why do I stray again from my purpose, to lead you into such frightful dangers with Ulysses?

I will now return, and by the way relate to you, some of the principal advantages which you have over the ancients in point of these sciences and of learning in general, which I think, should very much excite your ardour in the pursuit of knowledge. You have the advantage of all the inquisitive researches, and irgeni ous inventions of all the great men, who have been endowed with supericur abilities and understanding from the beginning of time.

The advantage of the increasing experience of ages, has opened to you, all those avenues of knowledge which had been shut out from their inquisitive minds. The Compass, whose strange and invaluable virtue has been the abundant source of discoveries. and intelligence, had not been known until thirteen hundred, without which it was more than madness to attempt the immense, and unknown oceans.

The art of printing had not been known until fourteen hundred and thirty ; the want of which shut out the great bulk of mankind from any knowledge of letters, among whom, must have been many Homers, Virgils, Archimedeses, Newtons, Demostheneses, Ciceros and even Orpheuses, who could have gone down to dreary Orcus. to regain their uridices.

“But knowledge to their eyes her ample page
Rich with the spoils of time did ne'er unrol;
Chill penurý repressed their noble rage
And froze the genial current of the soul.”.


OF PRONUNCIATION Sec. 1. Of Accent.Accent is the laying of peculíar force of voice upon a particular letter or syllable in a word, that it may be better heard, than any of the other letters or syllables, and distinguished from them.

Sec. 2 Of Emphasis. By emphasis, is meant a stronger sound of voice, by which we distinguish some word or words, in a sentence, upon which we intend to lay a certain stress, in order to show how they effect the rest of the sentence If we should place no emphasis, our reading or discourse would..



become not only lifeless and insipid, but our meaning would be often doubtful. If we should place the emphasis wrong, we destroy the meaning entirely.

In solemn and pathetie discourses, the energy and beauty of an expression frequently rests upon the emphatical words, and the speaker may present to his hearers very different views of the same sentiment, by the different placing of the emphasis. Emphasis is divided into SUPEPiour and INFERIOUR emphasis. The superiour gives the meaning of a sentence, with relation to what was said before, presupposed by the speaker, as to be generally known, or removes a doubt, where a passage may have more meanings than one. The inferiour enforces, graces an ! enlivens, but does not determine the meaning of any passage: The words to which this latter emphasis is given, are in general, such as seem the most important in the sentence, or on other accounts to deserve this distinction. The following pask sage may serve to exemplify the superiour emphasis.

“Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
Brought death into the world, and all our woe,

Sing Heavenly Muse." If it had been known, that other beings besides men had disobeyed the almighty's command, an emphasis would fall upon the word man's, but had it been known that mankind had disebeyed more than once, the emphasis would fall upon the worst first. But allowing death (as was the case) to be a punishment inflicted upon mankind for their transgression : in this case, the emphasis would rest upon the word death, in the third line. Bat were it supposed, that mankind knew, that the evil death, was in other regions, though the place they inhabited, had been exempt from it, until their transgression, the emphatical word would be world. Emphasis often falls upon the word that asks a question, as, whom have you seen? whence did he go? Vy do you mourn? And when two words are placed in contrast; or in opposition to each other, they are both emphatic::, as I am your friend, not your foe-he is more eager to go than to stay. Some sentences are so strong and comprehensive, that


word almost, is emphatical, as, both good and badboth righteous and unrighteous. Indeed, to place the emphasis with propriety, is an exercise for judgment and attention. The young learner should be cautioned against one errour in the use of emphasis—that, of applying them too frequenty; it is by a judicious use of emphat, ical words, that the speaker can give them importance.

If he should endeavour to render every sentence, which he pronoun

cés of great moment, by a number of emphatical words, his hearers will pay no regurd to them. To use emphasis, therefore, too frequently, produces as bad an effect as not to use them at all.

Sec. 3 Of PatsC8.-A pause, or rest, in speaking or reading, is a cessation of voice for a perceptible time Pauses are necessary both to Speakers and hearers to the speaker, that he, in that time, may take his breath and relieve the organs of speech, which would otherwise soon be tired by continual action--to the hearer, that the ear may be relieved from being obliged to attend, without ceasing to a continued sound of voice. By pauses the understanding has also sufficient leisure to mark the difference of sentences, and the several members of sentences.

Sec. 4. Some pauses are emphatical, others mark the distinctions of the sense.

An emphatical pause is made after something of importance has been said, upon which the speaker wishes to fix the attention of the audience. The speaker often, before such a thing is said, introduces it with a pause of this nature. Care should be taken -not to repeat such pauses too frequently. Emphatical pauses generally excite great attention, and consequently raise great expectation in the hearers ; if, therefore, the importance of the subject does not answer the expeça tation, such pauses produce disa ppointment, and give disgust. Pauses in reading or speaking should be formed upon the same principles, by which good speakers deliver :hemselves in comitos atid sensible discourre. There is a general rule, which teaches, that the suspending pause should le made, where the sense is not complete; and, the closing pause should be used when the sense is complete and finished.

Sec. 5 Of Tones.-Tones consist in the notes and various sounds, which are employed to express our sentiments. There is not an act of the mind, and exertion of the fancy, or an emotion of the heart, which las not its peculiar tone, cr note of voice, by which it is to be expressed ; and which is suited exactly to the degree of internal feelings. It is in the right use of these tones, that the life, spirit, beauty and harmony, of deivery consists.

Sec. 6.-As the art of reading depends greatly upon the due management of the breath, it should be used mith great economy-the voice should be relieved at every stop--slightly at a comma, with more leisure at a semi-colon, or colon, and at a period, the reader should take in his full supply of breath. By due attention to this rule, the reader will prevent a broken, faint and lauguid voice, which is a usual fault; by this rule the reader or speaker will be enabled to preserve the due command of his voice, and to pronounce the longest sentence with ease, to acquire freedom and energy in his expressions; while he communis cktes his ideas, his emotions, and passions.


-ALL our praises, why should Lords engross
Rise, honest Muse! and sing the Man of Ross :
Pleas'd Vaga echoes through her winding bounds,

And rapid Severn hoarse applause resounds.
Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow?
From the dry rock, who bade the waters flow?
Not to the skies in useless columns tost,
Or in proud falls magnificiently lost,
But clear and artless, pouring through the plain,
Health to the sick, and solące to the swain.
Whose causeway parts the vale with shady rows?
Whose seats the weary traveller repose ?
IVho taught that heav'n directed spire to rise ?
• The Alan of Ross,” each lisping babe replies.
Behold the market-place, with poor o'er spread !
The Man of Ross divides the weekly bread :
He feeds yon alıns-house, neat but void of state,


and want sit smiling at the gate :
Him portion'd maids, apprentic'd orphans blest,
The young who labour, and the old who rest.
Is any sick ? The Man of Ross relieves,
Frescribes, attends, the med'cine makes, and gives.
Is there a variance? Enter but, his door,
Balk'd are the courts, and contest is no more.
Despairing quacks with curses fled the place,
And vile attornies, now a useless race..
Thrice happy man! enabled to pursue
What all so wish, but want the power to do !
Oh say, what sums that gen'rous hand supply?
What mines, te swell that boundless charity!

Of debts and taxes, wife and children clear,
This man possess'd-five hundred pounds a year,
Blush Grandeur, blush' proud Courts, withdraw your blaze
Ye little stars! hide your diminish'd rays.

And what! no'monument, inscription, stone ?
His race, his form, his name almost unknown !
Who builds a Church to God, and not to Fame,
Will never mark the marble with his Name :
Go search it there, where to be born and die,
Of rich and poor makes all the history ;
Enough, that Virtue tillid the space betweens
Prov'd by the ends of being to have been.


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NEAR yonder capse, where once the garden smil'd,
And still where many a garden flower grows wild;
There, where a few thorn shrutes the place disclose,
The village preacher's inodest mansion rose,
A man he was, to all the country dear,
And passing rich with forty pounds a year;
Remote from towns lie ran his gotiy race,
Nor e'er had chang'd, nor wish'd to change his place;
Unpractis'd he to tawn, or seek for power,

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