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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

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AE5
· E833
1859

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Entered, a cciding to the Act of Congress, in the year 1831, by

CAREY AND Lea, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Easteru District of Pennsylvania

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Greece, Ancient. The name of Gre- mountains are covered wit che plants of cia originated in Italy, and was prob- the polar regions. In Atlrons, the therably derived from Pelasgian colonies, mometer very seldom fails below the who, coming from Epirus, and calling freezing point, or rises above 25° Reauthemselves Grecians, from Græcus, the mur (88 Fahrenheit). In the islands, eveson of their ancestor, Thessalus, occa- ry evening, at a particular hour, a gentle sioned the application of this name to all sea breeze sets in, which tempers the heat the people who spoke the same language of the day. But in the plains of Thessawith them. In earlier times, e. g., in the ly, which lie 1200 feet above the level of time of Homer, Greece had no general the sea, and more especially in the mounnome among the natives. It afterwards tains of Arcadia, the winter is as severo received the name of Hellas, and still lat- as in England. The fruits of the soil are er after the country was conquered by as abundant as they are various. Even the Romans, the name of Achaia, under where it is not adapted for the purposes of which Macedonia and Epirus were not husbandry, it produces thyme, marjoram, included. The Grecian tribes were so and a number of aromatic herbs, which widely dispersed, that it is difficult to de- afford a rich pasturage. Greece produces termine, with precision, the_limits of eight kinds of corn and ten kinds of Greece, properly so called. The name olives. It is, perhaps, the native country was sometimes applied only to that coun- of the grape, particularly of the small try which was surrounded on three sides sort, from which the currants of comby the Mediterranean sea, was separated merce are made. The name of these is from Macedonia by the Cambunian moun- . a corruption of Corinth, the chief plantatains, and contained about 42,000 square tion having formerly been on the isthmus miles; sometimes it was taken in a wider of this name. There are 40 kinds of Gresense, including Macedonia and Epirus, cian grapes known. The honey of this having mouut Hæmus and the Ægean country is very famous. (See Hymettus. and Ionian seas for its boundaries, and Greece produces all the necessaries of comprising the islands of these two seas. life, and there is no country whose coast Greece consists partly of continental, is so well supplied with bays and harbors and partly of insular regions. A chain for commerce. The main land is now of mountains, extending from the Ambra- divided into Northern Greece, Middle cian gulf, 1 i the west, to Thermopylæ, on Greece, Greece Proper, or Hellas, in its the east, separates Northern Greece from narrower sense, and the Peloponnesus Southern. The climate is alternately se- (Morea). I. Northern Greece includes, vere or mild, as the mountains or valleys i. Thessaly (q. v.) (now Janna); 2. Epipredominate, but it is agreeable and rus (q. v.) (now Albania); 3. Macedonia

. ) healthy. People are not unfrequently (now Macedonia, or Filiba-Vilajeti), acfound here, whose age is over 100 years. counted a part of Greece from the time The soil of the valleys and plains is favor- of Philip and Alexander, and making a able to the growth of the finest tropical link in the chain between Greecoy and fruts, while the summits of the high Thrace, of which, in earlier tirnes, Mace

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