Imatges de pÓgina

complevit, matre ejus eam juvante et suam devotionem agente. Iste error multo tempore duravit, donec per quandam vicinam ad talem missam secretius vocatam divulgaretur, et ad aures episcopi Londoniensis devenisset, qui eas ad præsentiam suam convocavit, et de errore convenit, et sacerdotissimam tonsuram comæ publice monstrare coegit, cujus caput nimis glabrosum inventum est; episcopus plorans nimis et ejulans de tali errore in ecclesia suo tempore contingente, multa lamenta emisit, et finem cum illis injuncta pœnitentia fecit."17

Upon the case of those who had, from any cause, contracted irregularity in the receiving of their Orders, I shall extract the following constitution of archbishop Edmund, in the year 1236. "Omnes qui irregularitatem, in ordine suscepto, vel ante, vel post ordines susceptos, constat contraxisse, nisi cum eis dispensatum fuerit expresse per eos qui cum eis dispensare poterint, ab officii executione denunciamus esse suspensos; donec cum eis super hoc legitime fuerit dispensatum." Upon this Lyndwood says: "Irregularitatem. Quæ nomen accepit a regula, quam statuit Apostolus servandum in ordinatione clericorum, cujus contrarium dicitur irregularitas. Et nota quod irregularitas est quoddam impedimentum proveniens ex constitutione canonica, et non extenditur, nisi quatenus invenitur jure inflicta. In ordine suscepto. In tempore suscipiendi ordines; pone exemplum in scienter ordinato ab hæretico vel schismatico. Officii executione. Intelligas de solenni executione; tali videlicet quæ pertinet ad ordinem quem obtinet et

17 Script. x. tom. 2. p. 2738.

sub ratione ipsius ordinis. Unde talis irregularis de quo hic loquitur, se immiscere non potest officio ecclesiastico, ut videlicet publice et solemniter ministret in ordine suo tempore quo dicuntur vesperæ, matutinæ, missæ, vel aliæ horæ canonicæ. Privatim tamen, et per modum suffragii potest dicere horas suas ad quas tenetur ratione ordinis assumpti: et hoc puto verum si extra ecclesiam hoc faciat: secus si in ecclesia quæ ad talia deputatur. Potest talis tamen audire Divina in ecclesia: hoc verum si hoc non faciat ex contemptu, sed ex devotione. Et hoc quod hic dicitur, viz. quod irregularis debet abstinere ab executione officii donec fuerit cum eo dispensatum, non solum habet locum in ordinato ad majores ordines, sed etiam ad minores." 18

The constitution proceeds to specify several ways in which irregularity and consequent suspension were incurred for example, homicide, advocacy in causes of blood, simoniacs, schismatics, &c. The whole title, with Lyndwood's gloss, is well worth the consideration of the student, bearing as it does upon the penalties attached to mere suspension, which is not also accompanied with the further penalty of excommunication. The Pupilla has a chapter "de suspensione ab executione ordinis," in which the whole subject is very fully and accurately discussed. The different severities of the degrees of suspension are explained; as being either perpetual, or temporary: from a benefice, or from execution of spiritual functions, or from entrance into any church: and I regret that my space will not allow me to do more than thus barely refer to that part of the book.

18 Lib. 1. tit. 4. Imprimis.

19 Pars vij. Cap. 6.

I should have been glad also to have given, although not so immediately connected with my subject, yet illustrative of it, some account of the various restrictions and rules laid down in the English councils, relating to the daily habits and pursuits and occupations of the clergy what they might both properly and lawfully engage in, and what they might not: also, some of the many canons which were passed regulating the dress which they should wear. These, however, I must pass by but in the note below are references to some places in Wilkins, where the matter is entered into: 20 and if the reader examines them, he will certainly acknowledge, that on the present occasion, I could not have done justice to a subject so extensive, and of importance sufficient to justify a detailed consideration in a separate treatise.

I shall, therefore, now proceed to some particulars, relating to bishops. As to their consecration, it was always insisted on, in the church of England, that there should not be less than three bishops present, and assisting. And this from the time, when archbishop Egbert, in his excerpts," quoted the Nicene canon ; or up to that earlier age, when British bishops, present at the council of Arles, agreed to this rule. "Ut sine tribus episcopis nullus episcopus ordi

20 Concilia. tom. 1. p. 574. 609. 652. 670. 706. 716. 732. Tom. 2. p. 4. 59. 141. 146. 296. Tom. 3. p. 29. 61. 70. 586. 619. Tom. 4. p. 164. See Lyndwood also, lib. 3. tit. 1. Ut clericalis. John de Athon. Cap. Quoniam de habitu. The Pupilla oculi.

Lib. vij. cap. 10. It would be an endless task to attempt to refer to the foreign canonists, Van Espen, Bonacina, Thomassin, Saussajus, &c: all of whom treat very largely of the subject.

21 Wilkins. Conc. Tom. I. p.



netur. De his qui usurpant sibi, quod soli debeant episcopos ordinare, placuit ut nullus hoc sibi præsumat, nisi assumptis secum aliis septem episcopis: si tamen non potuerit septem, infra tres non audeat ordinare.' I extract the following form of citation of a bishop to consecrate and to assist, in the year 1293. "Venerabili in Christo patri, domino. R.23 Dei gratia London. episcopo, devoti sui H. permissione divina prior ecclesiæ Christi Cant. et ejusdem loci capitulum, salutem, et ad sinceræ devotionis obsequia se paratos. Quanto majorem devotionem erga nos et ecclesiam nostram Cantuar. geritis, quam frequenti experimento didicimus, tanto vobis honorem facere satagimus præ cæteris ampliorem. Quia igitur discretus vir magister W. de Marchia Bathon. electus, die dominica in festo Pentecostes prox. ventur. in ecclesia nostra Cantuar. prout scitis, Deo propitio, est in episcopum consecrandus, paternitati vestræ supplicamus, quatenus dictis die et loco, omni excusatione remota, tantæ solennitate personaliter interesse velitis, munus consecrationis electo propriis manibus impensur. Quid autem super his facere decreverit sanctitas vestra, per bajulum præsentium nobis literatorie significetis. Dat. etc."

22 Mansi. Conc. Tom. 2. 474.


The clause in the Act 25 Hen. VIII. cap. 20, which required four bishops, was in case the certificate of the election had not been sent to an archbishop; otherwise, two bishops, with the archbishop, were to consecrate. See Gibson, Codex Juris Ecc. p. 111.

23 Richard de Gravesend. consecr. 1280. Ob. 1303. Le Neve, 24 Wilkins. Conc. Tom. 2. p. 195. Other documents of much interest are printed in that place, relating to the same consecration. The see of Canterbury was at that time vacant: but it was not upon that account only that the letter of summons runs in the name of the prior and con

As to the times, that is, the periods of the year, aț which general ordinations were to take place, both Baronius 25 and Bellarmine 26 have attempted to prove that the "Jejunia quatuor temporum" as fixed for that purpose, are to be attributed to the days and the authority of the apostles. But there is no evidence whatever, of any weight, in favour of this opinion, whilst on the other hand, there is much in contradiction to it. Not only is there no mention of this fact in the earlier fathers, but there is very ancient authority that Gelasius was the first who limited the seasons of general ordination to certain times of the year. Micrologus says; "Gelasius papa constituit, ut ordinationes presbyterorum, et diaconorum nonnisi certis temporibus fiant." "7 So also Rabanus Maurus; "Sacras ordinationes quatuor temporum diebus opor


vent. Because it appears from a commission granted by them, a few years afterwards, in the case of the bishop elect of Bangor, to be consecrated elsewhere, that they claimed the privilege of having all bishops of the province consecrated in their cathedral. See, ibid, p. 287.

"The dean and chapter of Canterbury," says bishop Gibson, "claim it as an ancient right of that church, that every bishop of the province is to be consecrated in it, or the archbishop to receive from them a license to consecrate elsewhere. And tho' between the years 1235 and 1300 that point was controverted with the chapter, it ended in their

favours, and in the further confirmation of the privilege.-" "In Cranmer's register, among the fees due to the archbishop and his officers, for confirmation and consecration, we find the following entry. 'Memorand. that no bishop may be consecrated without the church of Canterbury, but by the special license of the dean and chapter under their chapter seal, the fee whereof is 26s. 8d."" Codex Juris Ecc. p. 111. note rr.

25 An. lvij. n. ccix.

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