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nities: "amotis distributisque ejus quotidianis vestibus superioribus, sepultus est in ipso, in quo inventus est cilicio, et famularibus interius cilicinis, exterius lineis, et in eisdem caligis, et in ipso quo erat habitu monachali. Et supra hæc, in ipso eodem in quo ordinatus fuit vestimento, alba quæ Græce poderis dicitur, superhumerali simplici, chrismatica, mitra, stola, mappula: supra quæ habuit archiepiscopaliter tunicam, dalmaticam, casulam, pallium cum spinulis, calicem, chirothecas,
chalice and paten; and reaching across the body, with the crook turned inwards, over the right shoulder and clasped by the right arm, lay the pastoral staff. Vol. 20. p. 566. See also the figure of Adam Islip, in Strutt's Regal Antiq. and another, in pl. LX. On the contrary, the seals and effigies of bishops represent them carrying the staff in the left hand: as, in Salisbury cathedral, the boy-bishop, and bishop Jocelyn. Or compare those in Stothard's monumental effigies. Before I close this note, I would remark that it has been said by some, that an abbot, ad differentiam, had a veil round his staff: this may have been true in some churches abroad, and Gavantus, tom. 1. p. 122, cites some acts of the church of Milan to that purpose: but I cannot say whether it was observed, as a distinction, in England. One thing is certain, that if it was, it was not confined to abbots: because the splendid effigy
of bishop John de Sheppy, in Rochester cathedral, has the staff surrounded with a veil. Archæologia, vol. 25, p. 122. Neither probably was it the case with exempt abbots.
Matthew Paris relates also the funeral solemnities of S. Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, in the year 1200. The kings of England and Scotland, three archbishops, and thirteen bishops, with a multitude of clergy, met the corpse. "Quod ipsi reges, cum comitibus et cæteris principibus portaverunt in humeris suis, usque ad atrium cathedralis ecclesiæ. Ad ostium autem ecclesiæ susciperunt illud archiepiscopi præfati et episcopi; et sic per ministerium prælatorum perlatum est usque in chorum, ubi est honorifice pernoctatum.Dum ipse more pontificum discooperta facie jaceret, mitram habens in capite, chirothecas in manibus, annulum in digito, cum cæteris pontificalibus ornamentis, etc." Hist. p. 172.
annulum, sandalia, pastoralem baculum; quo consuetum est more, quo dignum est honore." 14
William of Malmesbury's account of the reception of his pall by archbishop Anselm is important: "Data ei publice potestate, ut per totum regnum primatus sui jus exerceret libere, dies præfixa, qua Albanensis episcopus cum pallio Cantuariam veniret, venienti, et sacrum insigne in vase argenteo deferenti vulgo applausum, ab archiepiscopo nudipede, sed sacerdotalibus vestimentis indutus occursum. Inde super altare Domini salvatoris pallium assumptum sacratus pontifex beatis humeris composuit, et ad divina celebranda processit.15"
14 Vita, a W. Stephanide. apud into it, proving how eagerly in Sparkes. p. 89. the middle ages, the bishops of Rome employed it, as an instrument to extend and support their usurpations, and to obtain revenues. Having steadily, as time went on, added now a little and then a little to the unjust claims which they made over the originally independent metropolitans of the English Church, among which the privileges which they pretended to convey or withhold with the pall, were not the least flagrant and unfounded; our histories, as Dr. Inett has said, "from the reign of Innocent III. downward, are very full of the oppressions and most horrible abuses and exactions, which were the consequences of such doctrines." And he rightly characterizes them as "bold insults (to say no worse) on the rights and authority of the whole catholick church." Origines Anglic. vol. 1. p. 165.
15 De gestis Pontif. Ang. Edit. Savile, p. 125. The historian adds; "Erat tunc dies Dominica, 4. Idus Junii, fuitque nonnullis ingenti miraculo, quod idem evangelium illa die occurrit, quod ante prognosticon ejus fuerat." See below, p. 257, note 25. And compare the account in Eadmer, Hist. lib. 2. cap. 5. who adds; “Pater etiam ipse episcopis, qui ob hoc Cantuariam venerant, dextra lævaque stipatus ac sustentatus, sacro beati Petri muneri nudis pedibus devotus occurrit. Tali devotionis cultu, pallium assumptum est, atque ab omnibus suppliciter deosculatum."
Although, as I have already said above, the origin of the pall, and its first adoption, as an ecclesiastical ornament, cannot be discovered, yet there is ample evidence, if it was necessary to go
I shall further cite the following from the chronicle of Gervase relating to the reception of his pall by archbishop Hubert, A. D. 1193. Archiepiscopus Cantuariam veniens ab episcopis Angliæ et conventu Cantuariensi honorifice et in osculo pacis vij. idus Novembris susceptus est. Deinde alba indutus et cappa, sequente conventu, nudus pedes incedens, pallium suscepit per manum nuntii Cœlestini papæ. Quo redimitus pallio cum cæteris episcopalibus indumentis, inthronizatus est, et missam celebravit." 16
In the collection of Wilkins are several forms of the oath anciently taken by the archbishops on receiving the pall:1 and in the year 1293, is the following "Forma petitionis pallii. Postulat devota vestra filia ecclesia Christi Cantuar. concedi pallium de corpore beati Petri sumptum electo suo consecrato, ut habeat plenitudinem officii; et pro hoc instanter et fortiter supplicat sanctitati vestræ." In the same place is a "Forma traditionis pallii," differing from that in the office below: this is said to be taken from the registers
16 Script. X. tom. 1. p. 1586. 17 Concil. tom. 2. p. 199: tom. 3. p. 154. 647. See also, Anglia Sacra, tom. 1. p. 372. and Gibson, Codex. Juris. Ecc. p. 105. It is quite clear from what Ralph de Diceto says, of the nuncio, in describing the ceremony on the occasion of archbishop Hubert, that the oath frequently varied: "Qui veniens ante majus altare, triplici sacramento quod ab antiquis temporibus introductum est, adauctis quibusdam novis verborum formulis involvit archiepis
copum." Script.X. tom. 1. p.671.
The engagement entered into to visit the see of Rome personally or by deputy, within a certain number of years, was deferred often by leave from the pope : and, in some cases, the sovereign himself interfered, and in the form of a humble supplication, requested the time to be prolonged: this was backed by a similar missive directed to the cardinals for their interposition. See Rymer, Fœdera, tom. 2. pars 2. p. 84. and again, p. 127.
of Canterbury. "Ad honorem Dei omnipotentis, et B. Mariæ virginis, et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et domini papæ Cœlestini, et S. Romanæ ecclesiæ, necnon ecclesiæ tibi commissæ, tradimus tibi pallium de corpore Petri sumptum, plenitudinem scil. pontificalis officii; ut utaris eo infra ecclesiam tuam certis diebus, qui exprimuntur in privilegiis ab apostolica sede concessis."1
ROYAL AND EPISCOPAL RECEPTIONS.
THE next Order, edited in this volume, is that which was appointed to be used upon the occasion of solemnly receiving either at a city, or cathedral, or abbey, any sovereign, legate, cardinal, or bishop. The custom of the clergy of the place, at which such a personage
18 Concil. tom. 2. p. 199. I must refer the refer the reader to the letters of the pope, on the inthronization of Simon de Mepham, A. D. 1328," et de pallii receptione." Ibid. p. 544.
The frequent reference which the student will find, to the pall being "de corpore beati Petri,” relates to the circumstance that they were not made (if I may SO call it) at the high altar of the church of S. Peter, but at the altar over the supposed tomb of the apostle and the benediction being completed, the pall was left one night upon that altar. As to the doctrine of the plenitude of the episcopal office being conveyed by it, I extract the following important observations of Van
Espen. "Id tamen nequaquam hoc sensu accipiendum est, quasi ipsum pallium aliquam revera ordinis potestatem ipsi consecrato tribueret; cum sit merum externum aliquod ornamentum; sed quod ante illius receptionem ex jure mere positivo, seu consuetudine jam recepta, metropolitani nec suas functiones obire, nec nomen archiepiscopi assumere queant; quæ disciplina quo præcise tempore invaluerit, incertum est; videtur autem tempore Conc. viij. Ecumenici saltem in oriente fuisse nota et ex oriente ad Latinam ecclesiam transiisse." Jus. Eccles. tom. 1. p. 171. Compare Ferraris. Prompta Bibl. verb. Archiepiscopus. art. iij.
was to arrive, to go forth in procession to meet him, and to conduct him to the church, is of very high antiquity, as may be seen by many accounts of it, to be found in the Acta Sanctorum, or in the collection of lives by Surius and again, the well known reference made by S. Gregory Nazianzen to the reception of S. Athanasius, after his return from exile, or the procession with which S. Chrysostom met Epiphanius, in the succeeding century.19
And, as of bishops, so also we find, in later times, many examples of legates, received with the due solemnities: I quote the words of Matthew Paris, relating the arrival of the legate Otho, whose constitutions afterwards published are so famous, and of such high authority. "Occurrerunt ei episcopi et clerici famosi usque ad littus:-rex autem ei usque ad confinium maris occurrit; et inclinato ad genua ejus capite, usque ad interiora regni deduxit officiose. Et adventantes episcopi, cum abbatibus, et aliis ecclesiarum prælatis, eum cum omni honore et reverentia, cum processionibus et campanarum classico, receperunt.'
19 Sozomen. Hist. Ecc. lib. 8. cap. xiv. "Eum ingredientem Joannes occursu cleri totius honoravit." A mark of respect, of which, in this particular case, the bishop afterwards shewed himself scarcely worthy. I would add this illustration also from the life of Cæsar Arelatensis: "Ubi autem percrebuit hominem Dei reverti, jamque eum urbi propinquare, omnes utriusque sexus cum crucibus et cereis ei processere obviam, psallentes, et ingressum
ejus opperientes." Apud Su-
20 Hist. Angl. p. 371. a. D.
Legati a latere vocantur legati cardinales: quia assumuntur de latere papæ.-Legati missi sunt,