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Wines, Sprits, Teas, &c., imported Chap. XV. Trade between the Countries of
into the United States in each year,

the United States bordering the

from 1821 to 1844

668

Lakes and the Canadas (various Ta-

Value of various Manufactures, ex-

bles).........

796

ported from the United States in

American wheat and other ship-

each year, from 1827 to 1840

.... 669

ments by the Welland Canal to Ca-

Value of the above, exported during

nada ....

799

1841-1842, and first nine months of

Progress of Toronto

800

1843

...... 670

Commerce of Hamilton Lake,

Chap. X. Internal Navigation of the United

Ontario

801

States

671

Tolls received on the Rideau and

Rivers of the United States...... 672

Ottawa Canals in the years from 1840

Rivers of British America

696

to 1843 inclusive

802

Chap. XI. Canals and Railroads in the United

Amount of Tonnage employed

States

697

between the United States and the

Table of the Principal Railways in

British Possessions in America ...... 803

operation in the United States, in Chap. XVI. Commerce of the Mississippi and

1840

700

its Tributaries (various Statements

Railways in Progress in the United

and Tables)....

804

States, in 1840.

701 Chap. XVII. The American Fur Trade

820

Number of Railways, Miles in Opera-

Sales of Skins by the Hudson

tion, and Total Number of Miles,

Bay Company in London ....

836

also Number of Locomotives, Cost,

Quantities of the different kinds

&c., up to 1840

ib.

of Furs, imported into, exported from,

Canals and Railroads in the New

and retained for Home Consumption

England States (various Tables) 707

in the United Kingdom in each year

Canals and Railroads of New York

from 1831 to 1843 inclusive........ ib.

(eight Tables)..

715

Furs disposed of by the Russian

of Pennsylvania

724

Fur Company at Kiachta in 1839-40

Pennsylvanian State Canals

727

and 41

839

State Railways.......

729 CHAP. XVIII. American Trade with the Prai-
Canals and Railways constructed

ries, and with Santa Fé....

ib,

by Companies ....

731 CHAP. XIX. Coasting and Foreign Navigation

Cost, Revenue, and Expenditure of

and Trade of the United States .... 850

finished Lines of Canals and Rail-

Statement of the Tonnage of

ways in Pennsylvania

738

United States Shipping, employed in

Canals and Railways in various other

each year from 1790 to 1845 inclusive 854

States of the Republic

739

Amount of Tonnage employed

CHAP. XII. Internal Trade and Navigation of

annually in the Foreign Trade, from

the United States

745

1821 to 1844

857

American Steam Navigation, Trade

Tonnage of American Vessels

of the River Hudson, Canals, and

employed in the Trade with Foreign

Railways

754

Countries which entered and cleared

Navigation of the Hudson

756

at the Ports of the United States,

Carrying Trade of the New York Ca-

distinguishing the Trade with each

nals (various Tables)....

758

Country in each Year, from 1821 to

CHAP. XIII. Commerce of the American Lakes 773

1831 ; and from 1835 to 1841 .... 858

Canal and Steamboat Statistics

Official Statistical View of the

relative thereto ...

776

Tonnage of American and Foreign

Cuap. XIV. Miscellaneous Statements of the

Vessels arriving from, and departing

Commerce, &c., of the American

to each Foreign Country during

Towns on the Lakes

781

1842-3-4.....

860

Lake Tonnage...

782

(See also Seventeen Additional Ta-

Lake Commerce of Cleveland,

bles relative to the Tonnage of the

Ohio......

ib.

United States which follow the

Canal Commerce of Cleveland,

above.)

(various Statements and Tables)...... 783 Chap. XX. Foreign Trade of the United

Imports and Exports of San-

States of America.......

869

dusky, Huron, and Milan (various

Imports and Exports of the

Tables)....

788

United States during the last 55

Shipping owned in the State of

Years—Payments into the Treasury

Michigan ....

790

-and Cost of collecting the Re-

Imports into, and Exports from,

venue......

881

Detroit to the Military Stations, on

Imports into the United States

Lakes Iluron and Michigan........

ib.

from 1st Oct. 1795 to 30th Sept.

Lake Superior Copper Company 793

1844...

882

Trade at Buffalo, Black Rock,

Total Value of Domestic Ex-

and Oswego, from 1836 to 1844 in-

ports from the United States to

clusive

794

PAGE

various Foreign Countries in each

Great Britain, exhibiting the propor-

Year, from 1790 to 1844

883

tion, sent in each Year, at various

Recapitulation of the Naviga-

periods, to the United States , ....... 925

tion and Trade of the United States.. 884

Exports from Liverpool to the

Commerce and Navigation of

United States, from 1836 to 1843,

the United States, from 1930 to 1840 886

inclusive...

926

Value of Cargoes carried by Chap. XXII. Navigation and Trade between

American and Foreign Vessels, &c.

the United States and the British

&c., in each Year, from 1821 to 1840.. 889

Possessions in North America and

Commerce of each State and

the West Indies (nine Tables).......... ib.

Territory, from 1820 to 1831........... 890 CHAP. XXIII. Trade of the United States with

Imports of Tea, Coffee, and

the British East Indies ,

932

Sugar into the United States, from Chap. XXIV. Trade between the United

1820 to 1844...

891

States and China (seventeen Tables) 933

Foreign Trade of each State and CHAP. XXV. Trade between the United States

Territory in 1842-3-4...

892

and the Foreign West Indies, Mexico,

Value of Principal Articles of

Central America, and the States of

Merchandise imported into

the

South America (twelve Tables)

945

United States Annually from 1821 to CHAP. XXVI. Trade of the United States

1844 inclusive ...

894

with France (eight Tables)

953

Value of Exports of the Growth, Cuap. XXVII. Trade of the United States and

Produce, &c., of the United States in

the Continental Ports of Europe (ex-

1842, 1843, and 1844

896

clusive of France)

957

Total Value of Imports from, and Chap. XXVIII. Trade of the United States

Exports to, each Foreign Country in

with the principal Commercial Cities

1842, 1843, and 1844.....

897

of Western Europe during the Year

Ditto, ditto, ditto, during 1844 ... 898

1843

958

Imports of Foreign Merchandise CHAP. XXIX. Miscellaneous Tables ;
into the United States, distinguishing

prising a Summary View of the prin-
those Articles admitted free of Duty

cipal Exports, and other Statements
from such as pay ad valorem and Spe-

relative to the trade of the United

cific Duties ....

890

States

960

Value of leading Articles of Do-

Exports of Domestic Produce to

mestic Produce Exported from the

all Countries

ib.

United States in 1844

900

Recapitulation of Value of Agri-

- Imports into the United States

cultural Produce Exported from 1821

under the various Tariff's (nine

to 1845.......

ib.

Tables)..........

901

Exports of Flour and Grain

CHAP. XXI. Navigation and Trade between

Exports of Agricultural Produce

the United States and the United

to Great Britain and all other Coun-

Kingdom

913

tries, in each Year, from 1828 to 1844

- Declared Value of British and

inclusive

962

Irish Produce and Manufactures Ex-

- Prices of Agricultural Produce

ported from the United Kingdom to

in the leading Markets of the United

the United States of America in each

States at various periods (ten Tables) ib.

year, from 1805 to 1836....

916 CHAP. XXX. Miscellaneous Siatements rela-

Navigation and Trade between Great

tive to Minerals, Canals, Railroads,

Britain and the Old American Colo-

Trade, Sea Ports, and Port and other

nies, from 1697 to 1783...

916

Charges...

967

Official Value of the Trade be.

Miscellaneous Statements Welland

tween Great Britain and the United

Canal Tolls—Legal Rates......

States in each Year, from the Ac-

Port Charges, &c. &c. ...

973

knowledgment of their Independ-

Return of British and Foreign

ence to 1844

918

Trade of Philadelphia in 1844.......... 976

Value of principal Articles of

Ditto ditto at Mobile for same

British and Irish Produce and Ma-

Period

977

nufactures Exported to the United

Ditto ditto at New York for

States from 1827 to 1832...

919

same Period

ib.

Ditto ditto from 1833 to 1844.... 920

Return of British Trade at New

Principal Articles Imported

York during same Period .

978

from the United States into the

Return of British and Foreign

United Kingdom, in each Year, from

Trade at New Orleans, during same

1833 to 1844, inclusive........

921

Period.....

982

Amount of Tonnage employed

Exports of Cotton and Tobacco

in the Trade between the United

from New Orleans....

983

States and Great Britain, during

Statement of Sugar made in

Fourteen Years, end January

Louisiana, in 1844....

984

1845 ....

924

New Orleans Cotton Press

Table of Annual Exports from

Charges

ib,

against Fire, adopted by the New
ern," between April, 1838, and July,

York Fire Insurance Companies......1057

1839.

998 CHAP. XXXIV. Lighthouse Establishments in

Passages to and from Liverpool and

the United States...

.1061

Halifax, of the British and North CHAP. XXXV. Currency and Banking Insti-
American Royal Mail Steam-packets

tutions of the United States of Ame-

-1840 and 1842..

999

rica

.....1068

Marseilles, Hamburg, &c. &c. Lines

-Monies, Weights, and Measures of

of Packets

ib.

the United States

..1166

Average Freights during Summer of

-Mint of the United States ..1174

1845

..1002

Public Lands in the United States......1189

Names and Tonnage of the principal CHAP. XXXVI. Finances of the United States

British and American Vessels which

of America.

..1198

arrived at the Port of London from CHAP. XXXVII. Customs' Revenue in each

the United States, during the first

State from 1791 to 1844.... ........1203

Six Months of 1845

ib.

Receipts of the Treasury and Expen-

British Navigation with the North

diture of the United States from 1791

American Colonies...

....1005

to 1832......

.........1208

Cargoes from British North America.. 1012 (See also following Revenue Tables,

CHAP. XXXII. Tariff and Customs Law of

up to 1844 inclusive.)

the United States (1842) ..........1016 CHAP. XXXVIII. Taxation and Debts of the

Rate of Duties payable on the principal

several States ..

.......1234

Articles imported into the United CHAP. XXXIX. Statistics of Texas

.1250

States from Great Britain, under the CHAP. XL. Treaties of Commerce between

Tariff of 1842....

....1022

the United States and Foreign

Ci-devant Tariff of Texas

....1036

States

......1261

Rates at which Foreign Money, or CHAP. XLI. The Hon. Mr. Spencer's Stric-

Currency, are taken at the Custom

turus on the Hon. Mr. Upshur's Re-

House, New York ....

...1038

view of the Constitution of the United

Tares allowed by Law, Fees of Office,

States .......

1269

&c. ...

... 1039 CHAP. XLII. Commercial Legislation of Eng-

Statute Laws relating to Vessels ib.

land and America

.1276

PROGRESS

OF

A M E R I C A.

STATISTICAL.

BOOK I.

CHAPTER I.

CONFIGURATION AND AREA OF NORTH AMERICA.

Tae configuration of North America is even more diversified, by inlets of the sea, by islands, and by lakes, than Europe; while there is a remarkable similarity in the outlines of South America and of Africa.

North America is usually considered to include the countries, islands, inlets, and lakes, extending from New Granada in 9 deg. north latitude to the Arctic Sea, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.

The territories, comprised within this great area, include Greenland, and the frozen regions; Labrador, and the vast country west of Hudson Bay, including Russian America; the Canadas, and the country called Columbia, claimed by Great Britain, west of the Rocky Mountains; the islands of Newfoundland, Cape Breton, Prince Edward, Anticosti, and Cuba ; several minor islands lying off the coast of North America; Porto Rico, Hayti, and all the British and other West India islands, with the exception of Trinidad and the Dutch and other islands which lie off the coast of South America; Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick; the extensive territories comprised within, and appertaining to, the republics of the United States; Texas, and the states of the republic of Mexico, including California; and Central America or Guatemala, which includes Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, and the Mosquito country.

The Andes extend through Mexico, where their summits are far higher than those of the Alps, and through the territories of the United States, and of Great

[blocks in formation]

Britain, under the name of the Rocky Mountains ; and divide the waters falling into the Pacific from those which fall into the Bay of Hudson, the St. Lawrence, the Atlantic, and the Gulf of Mexico. The Ozark range stretches parallel with, and nearly midway between, the Mississippi and Rocky Mountains. The Alleghaneys, which Jefferson in his time designated the spine of the United States, divide the waters flowing into the Atlantic from those flowing north into the river St. Lawrence, and west into the Ohio and Mississippi, from the waters flowing south of Cape Gaspé into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and from Nova Scotia to Carolina, into the Atlantic. These, with the ranges north of the St. Lawrence, form the great mountain regions of North America. With the moderate interruption of some highlands in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, and the rocky cliffs and heights of Newfoundland, the foregoing mountains form the exceptions to the generally level, and undulating character of all America, north and east of Mexico.

The other great general features of North America are: the inlets of Hudson, Baffin, and other bays and inlets of the frozen regions ; the gulf and estuaries of St. Lawrence; the bays of Chaleur, Fundy, Chesapeake, and the Mexican and Californian gulfs ; the islands of Newfoundland, Anticosti, Cape Breton, Prince Edward, Long Island, and the West Indies; and those lying along the shores of the northern promontories, and peninsulas, of Greenland, Labrador, Nova Scotia, Florida, California, and the north-west coast of America ; the five great lakes of Canada and the United States ; the Great and Lesser Lakes of the northern territory; the St. Lawrence, Hudson, the Mississippi, and the numerous other great, and small rivers, which discharge their waters, not carried off by evaporation, into the Atlantic, Hudson Bay, the Arctic, or Pacific seas ; the geological formation of the mountains, hills, great and lesser valleys, prairies, and alluvions; and the forest zones or regions extending from within nine degrees north of the equator, to the northern limit of utter barrenness.

CHAPTER II.

CONFIGURATION AND ASPECT OF BRITISIL AMERICA.

The physical aspect of British America presents along the Atlantic coasts, with but few exceptions, a broken, rugged configuration, in some parts thickly wooded to the water's edge, or to the utmost verge of the most perpendicular cliffs; in others, as along the greater part of Newfoundland, the south-eastern shores of Nova Scotia, and the whole of Labrador, rocks, with dwarfish trees

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