Imatges de pÓgina

major and minor terms. Define these terms more particularly. The subject of the conclusion is called the minor term; the thing predicated or said of it the major term. The middle term is that with which each of them is separately compared in order to judge of their agreement or disagreement with each other. Why are the major and minor terms compared to the middle? Because if the middle term be ambiguous, there are in reality two middle terms in sense though but one in sound. Give an example.

Light is contrary to darkness;
Feathers are light; therefore

Feathers are contrary to darkness.

Is there any other rule respecting the other terms? Yes; no term must be distributed in the conclusion which was not distributed in one of the premises. Why? Because we should employ the whole of a term in the conclusion, when we had employed only a part of it in the premise, and thereby introduce a fourth term. Give an example.

All quadrupeds are animals ;

A bird is not a quadruped; therefore

A bird is not an animal.

What is this kind of erroneous reasoning called? An illicit process of the major term. What is the next rule respecting the major and minor terms? That if one premise be negative, the conclusion must be negative. Why? Because in that premise the middle term is pronounced to disagree with one of the extremes, and in the other premise to agree with the other extreme ; consequently the extremes disagreeing with each other, the conclusion is negative. What do you mean by a fallacy? Any unsound mode of arguing, which appears to demand our conviction, and to be decisive of the question

in hand, when in fairness it is not. Is the ready detection and clear exposure of fallacies difficult? Yes; it is of more difficulty and importance than many are aware of. Can any rules be given, the mere learning of which will enable us to apply them with certainty and readiness? No; a great deal must depend on the natural and acquired acuteness of every individual. How are fallacies divided? Writers have hitherto divided them into those in the words (in dictione), and those in the matter (extra dictionem). Is there a more distinct division? Into logical and non-logical. What is a logical fallacy? Where the conclusion does not follow from the premises, the fault is then in the reasoning, and is therefore a violation of some of the rules of logic. What is a material or non-logical fallacy? Material fallacies are twofold: 1, where the premises are such as ought not to have been assumed; 2, where the conclusion is not the one required.


Metaphysical science ought to constitute a paramount object of concern with the teacher. He should spare no means to put his pupils completely and intelligently in the possession of it. Mental philosophy is one of the most useful and interesting sciences which can occupy the attention or exercise the intellect of man. It treats of the susceptibilities, powers, and operations of the mind. It considers mind as the seat of thought and feeling—of emotion, passion, reason. investigates the laws according to which all these are regulated; and in general the causes of all the changes that take place in the intellectual and emotional part of our nature. It is the science of man himself, and comprehends within its range all that can be most interesting to him as an intellectual, social, and accountable being. His numerous and diversified thoughts, his varied passions and emotions, his varied duties and rela


tions both to God and man, the foundation of his happiness, and the elements of his individuality, form its proper and peculiar objects. Such is a very general summary of the sciences, and the advantages to be derived from the cultivation of them. Let us now take a general survey of the Fine Arts that are studied in the course of a liberal education. Our plan embraces the whole range of the ornamental-the whole being must be educated.



In connection with writing, drawing is an accomplishment in which every young person should be initiated. As writing consists in the imitation of characters and words, so drawing is the imitation or writing down of objects. Design, the first element of the fine arts in general, serves as a basis to the study of almost all arts and almost every science: architecture, painting, engraving, sculpture, geography, geometry, and mechanics, all claim the indispensable aid of the art of design. The high conceptions of the architect, of the painter, of the sculptor, of the geometrician, are at first expressed by the aid of the simple lines of design, before creating those monuments of genius which honour the age which has given them birth, and attest to the ages to come the intelligence and the power of the human race. All that nature produces the most perfect, in climates the most diverse, all that arts bring forth of wonders in the remotest countries, can be reproduced to our eyes by the aid of design. The rule and the compass are sufficient for the geometrician and the architect; and the crayon, a powerful creator in the hand of

the artist, preserves the sacred spark which promises to animate the canvass and the marble.

To commence by forms the most simple and the most decided, to express at first, by the aid of a rough line, the whole, and afterwards to mark more minutely the details, is the most natural course to follow, to habituate the eye of the designer, and the hand, to express with exactness what he has well observed: when the crayon can render the contour positive and decided by geometric figures, and when the rule and the compass have by their inflexible rigour corrected the errors of the designer, and have assured him of the rectitude of the eye and of his hand ;-then disappears this distrust and uncertainty which in the first essays show themselves by the hesitation and trembling of the crayon. Passing afterwards to forms less marked, to contours less decided, the designer can seize the principal lines and indicate them by a well-directed crayon: he knows already how to distinguish and separate the details which mask and complicate the whole; soon after, perspective teaches him the modifications which the masses undergo by their respective positions with regard to one another, and with regard to their distance from the eye of the spectator; the relative sizes take place in the absolute size of the design, according to a scale of proportion; the details disappear in the distance, and show themselves without confusion in the fore-ground. The designer adds to the simple lines of the sketch those strokes of the crayon which give strength to the design, after having indicated forcibly the masses of light and shade which give the character of truth to the whole : he then can copy nature, and represent it by an exact design; then he animates this cold but always correct design by a vigorous crayon; and now it is no more the simple sketch of nature brought under his eyes, that he

knows how to represent; but the copy of this nature, rich and varied which he sees, or which his imagination creates, a composition of the genius of the artist which his crayon has fixed, and which his palette is to animate with the eclat of his colours, Drawing has hitherto been considered chiefly in the light of an ornamental study, but the art of drawing ought not to be considered as merely an elegant amusement; it is capable of being rendered of the greatest utility to science, and to those arts which minister to the comfort and rational enjoyments of human life. Were useful knowledge more generally diffused, and were the young universally taught to draw from nature, our views of the landscape of the world, of the facts of science, and of the operations of art, might be indefinitely enlarged. Every traveller would be enabled to take a sketch of the wonders of nature, the varieties of art, the domestic associations, and the more interesting scenery displayed in the different regions through which he passed. Every artisan and mechanic would be qualified for sketching any mechanical improvement or invention, either of his own or of others; and every labourer, for delineating whatever curious or uncommon objects he might meet with, either in his rural walks or in his digging, mining, and agricultural operations. In short, when we consider how much useful information, as well as pleasure, may be conveyed by accurate pictures taken directly from the scenes of nature and the operations of art, we cannot but view it as highly expedient, in attempting the general diffusion of knowledge, that every young person should be taught to delineate on any emergency, whatever phænomena or processes of nature, or operations of art, may be thought worthy of being depicted and recorded.

In PAINTING and STATUARY, kindred and imitative

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